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AUTBS SCIENTIA VBR 



I^TAS 



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Jwrms, 




1817 

AH T B S SCIENTIA VBRI^TAS 



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DEPAETMENT OF THE INTEKIOE. 

U. B. OEOCRAPaiCAl AND CEOLOGICAL SBIIVEV OF THB IIOCKY MOUNTAIN REGION. 

J. w. POWELL, Gbowoist in CtUltOK. 



CONTRIBUTIONS 



NORTH AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. 



VOLUMTE I. 




WASHINGTON: 
aOTBBNMENT PBINTIHO OPPIOE. 

1877. 



E 



PART I. 

PAge. 
On the distribntion and nomeuclatnre of the native tribes of Alaska and the adjacent territory^ 

with a map W.H.Dall 7 

Ou succession in the shell-heaps of the Aleutian Islands W. H. Dall 41 

Remarks on the origin of the Innnit W. H.Dall i 93 



APPENDIX TO PABT I. 

Notes on the natives of Alaska ^ J. Fumhelm... 

Terms of relationship used by the Innuit W. H. Dall . ... 

Comparative vocabularies Gibbs and Dall. 

PART IT. 



Ill 

117 
121 






tablj: of contents. 



( 



Tribes of Western Washington and Northwestern Oregon, with map » George Gibbs 157 

APPENDIX TO PART II. 

Comparative vocabularies Gibbs, Tolmie, and Mengarini.. 247 

Niskwalli-English dictionary George Gibbs 286 

English-Niskwalli dictionary George Gibbs 909 



\ 



1 



jon-xiv 



i 



^ 



During the past ten years much of my time has been spent among the 
Indians of the Rocky Mountain region. In the earlier years I collected 
many short vocabularies of the vaiious tribes with whom I met. From 
time to time, as opportunity afforded, many of these vocabularies were 
enlarged. I soon learned to enlist Indians in my party, and to seize every 
opportunity of conversing with them in their own language, in order tliat 
I might acquire as much knowledge of their tongues as possible. A largo 
number of vocabularies were collected, some embracing but a few hundred 
words, others two or three thousand each. These Indians, among whom I 
traveled, belonged chiefly to one gceat family — ^the Numas, a stock embracing 
many languages, and several of the languages having more than one dialect. 
I also made notes on the grammatic characteristics of these languages to 
the extent of my opportunity. 

In the mean time some of my assistants collected vocabularies furnish- 
ing important additional material. Much of this related to families other 
than the one in which I was making especial studies. 

In such a hasty review of the general literature of this subject as I 
was able to make, my attention was attracted to some interesting publica- 
tions in the Overland Monthly, from the pen of Mr. Stephen Powers, and 
soon a correspondence was begun, which finally resulted in my receiving 
from that gentleman a large amount of linguistic and other ethnographic 
material, the results of his labors for many years among the Indians of 
California. 

From time to time other vocabularies were sent me from various per- 
sons throughout the Rocky Mountain region. 

Up to this time I had not expected to publish anything on this subject 
in my reports, but it was my intention to turn over the whole of what I 
had collected, through others and by my own labors, to the Smithsonian 



PREFACE. i 



V 



vi PREFACE. 

Institution, to be consolidated and published with a still larger amount 
collected from various sources, through the oflScers and collaborators of that 
Institution. 

The materials collected by the Smithsonian Institution, together with a 
part collected by myself, were placed in the hands of Mr. George Gibbs, that 
eminent ethnologist and linguist, to be published in the Smithsonian Contri- 
butions under his editorial management. By his death this plan of publica- 
tion was necessarily delayed. By this time the materials in my hands had 
increased to such an extent that it seemed but justice to my assistants and 
myself that it should be published with as little delay as possible. I there- 
fore laid the whole matter before Prof. Joseph Henry, Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution, that I might have the benefit of his advice on the 
* subject. He kindly gave consideration to the matter, and a full review of 
the subject led to the following correspondence : 

** Department of the Interior, 
"U. S. Geog. and Geol. Survey Rocky Mountain Region, 

"J. W. Powell, Geologist in Charge, 
''Washington, D. C, October 2, 1876. 

** Sir : Knowing that the Smithsonian Institution has been for many 
years making collections of vocabularies of various North American lan- 
guages and dialects, I beg leave to make the following statement and sug- 
gestion : 

'' I have myself been collecting vocabularies of many of the same tribes, 
in which work I have been assisted by several gentlemen who are making 
studies of North American Indians, and thus I have on hand a large amount 
of linguistic material, consisting of vocabularies, grammatic notices, &c., 
which I desire to publish at an early date. In the continuance of this lin- 
guistic work it wjU be of very great advantage to have the material in the 
hands of the Smithsonian Institution published immediately, so that in the 
future there will be no duplication of what has already been accomplished. 
It would also seem wise to consolidate the Smithsonian material with my 
own. I therefore beg leave to suggest that the material in your hands may 
be turned over to me for publication. 



PEEPAOB. vii 

*^ Should you consider it wise to thus intrust me with this material I will 
proceed with the pubUcation as rapidly as the matter can be prepared, and 
when published I shall be pleased to give the proper credit to the Institu- 
tion for the great work performed in the collection of the material, and to 
those who have taken part in the work. 

** I am, with great respect, your obedient servant, 

"J. W. POWELL. 

'*Prof. Joseph Henry, 

^^ Secretary Smithsonian Institution^ 

^^ Washington, D. C, 

" Smithsonian Institution, 

''Washington, October 10, 1876. 

" Dear Sir : Your letter of October 2, proposing that the Smithsonian 
Institution should turn over to you for publication all the material it has 
collected in regard to Indian linguistics, has been received, and after due 
consideration I have concluded, on the part of the Institution, to accept 
your proposition, and to place in your hands all the materials of the kind 
mentioned now in our possession, it being understood that full credit will 
be given to the Institution for the materials thus received by yourself, and 
also to the several contributors. 

"Among the latter, we would especially call your attention to the claims 
of George Gibbs, whose elaboration of the materials in his possession you 
will find of importance in the preparation of the vocabularies for the press. 

" This transfer is made in accordance with the general policy of the 

Smithsonian Institution of doing nothing with its income which can be 

equally well done by other means. 

" Yours, very tnily, 

"JOSEPH HENRY. 
"J. W. Powell, 

''In charge U. S. Geographical and Geological Survey, 

"Washington, D. C." 

This threw into my hands several hundred manuscript vocabularies, 
with extensive grammatic notes collected from tribes scattered throughout 



viii PRBPACB. 

the greater part of North America. Examination proved that I probably- 
had in my hands valuable linguistic material relating to every family, and 
perhaps every language but two within the limits of the United States. 
After a somewhat hasty review of the subject, a selection from this material 
was made, to be published as the first volume of " Contributions to North 
American Ethnology ". 

In order that the great number of collaborators tlu'oughout the countiy 
might have an earnest of the speedy publication of the results of their labors, 
this volume was rather hurriedly sent to the press. Perhaps, had a little 
more time been taken to the proper digestion of the subject, a somewhat 
different arrangement would have been made. I at least hope to improve 
on the methods of presenting the subject in subsequent volumes. 

The contributions in this volume from the pen of Mr. Gibbs will, it is 
believed, be found to be of exceeding value. On every page are exhibited 
evidences of his thorough and conscientious work, and it must ever be a 
matter of deep regret to American linguists that Mr. Gibbs was not spared 
to complete his labors, and to give to all this great collection of linguistics 
that better finish that would have resulted from his editorial skill. 

It seemed proper that a biographic notice of Mr. Gibbs should appear 
in the introduction to this volume, and I had commenced the preparation 
of such a notice ; but when I learned that a " Memorial of George Gibbs" 
had been written by John Austin Stevens, jr., and published by the New 
York Historical Society, and subsequently republished in the Smithsonian 
Report for 1873, I recognized that this task had been performed far better 
than I could do it myself. 

To Mr. W. H. Dall I am indebted not only for his valuable contribu- 
tions, but also for his kindly painstaking assistance in the general prepara- 
tion of the volume. 

The valuable contributions from the pens of Dr. William F. Tolmie 
and Rev. Father Mengarini are but a part of the material in my hands col- 
lected by these gentlemen. I hope that the method of publication adopted 
will meet with their approval. 

Mr. J. C. Pilling has rendered me valuable assistance in his proof- 



I 



4 



PBEFACSL ix 

reading of the greater part of the volume — ^a work which he has performed 
with care and skill. 

For the last ten years I have habitually laid before Professor Henry 
all of my scientific work, and have during that time received the benefit < 

of his judgment on these matters, and to a great extent I am indebted to 
him for advice, encouragement, and influence. In expressing my gratitude 
to the Professor, I beg also to express the hope that the results of my work 

will not wholly disappoint him. r 

J. W. POWELL. ^ 



I 



DBPAETMENT OF THE INTEBIOR. 

U. S. GEOOBArHICil AND GEOLOGICAL SBBVBY OP THE ROCKY HOUNIAIS KEOIOK. 
J. w. POWELL, Geologist m Charob. 



TRIBES OF THE EXTREME NORTHWEST 



"W. H. D^LL. 



TRIBES OF WESTERN WASUIKGTON AND NORTHWESTERN OREGON. 



GEO. GIBBS. 




WASHINGTON: 

aoVEBNMEMT PRINTIHG OFPIOG. 

1877. 



I 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

U. S. GEOGRAPHICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGlOiN. 

J. W. POWELL, Geologist in Ciiargk. 



PART I. 



TRIBES OF THE EXTREME NORTHWEST. 



By AV. ]^I. D^LL. 



A k 




Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington^ D. C, June 14, 187CL 

Dear Sib : In conformity with your suggestion, I have the honor of 
transmitting to you herewith a maiuiscript containing infonnation in regard 
to the distribution, population, origin, and condition, past and present, of 
the native races inhabiting our extreme northwestern territory, the material 
for which has been gathered during some eight years of study, exploration, 
and travel in the region referred to. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, yours, 

WM. n. DALL. 
Prof. J. W. Powell, 

Geologist in CJiargej United States Geographical and 

Geological Survey of the Bochj Mountain Region^ 

Washington^ D. C. 



'9- . 






CONTEN T8. 



^ 



Articlk I. — On tbe diHtribution and nomenclature of tbenaiivo tribes of Alaska and tbe adjacent 

territory; ^ithaniap 7 

Akticle II. — On sQcccseion in tbe sbell-beaps of tbe Aleutian IiUauds 41 

AmiCLU III. — Remarks ou tbe origin of tbo Innuit 93 

6 



^ 



I. 

ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND NOMENCLATURE OF THE NATIVE 
TRIBES OF ALASKA AND THE ADJACENT TERRITORY. 

With a Map, 



BY 1^. H. DAI^X^. 



The infonnation contained in this ai^ticle fomis a summary of 
investigations which I have pursued since 1865, while engaged in duties 
which took me, at one time or another, to nearly the whole of the coast 
herein mentioned and over a considerable portion of the interior. As a 
digest of the present state of our knowledge in regard to the tribal and ter- 
ritorial boundaries of these people, it may form a not unfitting appendix or 
supplement to the great mass of simihir information in relation to nn>re 
Houtheni tribes, which is by no means the least among the many results 
obtained during the ju'Ogress of the United States Geographiciil and 
Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region under the directii>u 
of Prof J. W. Powell. 

The accompanying map, in addition to affording the ethnological 
information for which it was compiled, has also been brought up to date 
geographically, and thus presents, far more fully than any other extant, the 
latest and best data in regard ' to the geography of the region represented. 
The names of tribes of Orarian stock are in leaning letters, those of the 
various Indian tribes are in upright lettering. The investigations from which 
the ethnological features are derived were concluded in the summer of 1874. 
It is probable that, with the exception of the interior tribes of Indians, the 
tribal and temtorial limits assigned will require but little future revision. 



8 

Apart from my own investigations, the principal authorities from which 
information has been derived are Wrangell,* Holmberg,t Ross and Gibbs,t 
liendel,§ and various minor papera by Erman and Markham, Rink, and 
others in the Arctic Papers|| of 1875, and especially a most satisfactory and 
lucid paper by Dr. John Simpson, R. N., which bears not only internal evi- 
dence of care and accuracy, but is confirmed by what I have individually 
been able to learn of the people treated of by the author. 

Several papers of interet?t have a-ppeared from the pen of M. Alphonse 
Pinart in relation to Alaska natives, but these convey little new information, 
excepting from a philological standpoint The work of Mr. H. Bancroft, 
which has lately appeared, en the " Native Races of the Pacific Coast'\ so 
far as it relates to the people with whom I am familiar is chiefly valuable 
for its numerous references to other works. Its an'angement is purely geo- 
graphical, and unwarranted by the characteristics or kinship of the people 
described, 

A sketch not materially differing from the arrangement now proposed 
was given by me in the Proceedings of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, Salem meeting,. 1869, and amplified with fuller 
vocabularies in 1870 in Alaska and its Besources. Numerous additions and 
corrections, as well as personal observation of much before taken at second 
hand, have placed it in my power to enlarge and improve my original 
arrangement This is the object of the present paper. 

In 1869, 1 proposed for the Aleuts and people of Innuit stock collectively 
the term Orarians, as indicative of their coastwise distribution, and as sup- 
plying the need of a general term to designate a very well-defined race, 
which, though acknowledged as such by some ethnologists, had not received 
the general recognition which it called for. In referring to the various 
groups of people under particular stocks, I have introduced as far as prac- 
ticable a system of synonymy, showing approximately the various names 

applied to the same group by other authors, which may be of service in 

« 

\ » 

* Baer and Helmersen, Beitr. St. Petersburg, 8vo, 1839. 

tEtlinogr. Skiz. Act. Hels., 4to, 1855. 

t Smithsouian Report, 186(>. 

$ Pruc. Agassiz lust., Sacramento, Cal., 1873. 

II Koyal Ocogr. Soc, London, 8vo, 1875. 



9 

coiTelating inforniation from various sources in relation to tlieir habits and 
customs. 

The Orarians are distinguished, 1, by their language, of which the dia- . 
lects in construction and etymology bccir a sti-ong resemblance to one 
another throughout the group, and differ in their homogeneousness (as well 
as the foregoing characters) as strongly from the Indian dialects adjacent 
to them; 2, by their distribution, always confined to the sea-coasts or 
islands, sometimes entering tlie mouths of large rivers, as the Yukon, but 
only ascending th^m for a short distance, and as a rule avoiding the 
wooded country ; 3, by their habits, more maritime and adventurous than 
the Indians, following, hunting, and killing not only the small seal but 
also the sea-lion and walinis. Even the great Arctic bowhead whale (and 
anciently the sperm whale) falls a victim to their persevering effoi^te; and 
the patent harpoon, almost universally used by American whalers in lieu 
of the old-fashioned article, is a copy, in steel, of the bone and slate 
weapon which the Innuit have used for centuries. Lastly, they are dis- 
tinguished by their physical characteristics, a light fresh yellow complexion, 
fine color, broad build, scaphocephalic head, great cranial capacity, and 
obliquity of the arch of the zygoma. The patterns of their implements and 
weapons and their myths are similar in a general way throughout the 
group and equally diflferent from the Indian types. 

The Orarians are divided into two well-marked groups, namely, the 
Innuit, comprising all the so-called Eskimo and Tuskis and the Aleuts. 
Taking the tribes in their geographical sequence, we may commence with 

The Major Group^ or 

INNUIT. 

8y n.— EBqvimanx, 

EskimOf &.C., of autbore. 

Eskima^ntzik of the AUeuaki Indians. 

Uekee'mi of the Northern Timeh. 

Hktfkify Hudson Bay jargon—*' Broken Slave ". 

In'nuitf the name applied by these people to themselves. 

containing the following tribes : 



10 



KOPA'G-MCT. 

Syii.*= Mackenzie River Eskimo j Kichanlsoii, and authors. 
= Kop&n'g-mtun (plural), Dr. SimpsoD, R. N. 
< Kang-md'U-innuin, Richardnon. 
t Tarrbor-meuiy Abb<S Petitot. 

The terminations ng and n indicate the plui-al form of the collective 
noun. As we should say American in the adjective sense, meaning the 
American people, and Americans^ meaning a small number of individuals of 
that race, so the Innuit say Innuitj the whole people^ of their race, and 
Tnnuin, some individuals of that race (Yut being the word for a man) ; or 
Kopuff^-mut, the tribal designation, and Kopdn^ g-meiin, some individuals of 
the tribe. Ko-pag comes from Kokj river, and j^dA;, great — ^the designation 
meaning people of the great river, just as Kweekh and ^difc, form the desig- 
nation of the Yukon-mouth Innuit, from the same roots. The number of 
these people is comparatively few, and they are little known. They have 
a tattooed band across the face, and occasionally travel with the next tribe 
as far west as Barter Point in longitude 144^ west of Greenwich. Details 
in regard to their manners and customs are given by Richardson, Franklin, 
and other travelers in the Mackenzie River District. They formerly 
extended two hundred miles up the Mackenzie River, but have been driven 
,out by the Indians. 

KANGMlLI'GMtTT. 

< Kangmdli'innuiny RicbardsoD, Dr. SimpAou. 

These people live along the coast, between Barter Island or Manning 
Point and the Mackenzie ; their principal settlement being near Demarca- 
tion Point. They appear to be very few in number, and known principally 
as the most active agents in the inter-tribal trade between the Innuit of 
Point BaiTow and those to the eastward. From Bai-ter Island, the coast to 
the westward is uninhabited for nearly three hundred miles, except during 
the temporary summer trading excursions. One of tlie articles furnished by 
them is stated by Dr. Simpson to be skins of the narwhal {Kil-ltV 4u'a)j 
which he speaks of as being used for covering kyaks. 

•Strickland's convenient notation for synonymy, — of =, equal to, <, including less, and >, 
including more, tban the author referred to, — has been adopted here. 



11 



NCWUK-MtTT. 

K= Atftrvti'^-wetiti, Dr. Sinipsou, Ricburtliiot], &c. 

Dr. Simpson's paper, before referred to, is a monograph of the habits, 
customs, and appearance of these people who inhabit Point Barrow, Cape 
Smyth, and have smaller villages at Wainwright Inlet and Icy Cape. The 
name nuwuk means point, or The Point, and the appellation Nuwuk-mut is 
properly confined to the inhabitants of the village at Point Barrow ; but 
those of the other villages mentioned, — though doubtless having other local 
names as do the people of all settlements, however small ; are not differ- 
entiated in any way of importance, as far as we know, fi-om those of the ' 
principal settlement at Point Barrow. This had, in 1853, a population of 
about three hundred, and the other settlements perhaps half as much more. 
It is probable that since that time they have materially diminished in num- 
bers. These people have been more fully described than most of the Innuit 
of the Arctic coast, owing to the fact that several exploring vessels have 
wintered at Nuwuk. From Simpson, we learn that they travel on their 
summer excursions for barter as far east as Manning Point (or Barter 
Island), partly along the coast and partly through the numerous inlets and 
intersecting lagoons which border the continent not far from the sea-coast 
The journey is an annual one, and is usually made in sixteen days. The 
party starts about the 5th of July, and spends a portion of the time in 
trading with the Nunatun'g-meun, at the mouth of the Colville River, and 
return about the middle of August 

NtTNl-TO'G-MUT. 

These people inhabit s])ecifically the mouth and shores of the Nun'at6k 
liiver, which enters the western extremity of Ilotham Inlet, with outlying 
villages to the north and west, the jirincipal of which is that at Point Hope, 
called Noo-na. They number some tliree or four hundred souls, as far as 
known. The character of those who meet the traders annually at Point 
Hope is bad. They are reported as very ingenious and persistent thieves, 
and exhibit a great degree of assurance, and even insolence, when their 



12 

numbers give them confidence and the whites are not numerous. ITiese 
people ascend the Nunatok to a point where an easy portage can be had to 
the upper waters of the Colville, and have an annual barter at the mouth 
of the latter river with the eastward-bound Innuit from Point Barrow. The 
Nunat6k is also known as the Inland River, which is 9. translation of its 
Innuit name. 

KOWAG'-MtTT. 

= Kowdn^g-meuiif Dr. SimpsoD. 

Falling into Hotham Inlet, near its eastern extremity, is a river known 
as the K6wak, on the banks of which graphite and galena are found. A 
few Innuit inhabit the region near its mouth, and bear the above local name, 
while others somewhat to the eastward, on the Sda'wik River, are called 
Selawig' -mut The latter have some trade with the K5yukak Indians. 

Most of the names above mentioned are merely local, and indicate no 
special peculiarities of language or habits. They may, for convenience, be 
con'ellated as follows : 

. WESTERN MACKENZIE INNtTlT. 

Kopd'gmuij Kdng-maWg-mui, 

WESTERN INNUIT. 

yuwiikf-mutf Nunatd'g-muty Kotcag'muty Seldtcig^-mul. 

We now come to a series of tribes better known than any of those 
previously mentioned, and on which 1 have had the opportunity of personal 
observation. I have already given a somewhat full account of them in 
Alaska and its BesourccSj as well as some notes in my summary of 1869. 
The following general headings will be strictly tribal, and the local village 
names will be subordinated in a list by themselves. For convenience' sake, 
I shall commence at the extreme westward.* 

* Although not strictly within the limits of this paper, I mention here, as bearing on the relations 

of the lonilit tribes above mentioned, the 

"CHUKCHIS". 
= Reindeer ChUkchis of authors. 

^ ChUkchiSf Wrangell and others (variously spelled). 

= Reindeer men of adjacent Innuit. 

= Tautein, or TchektOj of some authors, said to be their national name. 

Although the very existence of such a people as these has been of late denied, and the name I have 
provisionally used is doubtless based on some misconception, I believe that the evidence of the existence 
of n tribe of jieople different from the Orarians of the coast, but in coustaut communication with them, 
is overwhelming. I have myself seeu two of these people, in 16(>5) at Plover Bay. They are of a tall and 



. 13 
CIItTKLtT'K-Mt?T. 

=zydmdllo8f Pritcbard and other older authors. 
= Tchouktchi JsiatiqueSf Balbi, Atlas Ethu. 
^ Tuski, Hooper, Markhain, aud Dall 1. c, prov. 
t Onkilotif Wrangell, Polar Sea. 

< KdkJif-lit'inniiin of the American Innuit, Dr. Simpson. 
= Chiik'-chif with various etymology, of authors, erroneously. 
> Chuklukfrnuij Stimpson, MSS. 
= Sedentary or Fishing Chukchia of authors. 

The name I have here adopted is probably quite local, and it is very 
likely that the Innuit who at present inhabit the Asiatic coast near Bering 
Strait have no special tribal name, resembling in this respect the people 
from the Selawik River to Point Barrow, who have been previously men- 
tioned. But I have given up the term Tuski, proposed by Lieutenant 
Hooper, for the reason that I am convinced that it is due to some miscon- 
ception. It is not an Innuit word, and these people are purely IiTnuit, as 
several vocabularies in my possession testify. They are in no respect dif- 
ferentiated from the ordinary western Innuit, except in such features as the 
character of the country and climate compels, and in not wearing labrets ; 
in this respect resembling the eastern Innuit. Of their origin, I propose to 
treat hereafter, and postpone that portion of my remarks for the present. 
They extend from the Gulf of Ana'dyr to Cape Serdze, and formerly to 
Cape Shelagskoi. Their distribution is invariably coastwise ; they have no 
reindeer, and live by trading with the interior tribes, and by hunting the 

lean habit, with a coppery tinge in the complexion, nomadic in their hahits, with sharp noses, and hav- 
ing a language apparently allied to the Koriik tongue. I think it probable that they are a branch of 
that stock. They wander with their doer from the Arctic Ocean to the Anadyr Kivor, following the best 
pasturage, and in summer trading with the coast Innuit. 

The parties of the International Telegraph Company, during 1865 and 186G, were freqently brought 
into contact with these people, and the result of their observations was that they were not dissimilar to 
the KorUks in their habits and customs, though speaking a somewhat different dialect. A few of them, 
having lost their reindeer, have been obliged to adopt a precarious mode of existence, depending upon 
the products of the sea-shore and fish from the rivers. The existence of these quasi-settled bauds and 
their identiflcation as lunuit has given rise to much confusion. No region is more in ceed of unbiased 
and careful ethnological investigation than this part of Eastern Siberia. What little knowledge is ex- 
tant, resting upon a sound basis, is too frequently ignored by ethnological writers. 

I have recently heard it stated, by a noted philologist and traveler, that the Koriiks are Innuit, 
and the Innuit stock a branch of the Turkish race I Mr. Markham also tells us that the TilugAses and 
YdkAgirs * have so wholly disappeared that even their names are hardly remembered ". Yet in 1860 there 
were existing somo five or six thousand of these people in Eastern Siberia, according to the Kiissian cen- 
sus; and I have a Tdngtlse portrait taken from life in 1865. The Tilnguses are believed to be Tatars, 
and the Yttkagirs related to the Korftks, yet Mr. Markham would make the former, among other tribes, 
the anoestora of the Innait. 



seal, walrus, vaiious whales, and other arctic marine raanmials. No group 
of people have given rise to so much confusion, eiTatic theorizing, and 
unfounded generalization as this small band of Innuit exiles. They have 
been most commonly confounded with tlie impoverished sedentary bands 
of the Chukchis, if I may be permitted to use a term of which Ennan 
says, **I am of opinion that the word TchuJcchee is a corruption of the 
word CJmU'Chu, wjiich is used in the language of tlie Koriaks (Koraks) to 
indicate the settled branches of their race." Certainly, if I can believe the 
words of one of their own number, they are, and hold themselves, totally 
distinct in language and race from the nomadic ** reindeer people" with 
whom they trade. The language is totally distinct, and there is not a 
single word in the vocabularies of the "Chukchis" which resembles, or 
even has a similar construction to, those of the Innuit. These two stock? 
do not intermarry; their intercourse is purely commercial; but as is inva- 
riably the case with tribes so situated, and having distinct languages, they 
use, in trading, a jargon composed of words, or corruptions of words, 
belonging to both. As no living white man knows either language, the 
intercourse with the whites on the coast is also earned on in this, or partly 
in this, jargon ; and unreliable and erroneous vocabularies have thus been 
collected. But where the vocabularies have been obtained from the 
nomadic people on their western boundaries where there are no Innuit, or 
from the Innuit on points of the coast not reached by the " reindeer men ", 
we find no such mixture and no connecting link^ between the languages. 

The largest village of these people is on East Cape.; but settlements 
are dotted along wherever it is possible to wrest a living from the desolation 
which surrounds them. Among those of more particular importance are 
the villages on Kayne Island ; Seniavine Strait ; Chukluk Island (whose 
inhabitants assume the name I have provisionally adopted for the whole 
people) ; Indian Point ; Plovcv Bay ; and Holy Cross Bay. 

A somewhat full account of these people will be found in Alaska and 
Us Resources, Part II, Chap. Ill, but, unfortunately, at the time of my visit 
other duties prevented mo from collecting vocabularies, of the importance 
of which I was not at that time fully aware. Since then I have received 
several from different localities, but, with few exceptions, they have been 



15 

disfigured by the introduction of tlie treading j«irgon, wliicli contains corruj)- 
tions not only of Innuit and Chukchi, but also of English, Russian, and 
even Hawaiian words. The only pure vocabularies I have received have 
been from East Cape and Seniavine Strait ; the latter very scanty. 

OKEE-OG'-MtJT. 

< KokhfHt ffitititn of tbo Western Iimfiit, Dr. SiinpHou. 
= Okee-og'-mut of the Norton Sound Innuit. 

< 3f(i/emtu< of Tikhmcnief. 

Local names : 
Imdklig'dmui of Katmanoff Island, Diomede6,or Imdklit, 
IngaVigmui of Krusenstem Island, Diomedes, or Ingdliuk. 

Kikhidg'dmut of 6t. Lawrence Island, which is called Iwo'rien by the Plover Bay Innliit, teste Hooper. 
ri(:ii?()2jr'-fiiii( of King's Island, or C/'itirdA;. • 

These people inhabit the islands between Asia and America north of 
latitude 63°, and, as might be expected from their habitat, are among the 
most agile and hardy of the northern canoe-men. They are great traders, 
and do most of the intercontinental trading, in summer reaching St. 
Michael's and Kotzebue Sound on the east and the shores of Siberia on the 
west They are practically middle-men, living to a great extent on the 
profits of their trade. Tlie trade from America is chiefly in deer-skins and 
sinew and wooden ware, the material for which does not exist on the Asiatic 
shore. From St. Lawrence Island, ^especially, frames of kyaks and umiaks 
are transported to Plover Bay and exchanged for tame-reindeer skins, 
walrus-ivory, and whale sinew and blubber. The distance traveled is 
about forty miles, occupying nearly twenty-four hours, and the voyage is 
never undertaken except under the most favorable circumstances and with 
all possible precautions. 

The Okee-og'mut wear labrets, and in habits and appearance are more 
like the American Innuit than those of Asia. They are obstinate and 
courageous, and have given serious trouble to the traders on more than one 
occasion. Those of the island of St.* Lawrence are said to be unusually 
immodest and filthy in their manners. The dialect of the Okee-og'mut is 
hardly distinguishable from that of the following tribe. 



16 



KAVIAG'-MCT. 

= Karliff-mmtj DatiooalftppcllalioD. 
> Auliff-mmi, Holmberg, WreBgi-11. 

< Atalfymjmtij Eraiao. 
Asicff'-mui of Aoibors, in error. 

< lfa/<mi«r,TikhiDcoief. 

Ijoetkl OAmeft : 
Kwail^ -mii of Kwaik aettlement on KortoD Baj. 
Kmikt^ff'fmut of Golofhin Bay. 
Ikdnd2d'gewtut of Kaviazak River. 
Azia^-mut of Sledge Island, or Az'iak. 
Xvi'-aMlof settlemeDt at Port Clarence. 
Kim^ga-mut of Cape Prince of Wales. 

Tlie peninsula between Kotzebue and Norton Sounds and Bering" 
Strait is called by these people Kdvhi'ukj and they inhabit the whole of 
it, and also Sledge Island, off the coast. There is a large village of them, 
inhabited in winter only, at Uiialaklik', on Norton Sound. Among the 
members of this tribe, the tendency to theft, incest, and violence forms a 
strong contrast to the character of their southeastern relatives, and is 
probably due to contact with traders and the use of alcoholic liquors. 
They travel extensively and have a large trade. They have been described 
in Alaska and its lie sources, 

MAH'LE-MtT. 

f > T«dbHtf jnv/i, Erman. 
= MalieymAlj Holmberg. 

< J/a/niaf of Tikbmenief. 
> Ifa/intii/, Wrangell. 

< J/o/ffTavJu/i, Erman. 

Local names : 

AVtrmmui at tho Attenmat village. 
Skakto'Uffmut at the Sbaktolik villaKe. 
Koyu^mut on the Koytik Kiv«er. 
Kimgiocmut on the Kungtik River. 
IngWdVigtmui on the InglQtalik River. 

These Innuit inhabit the neck of the Kaviak Peninsula, from Shakto'lik 
on the south, east to Attenmut, their princij)al village, west to the river 
falling into Spavarieff Bay, and north to Kotzebue Sound at Eschscholtz 
Bay. They also have a winter village at Unalaklik. They are described 
in full detail in Alaska and its Resources. 



17 
UNALIG'Mtrr. 

> " TtAimg'mit'' Holmberg, Wransell. 
> re»lolif'mit, Holmbctg, WiangD)!. 

^ Atiagmit, WormaD id TikbmenieC 

> Tal»diigmil, WraDgcll. 

Local naiooe: 
Pattoiig'mit at tbc Puto'lik aDmmer TJllaEo. 
Kryittoairif'tmit at KBgikton'rfik vilUge. 
CtdldiHg'fmit at Unalnklik' villaKO. 
Pikmikta'Us-mit at Pikmiktal'ik vill«f^ 

These occupy the coast from Pastolik to ShaktoHk, and easterly to the 
crest of the coast-hills. They are sometimrs called Unaltft by oth«- natives. 
and the name Azia^mut has been erroneonsly applied to tbem. They are 
few in number, and much altered by intercourse with tTader& 

EKOG'MtTT. 

> f ■riMpaf'maf, Holmberg. 

> E<cii}aiii^rmii, Holmberg. 

^ iVcmonti of tbe KtUBiana, ineMiiDg " people b; the bm" 

> PriaodH, Wb;uiper, CaptalD BaynoDd. 

> J^aial, WomaD foTikliiiiei)i«f,WnDgell. 
r KatxHU, Zagoakin. 

f EangjtiUI, Ennan. 

Jngeciof^emil, -\ 

TOattf'mit, 

CtSkdiag'emil. I 

mug'tmit, } infaabttanta of varioos Tillage* wiUtia BStj at axty mila of tbe Ynkoa-^NMilb. 

Ktnhiog'emil, 

Ikoklaf'mil, 

Makag'mil, 

The Ekd^mut, or Kmkhpdg-mut, inhabit the Yukon deha Irom about 
Kipni'tik to Pasfolik, ascending the river to a short distance above the 
mission. The former is their own name, the latter the name applied to 
them by the Unaligmut Innuit They exhibit a marked change in personal 
appearance, customs, and dialect from the whole group north and east of 
Norton Sound. Their most noticeable personal peculiarity consists in their 
hairy bodies and strong beards. They are more nearly allied to the tribes 
to the south of them. 



f 
I 



I 



18 



MAG'EMUT. 

< Inkaliien, Wrangell. 

> MagtMHit Wrangell. 

> Magag'-muij Holmberg. 

= Mag'emut or S^Mag'emut, their nfttional name. 

> Moffmiiit, Worman Iq TikhmeDief. 

> Nunivak people, Worman in Tikhmeuief. 

These people call themselves "mink people,*' in allusion to their most 
abundant fur-animal, the mink, magemvftik; and they extend from the 
vicinity of Kipnitik southward along the coast to Cape Romanzoff, includ- 
ing several villages at the north end of Nunivak Island. The women wear 
C-shaped labrets on the main-land, though the younger ones at NunivSk, 
seen by me, were destitute of this ornament I purchased there several 
labrets of this peculiar form, but did not see them worn, though one of the 
older women had five holes for the purpose in her under lip. I had pre- 
viously supposed that all the inhabitants of Nunivak belonged to the next 
tribe, but these declared themselves to be Mag'emut. They are a poor, 
filthy, and not modest people, but excel in ivory-carving. 

KUSKWOG'MtTT. 

IttkaliteHf Wrangell in part only. 
f Ag&lmiU, Holmberg ; Dall, 1. c, pars. 

> Kuedi-kuJc-chwdk-mutf Wrangell. 

> Ku8kiUehewdk of Richardson , Lade wig, and other anthors. 

> KuskokwimUi, Worman in Tikhmenief. 

> EUskokwig'-mutf Holmberg. 

^= KHakwdg'-mutf Lnkeen and other traders, as their own tribal name. 
= KuskokwimjutB, Tamer in Ladewig, App. Zagoskin. 
= KuakokwimeSf Lndewig. 

These people inhabit the shores of Kuskokwim Bay and westward to 
Cape AvinoflF. According to Wrangell, the southern part of Nuniv^k Island 
is also inhabited by them, and as I have mentioned that we found the people 
of the north coast in 1874 to be Magemut, it would seem as if there was 
no room left for the Agiilmut of Holmberg, of which I have not been able 
to find any trace. On account of shoal water, much of the coast between 
Capes Vancouver and Avinoff is not habitable for a maritime people, and we 
may therefore assign the boundaries of the present tribe as being from 



riT 



19 

Cape AvinofF to Cape Ncwenham, with possibly part of Nuniv^k Island 
and the banks of the Kiiskokwim River at least as far north as latitude 61°. 
J^he trading-jargon in use between them and the Indians has contaminated 
some of the vocabularies. They do not intemiarry, and some of the state- 
ments in regard to this tribe quoted in Baer and Helmersen bear the impress 
of romance. 

They are said by Wrangell to differ more from the following tribes 
than from those just mentioned. They are said to number over five thou- 
sand souls. 

NtTSHAGAG'-MtTT. 

> Kijdiaigmuty Holmberi;, Wraoj^ell. 

< Aglegmittt, Worman in Tikhmeoief. 

> Kijaien, Wrangell. 

s= Xush&gdg^mutf their own name for themselves. 

These people inhabit the shores of Bristol Bay west of the Nushag^ 
River to Cape Newenham, and also the banks and headwaters of that river 
and the numerous lakes and water-courses of the tundra to the westward of 
it. They number about four hundred souls, very widely distributed, ^vith 
their principal settlement near Fort Constantine on the Nushag^ 

OG'ULMtTT. 

= Oglemut, Dall 1. c. 

= AgUg'mui^ Holmberg, Turner in Lndowig. 

= AgoU^miuty Wrangell, Turner 1. o. 

< Agligmiui, Worman in Tikbmenief, Erman. 
= Svemofftsit or Northerners of the Russians. 

< Tcihouktdii americani, Balbi. 

Local names : 
Ugod'hig-miU on the Ugftsbik or Sulinia River. 
Ugagdg'-mut on the Ugaktik River. 
Kmchdg-mut on the Kwichak River. 

These Innuit inhabit the north shore of Aliaska Peninsula (whence 
their Russian name), north to the mouth of the Nushagak River, southwest 

to the valley of the Sulima or Ugishik River, and eastward to the high 
land of the crest of the peninsula, including the Iliamna Basin. 



20 
KANIAG'MtJT. 

< Kadiakuki of most Rnssian writers. 

> Kadiakia of Worman id Tikbmeoief. 

< Kaniagietj Early Russian voyagers in Coxe. 

> Kaniagif Uolmberg. 

= Ultechna of Kenai Indians, meaning '' slaves " 
= Kaniagmutj Dall 1. c. 

< Kodjakztft Ermau. 
= KonageSf Ludewig. 

The name of this tribe, the first of the restricted Innuit stock met bv 
the Russians in their eastern explorations, has often been applied by Kussian 
writers to all the western Innuit known to them. It is said that the origi- 
nal name of Kadiak was y^dnids/', from which the former word has been 
derived by corruption ; but 1 wish to call attention to the remarkable simi- 
larity between the name of the peninsula east of Cook's Inlet (which does 
not appear to be an Indian word) and the root of the name of the Kadiak 
people. From Kenai we would have Kenai-agf -mut by ordinary inflection, 
which I venture to suggest is the original if not the present and correct 
form of Kaniag'mut 

These people inhabit the island of Kadiak, the southeast shores of the 
Peninsula of Aliaska, from Cape Kuprianoff (or Ivanhofl^ to Iliamna Peak 
in Cook's Inlet, and the islands adjacent to the shores described. 

At one time, until driven out by the Indians, they undoubtedly occu- 
pied the northern shore of Kenai Peninsula as well as the southern shore, 
which is still held by an allied community of Innuit. , 

The Kaniag'mut number some fifteen hundred people, and were fonn- 
erly much more numerous. They have become much altered by constant 
intercourse with the Russians for nearly eighty years, and are nominally 
Christians. They have been frequently confounded with the Aleuts, even 
in modem times, by voyagers and travelers. 

CHtTGACH'IG-MtTT. 

= TBchugatschi of Holmberg, Worman in Tikhmenief, Erman. 

= Tsohugatchikf Wrangell. 

= Chugach'igmut, their own appellation for themselves. 

=: Tschugaiscki, Lndewig. 

r= Tohaugatohi-Konaga, Balbi. 

These people occupy the shores of Chugach Gulf, or Prince William's 



21 

Sound, and the southern and eastern shores of Kenai Peninsula. Those at 
Port Etches (Nuchek) call themselves Nuchig'muL There are some half a 
dozen small settlements containing not over six hundred people, and probably 
a less number. 

UGALAK'MtTT. 

= Ugalenin' of tfao RuseiaDS, Turner in App. Ludewi^;. 
= Ugalenfzef Holmberj;, wrongly placed among the T'linkets 
t UgalachmjuU of Erman. 
<= Ugaleiukoif Worman in Tikhmenief. 
= Ugaljakmjats or Ugaljakhmuiai of aathore, Turner 1. c. 
.= Ugdldk'mutf their own tribal name according to the traders. 
= Ckilkhakfrniit, their own tribal name according to the Nntohigmut InnQit. 

This people has long been one of the stumbling-blocks in the ethnology 
of the northwest coast. On my visit to Port Etches in 1874, I learned 
from the natives definitely that the Ugalak'mut of the traders were, like 
themselves, Innuit, and called themselves Chilkhak-mut, and had formerly 
occupied the coast continuously with themselves; but the Ah-tena Indians 
forced their way between the two tribes and hold a small part of the coast 
near the Copper River mouth. Ugai'entsi is the Russian name for these 
people, and is formed by adding a Russian tennination to the root of their 
supposed tribal name. It follows that the distinction formerly drawn by me 
between the Ugalak-mut and the Ugalentsi falls to the ground, though at 
the time it seemed warranted by the vocabularies furnished by the Russians 
to Mr. Gibbs. The older errors, as to this tribe being T'linketd or Tinneh, 
arose probably from a confusion of vocabularies, obtained either of the 
Ahtena, or some wandering band of Yakutats, who sometimes come from 
Bering Bay in canoes to trade at Port Etches. 

The Ugalakmut reside on Kayak or Kaye Island in winter, and 
pursue the salmon fishery at the mouth of the Atna River and along the 
coast nearly to Icy Bay in summer. They comprise only some two hun- 
dred families, and are the most eastern of the Innuit tribes now occupying 
territory on this coast. It is probable, however, from shell-heap remains 
obtained by Lieutenant Ring, U. S. A., at the mouth of the Stikine River 
that at one period the Innuit extended at least to that point, if not farther 
east and south. 



22 



Second Group. 

UNtJNG'tJN. 

(Aleuts,) 

= MeutanSf Lade wig. 

= Unung'un, their owu Dational name, teste Eruian and my own repeated observations. 
= n-yakk'Unitiy Pinart, M6ni. Soc. Ethn. Paris, 1872, p. 158. 
< Aleuts of the Russians. 

= Kagataya Kowng'nSy Humboldt (the corrupted name of the Eastern Aleuts erroneously applied to the 
whole people accord iug to Pinart). 

Local names (teste Pinart 1. c): 
Khagan'-tayd'ichun'-khin, Eastern people, the inhabitants of the Shnmagins and Aliaska. 
Nikhu-khnin or Nam\kh'-hun\ Western people, the inhabitants or the Andreanoff Islauds. 
KigiJch'khunj Northern Western people, of the Fox Islands proper. 

The name Aleut j applied by the Russians indiscriminately to the 
Kaniagmut and the inhabitants of the Catherina or Aleutian Archipelago, 
has gradually become restricted among writers to the latter group, while its 
original meaning or derivation, the source of much controversy, is now lost 
in obscurity. 

The term U-nung^ufty I have satisfied myself by repeated inquiry, at 
Unalashka, Atka, Attn, and Unga, is a generic term, which these people 
apply to themselves, and which means simply "people" of their race, as 
distinguished from others. Erman says the original meaning of it is lost, 
but this is not borne out by my inquiries. According to my observations, 
Tij/akh-khunifiy given by Pinart, means Aleutian meriy in contradistinction to 
Ununff^ufij which means all Aleutian people^ without distinction. The local 
names given from Pinart are doubtless authentic, but I have no means of 
verifying them. On a previous occasion I quoted Humboldt's term, now 
shown by Pinart to be improperly extended in its range, but without intend- 
ing to use it as a point in argument of their eastern origin, as he seems to 
have understood me. These people have lost almost entirely their tribal 
distinctions indicated by the above local names, though small local jealousies 
are not entirely extinct. They have been transported from island to island, 
and even to Sitka and California, by traders, and are so thoroughly reclaimed 
from barbarism by long contact with Russian civilization that of their original 
condition only traces exist. 

They occupy the entire chain of the Aleutian Islands, the PribilofF 



23 

Islands, the Shumagins and adjacent islands, and various parts of Aliaska 
Peninsula west of 160° west of Greenwich. 

They have been, perhaps, more thoroughly monographed than any 
other branch of the Orarian stock, except the Greenlanders. 

To recapitulate, the Orarians of Alaska and the adjacent coast of Asia 
comprise the following groups, an^ approximate population : 

I.— INNtTlT. 

A. — Western Mackenzie Innuit. 

a. Kopag'-mut 200 

b. Kangmalig'-mut 200 

B. — Western Innuit 

a. NuVuk-mut 600 

6. Nunat6g'-mut 300 

c. Kowdg'-mut 100 

c». Selawig'-mut . , 100 

d. Chuk'luk-mut ? 

e. Okee-6g'-mut 300 

e\ Kikhtdg'amut 250 

/ Kaviag'-mut 500 

g. Mah'lemut 600 

C. — Fishing Innuit. 

a. Unaligmut 150 

6. Ek6g'mut 1,000 

c. M^g'emut 500 

d. Kiiskw6g'mut 2,000 

e. Nushagag'-mut 400 

/ Og'ulmut 500 

g. Kaniag'mut 3,000 

D. — Southeastern Innuit 

a. Chugach'ig-mut 600 

6. Ugalak'mut 300 



24 

IL—tTNUNG'UN. 

Aleuts. 

a. Eastern or Unalashkans, 

b. Western or Atkans, 

of which belonged to the eastern division 707 

to the middle division 940 

to the PribiloflF Islands 337 

to the western division* 470 

In all about 2,450 people, in 1871, nearly equally divided 
between males and females. There were in that year 44 
births, and 57 deaths, mostly from asthma and pleurisy. 

Total approximate Orarian population 14,054 

INDIAN TRIBES. 

The Indian tribes of Alaska and the adjacent region may be divided 
into two groups, with possibly a third, which just impinges on the southern 
border of the Territory. These groups are: 

I-TINNKH.t 

= Ttn'neh, KeDDicott,Hardi8ty,Ro88 and Gibbs,Da]l 1. o. 

= Tknaina, Holmberg. 

= KentnzeTf Holmberg. 

= ChippewyanB of anthore. 

r^ Aikaha9oan6 of aathors, Ludewig, &c. 



• 



There are also a namber of Aleuts, chiefly Atkans, living on the Comniander'B Islands in Rossian 
territory. 

tin his paper in the BoUetin of the Paris Geographical Society for September, 1875, Father Petitot 
discusses the terras Aihahaskans^ ChippewayanSf Montagnaxs, aud Tinnek as applied to this group of Indi- 
ans, and in several cases falls into serious error, apparently from want of familiarity with the literature 
of the subject, which has of late years aasumed such unwieldy proportions. He is in special error in 
regard to tbc term " tinneh '\ This he erroneously derives from a verb, ** Mffts, je fais ", and writes oHnv4. 
It is indeed strange that he should not have recognized in *' tinneh*^ a direct derivation, or, moru properly, 
a correct orthography (for the western tribes, at least), of the word ho does adopt, namely, *^D4n6^\ 
meaning *' landsmen^^ as a German would say, the o being merely an inserted euphonic. He takes " D<Sn6 ", 
" people of the country ", and '* dindji^ '' (correctly, iivjec), the Kutchin word for ** a man ", and compounds 
them into a term for designating all tho Tinneh tribes, aud then goes entirely off the track to seek a 
derivation for Tinneh which is identical with his D6ni as correctly written. Hardisty, Ross, Kenuicott, 
and Gibbs are sufficient authority for the true meaning of the word, leaving my own pcrsonul and pretty 
conclusive iuvestigations out of acconut. There can be no manner of doubt as to the word *' tinneh '' and 
its representative term " Kutchin '', meaning " people native to the legion " respectively indicated by its 
various prefixes. The erroneous nature of some of the reverend fathers statements in regard to native 
words is sufficiently indicate4l by his confusion of the Eskimo salutation, teymo, or, in the west, chammi, 
with the word tajfma^ = enongli (p. 257, 1. c.)- 



25 

> ira/«Mita of the Rii86ians. 
= Thynn^, Pinart. 

> 2Vji<f, Ahh6 Petitot. (Not oiinv^, Pctilot.) Not DindjU, Abb^ Petitot (= "man *" of K&tcLio Iribcs). 

< Itjfnai, Ernian. 

> li'-kalyi of Nuw&kmut Innuit of Point Barrow. 

> It'lcal-ya^'irHin of Nuwikkmut loDuit of Point Barrow. 

> In'-kal-ik of Mah'lemut and Un&lig'niut Innuit. 

> Ing'aliki of the RassianB ; not of Wrangell. 

= Ttjpnai, or Tawat, of Zagoskin. , 

= Tinti^t or Dtinnef Ludewig. 

This great family includes a large number of American tribes extend- 
ing from near the mouth of the Mackenzie south to the borders of Mexico. 
The Apaches and Navajos belong to it, and the family seems to intersect the 
continent of North America in a northerly and southerly direction, princi- 
pally along the flanks of the Rocky Mountains. The northern tribes of 
this stock extend westward nearly to the delta of the Yukon, and reach the 
sea-coast at Cook's Inlet and the mouth of the Copper River. Eastward 
they extend to the divide between the watershed of Hudson's Bay and that 
of Athabasca and the Mackenzie Riv^r. The designation proposed by 
Messrs. Ross and Gibbs has been accepted by most modem ethnologists. 

The northern Tinneh form their tribal names by affixing to an adjective 
word or phrase the word tinneh; meaning ** people", in its modifications of 
tin^neh, tafndj or tena/y or in one group the word kut-chin^ having the same 
meaning. The last are known as the Kutchin tribes, but, so far as our 
knowledge yet extends, are not sufficiently differentiated from the others to 
require special classification by themselves. 

The following are the tribes of the Tinneh, beginning at the westward 
and ascending the Yukon toward the north, east, and south: 

KAI'-YCH-KHO-TA'NA.^ - ^ V .^o C . ?< 

= Kaijfuhkho-tdnd, Dall 1. c. O 

= iHf/'aliki of the Ruwians, Wornian in Tikhmeuief. 
= In'-kal'ik of the Mahlemilt Innuit. 

InkUiken, 

-f UlukdgmutSf 

+TdkSjdk8cn, 

-^InkiaichJjuaUny 
y^-^Thljegonchotdna, &c., &c., of Holmberg, from Zagoskin. 

> InkuliichlUate, Wrangell and Ludewig, TrUbn. Bib. Glott.» ed. 1, 1868. 
= IngaleeU, Wbymper and Raymond. 

< ImkaHten of Wrangell = Ekogmut, &c., partly. 

Local names : 
'VlA'kdkkoidn'a on the Ulukftk River. 






I 



26 

NuWtO'khchtan'd at Nnlato. 
Kavfakfa'kho-tan'a on the Kai^yuk River. 
Takai'-y&kkO'idn'A on the Sh&g'eluk River. 
Tai'ydydn'fhkhotdn'dy Upper Kuskokwim River. 

The name of this great tribe means Lowlanders, and as they occupy 
for the most part the low tundri on and about the Yukon and Kuskokwim 
Rivers, it is not inappropriate. It comprises a great many settlements, 
extending over a large extent of country, and ha^dng each its local name 
of course, but presenting hardly any marked change in the dialects spoken 
and the general characteristics of the people. All these people intermaiTy, 
and do not appear to have adopted a totemic system. Their habits vary 
with their environment, and those who live by fishing diflFer somewhat from 
those who hunt the moose and deer, as might be expected, while the tribes 
most adjacent to the Ekogmut Innuit have followed their fashion in having 
more festivals and dances thaii those to the northward. On the Yukon, the 
southernmost settlements live principally by their abundant fisheries, and 
trade dry fish, wooden ware, in making which they are veiy expert, and 
strong birch canoes, with the Upper Yukon and Shageluk people. Those 
on the Kuskokwim live more especially by hunting, and those on the Upper 
Yukon above the Shageluk about equally by either pursuit according to 
circumstances. 

These people are most commonly called Ingdliks or Ingdleet by the 
Russians, a corruption of the Innuit word meaning " Indians". 

Holmberg, in his summary, was misled by the untruthful and imagi- 
native Zagoskin, many of whose fables were exposed by the parties of the 
International Telegraph Expedition when exploring in this region. Hence, 
his undue multiplication of tribes, intended to enhance the discoveries which 
he made principally, not by traveling, but by questioning the natives. 

I feel quite confident, from my own intercoiu'se with these people, that, 
until further knowledge is attained, no division of this group or tribe is 
necessary or even desirable. They extend from near Kolmakoff Redoubt 
on the Kuskokwim River to its headwaters, on the Yukon above the mis- 
sion on the left and above the Anvik River on the right bank, west to 
the Anvik River and Iktig'alik on the Ulukak River, north to Nulato, and 
east to the mountains or the Kuskokwim River. 



27 

They build permanent villages, though they sometimes leave them 
during the summer, and originally wore the pointed hunting-shirts, which 
gave name to the Chippewyans, but which have been, to some extent, put 
aside where trade with the whites or Innuit gave them opportunities for 
procuring more durable clothing-. They are fully described in Alaska and 
its Resources, The Nulato settlement is nearly extinct, and numbers have 
died on the I^ower Yukon from asthma, produced by inhaling tobacco- 
smoke into the lungs, and other causes. 

KOYU'-KtJKH-OTA'NA. 

=: Koyukukhotana^ Dall 1. c, moaning *' Koyuk&k River people". 

= JunnUkdiiholaHa, Holmberg, Zagoskin. 

= KeilUk-K&Uihin of the Fort Yokon Kiitobin Indians. 

= Ko^kiins^ or KoyuMinskiny of the American and Rnssian traders. 

== Coyoukons^ Whymper, Raymond. 

= Ku}fukdnt9i^ Worman in Tikhmenief. 

These people inhabit the watershed of the Koyvfkuk or Koyukalkdt 
River, and that of its tributaries, the Kiithldtfno, KoteVno^ and Khotelkafkdt 
They are a fierce and warlike tribe, and principally distinguished from the 
Kaiyuhkhotana by being in a chronically hostile attitude toward them. I 
see no strong differences in language or habits; but as a tribe they consider 
and keep themselves markedly apart from the others, and, as such, I have 
retained them separately. 

Misled by Zagoskin and bad vocabularies, Wrangell (in Baer) has 
mingled Innuit and Indians in his account of these people. His Inkaliten 
appear to have been considered by him as an Innuit people, though he 
includes several subtribes of the Lowland Tinneh, and the same appears to 
heave been the case with his InkalucMiiaten. The result is that it is not easy 
to refer to his nomenclature of these people without giving occasion for 
misconception.* 

These people also build houses, and occupy more or less permanent 
villages. They seldom intermarry with the Lowlanders, and live princi- 
pally by hunting the deer and Rocky Mountain sheep. They also act as 
middle-men in trade between the Mahlemut and the Lowland Tinneh. 
They do not seem to have any system of totems. 

* The sauie is to some extent true of Ermau's papers in the Zeitochr. fftr Ethnologio. 



28 



UN'A-KHO-TANA. 

= Un'dkhoidnd, Dall I. c, meaning <* Distant" or "Far-off people", a name applied to them by 6ttier 

Tinneh. 
^s^Junndchotaifdt Holmberg, Zagoakin. 
.= Yukou'ikhoidtiaf among themselves. 
< Ihlcilikif Worman in Tikhraenief. 
f InkUIUchlUaten, Wraogell in part. 

These people inhabit the Yukon fi-om the Sunka'kat River to the 
mouth of the Tananah' River. They call themselves Yukonikhotana^ men 
of the Yukon, but so also do some of the Kutchin people living on the river 
above the Tananah mouth, so I have preferred to keep the original term, 
which is the name by which the Lowlanders call them, rather than risk 
confusion by a change. They are few in number ; their principal village is 
at the mouth of the Nowikakat River. Their houses are less solidly built 
and less permanent than those of the Lowlanders. They seem to acknowl- 
edge no totems ; rarely intermarry with the Lowlanders, from whom their 
dialect diflFers slightly ; deposit their dead sometimes in an erect posture, the 
sarcophagus looking like a roughly-made cask ; have no draught-dogs like the 
tribes previously mentioned, but have a small breed for hunting ; and meet 
on the neutral ground of Nu-kluk-ah-y6t' every spring to trade with the 
Kutchin tribes from the Upper Yukon and Tananah. 

The three previously-mentioned tribes diflfer less among themselves 
than they do from those which follow, and I have, elsewhere designated them 
as " Western Tinneh". The bodies of the dead are always placed by them 
above ground in a box or wooden receptacle. They have no maniage- 
ceremony ; take and discard wives at their pleasure ; have often more than 
one, but rarely more than three wives ; practice shamanism, but have no 
idea of any omnipotent or specially-exalted deity, though believing in a 
multitude of spirits good and bad ; have similar festivals and songs, and a 
tolerably uniform language. They are of tall and rather slender build, .with 
faces varying from square to oval ; their hue is an ashy olive, never cop- 
pery ; their hair coai'se, straight, and black. Those near the Innuit have, 
in some places, adopted the fashion of wearing labrets, and the inland tribes 
very commonly wear a nose-ornament. Their noses are small but aquiline, 
or rarely Roman. They vary in hairiness, but rarely have a beard, and 



29 

seldom any amount of mustache. In habits and dress, the people of periph- 
eral settlements show usually some influence of the diflFering, but adjacent, 
people with whom they are brought in contact. Their manners and dress 
are now rapidly altering by intercourse with traders. I am infonned that 
many of the peculiarities noted by me, when the International Telegraph 
Expedition first brought its explorers into contact with these people, have 
become obsolete or are rapidly passing away. 

V 

TENAN'-KUT-CHIN'. 

= Tenan'-K&ichinj Doll 1. c, their own tribal name. 

t Tgdiinkaten of WrangoU, hairy men. 
= Kolckaina of the Rassians (among other tribes). 
= Gen$ de8 Butte» of Fort Yakon Hndtson Bay men. 
= MoHntuin-men of authors. ^ 

The name of this people signifies "mountain men", as that of their river, 
the Tananah', signifies the^ river of mountains. They occupy the watershed 
of the Tananah', which has been visited very recently for the first time by 
Ketchum and other white men, but is not, properly speaking, yet explored. 
When we met them in 1866, this tribe was almost in a state of nature. Once 
a year, without their women, they descended the Tananah' in birch canoes, 
in full accoutrement of pointed coats, beads, feathers, and ochred hair, to 
trade at the neutral ground of Nuklukaygt ; or, failing to be pleased there, 
ascended the Yukon to Fort Yukon, and there awaited the arrival of the 
annual bateaux. With the goods purchased, they then retired to their fast- 
nesses, and were seen no more until another year. No white man or Indian 
of other tribe had penetrated the wilds in which they pursued the deer and 
trapped the fox and sable. Their reserve, fierce demeanor, and 'the mystery 
which surrounded their manner of life had its eflfect on the imagination of 
the adjacent tribes, who seemed to fear the strangers, and had many tales, 
smacking of the mai-velous, to tell of them. This is now changed, and the 
account which I have elsewhere given of them will have a kind of historical 
interest. 

They appear to have certain localities where they establish huts of very 
flimsy construction, but move about a large part of the year, and cannot be 
said, therefore, to have sti-ictly permanent villages. They live chiefly by 



30 

hunting the deer, the broken nature of the country not attracting the moose 
into that region. They also trade from the headwaters of the Tananah' 
with the Han Kutchin of the Upper Yukon. They are supposed to have 
a totemic system similar to that of the Loucheux. 

TENNUTH'-KUT-CHIN'. 

Gena de Bauleaux, or Birch IndianSy of tbe Hadson Bay mcD. 

These people, with the Tdtsah^ -Kutchinf , comprised a few bands of 
Indians allied to . the Kutcha-Kut-chin', who formerly wandered in the 
region between the rapids of the Yukon and the mouth of the Porcupine 
River, having their principal hunting-ground near the Small Houses. About 
1863, however, they were all swept oflF by an epidemic of scarlet fever, 
introduced thi-ough contact with the whites, and there is now not an indi- 
vidual living of these two tribes. 

KtJTCHA' KUT-CHIN'. 

= Kuich4- Kutchin, Ross, Kennicott, Gibbs, their own name. 
= It-ka-lya-ruin of tbe ^uwtik-mflt Inuuit, Simpson. 

< Loucheux of the Hudson Bay men. 

< Kutcki'ktUehij Ladewig. 

< Kolch4iina of the Russians. Not Ktcildiia Kuiichin of Petitot. 

These Indians inhabit both banks of the Yukon from the Birch River to 
the Kotlo River on the east and the Porcupine River on the north, ascend- 
ing the latter a short distance. 

They are nomadic, polygamous, and live principally by hunting and 
trapping. They formerly burned their dead. They have a totemic system 
with three totems — Chit-che-dh, Teng-rat-si, and Nat-saJiiy according to Stra- 
chan Jones, esq., late commander at Fort Yukon. They are described by 
me elsewhere. Their name means "Lowlanders". 

NATSIT'-KIJT-CHIN'. 

= Naisit-kHtchin, or = Naiaik-kuichin, Hardisty and Hndson Bay men. 
= Natchef'hatchin, Ross, M8S. map ; Doll 1. o. 
= Loucheux, or Gens de Large, of tbe voyagears. 

These extend from the Porcupine, near Fort Yukon, north to the 
RomanzoflF Mountains. Their name means " strong people ", and is vari- 
ously spelled by different authorities. They are migratory, few in number, 



31 

generally resemble the last fribe, and are chiefly notable from their trade 
with the Kang-mdlig-mut Innuit, and the fine, strong babiche, or skin-twine, 
whicli they manufacture. 

VtJNTA'-KtJTCHIN'. 

= Vunia'-hHUikinj Roes, MSS. map, Ball 1. c. 
= Louckeux, or Q^arrtUen^ of tho Undson Bay voyagenre 
=7 GenH des Rais of the Canadian voyngenre. 
f Tdha-kuitdiin of Petitot. 

Another tribe of Kiitchin, occupying the region north of the Porcu- 
pine, east of the last tribe, and south of the Innuit on the Arctic shores. 
Little is known of them. Their name signifies " Rat people", and is taken 
from the Rat or Porcupine River, one of their boundaries. 

TUKKUTH'-KUTCHIN'. 

= Tukkuth-Michin, Ross, Dall 1. c. 
•z^ Bat Indians of the Hudson Bay men. 
/ Tdha-kuttekin of Fetitot. 

These Indians inhabit the region east of the headwaters of the Porcu- 
pine as far as Fort McPherson, and including the district of La Pien-eV 
House and all the southern headwaters as far west as the next tribe. It is 
uncertain whether to this or the last tribe the appellation of Father Petitot 
properly belongs. I have preferred to retain that of Mr. Ross, who is 
excelled by none in his knowedge of this region. A small river falling into 
the Mackenzie is named Rat River on Petitot's map, but this should not be 
confounded with the Porcupine River, which is most commonly called the 
Rat River by the Hudson Bay people. The present tribe is also sometimes 
called Rat Indians, but the exact signification of their name is not known 
to me. In all respects, as far as known, this people does not differ mate- 
rially from the other and better known tribes of the KQtchin Indians of the 

Yukon. 

HAN-KUTCHIN'. 

= Han-kutchin, Ross, the H. B. Co.'s traders, Ketchnm, Dall 1. c. 
= Gens des B<n» of the Hudson's Bay voyagenr. . 
< Kolckaifiat or Kolshina, of the Russians. 

This is a small tribe, inhabiting both banks of the Yukon above the 
Kotlo River for over a hundred miles, to the Deer River, and sometimes 



i 



32 

extending their wanderings north to the banks of the Porcupine, east of the 
Ktitcha'-kiitchin' and west of the Ttikkfith'-ktitchin'. Their name signifies 
"Wood" or "Forest people", and they are comparatively but little known. 
They trade at Fort Yukon. 

TUT-CHONE'-KtJTCHIN'. 

= T&tchone Kutckinf Ketchnm, Dall 1. o. 
= Gefie des Foux of the Hndson'tt Bay voyagcare. 
= "^eftautfce") CariboUf or Mountain Indiana, of various Ilndson Bay officers, Robs and otbers. 

< KoU6hane9y or GaXzaneB, Ludewig (north of AtDa River), Wrangell. 

< Kolicftanskai, Worman in Tikhinenief. 

t Jltlogat (Titlokakatt) people, of Ah-tena Indians, >E(7f Wrangell. 

This is an extensive and widely-distributed tribe, whose amiable man- 
ners have gained them the name of Gtns des Foux from the voyageurs, and 
whose name signifies " Crow people". They occupy the banks of the Yukon 
from the Deer River nearly to the site of Fort Selkirk and the watershed 

of the small streams flowing into the Yukon from the north, especially on 

• 

the Stewart River about Reid House; the basin of the White River, heading 
in the glaciers of the St Elias Alps; and perhaps the Lewis River to some 
extent. These are, with little doubt, the natives with whom the Ahtena 
Indians trade from the headwaters of the Atna and Chechitno Rivers, called 
Kolchaina by the Russians, who apply that term to *all the interior Indians 
with whom they are imfarailiar. "Titlogat", mentioned by Wrangell as one 
of the settlements of the Kolchaina, is possibly some mutual trading- 
ground which has an Indian name of Titlo-kakat or something similar. 

We now come to a group of Indians but little known, and which can- 
not be difierentiated with any certainty into tribes. The names I give for 
them are on the authority of Mr. Ross's manuscript map, lately in the 
possession of the late George Gibbs, and for an opportunity of examining 
which I am indebted to his kindness. 

NEHAUNEES. 

= NehauneeSf Ross, Dall 1. c. 
t Naa"an€e of Petitot. 

Including the following people: 



A . A BBATO-TEN a' . 



s= AhhaUhtenSf f Ross, Dall 1. c. 
f Etiba-Va-o-iinnk of Petitot. 



A very low grade of Indians inhabiting the basin of the Pelly and 



33 

Macmillan Rivers. The very eiToneous character of this part of Petitot's 
map renders it impossible to identify his names geographically with any 
known tribes. They have also been called Gens des Bois by some of the 
Hudson's Bay people. 

B. MAUVAIS MONDE. 

= A/auruM MopdCj or Slav^f Roes, Dall 1. o., H. B. Co.'s offlcore. 

Inhabit the region of Frances Lake. Very few in number, and little 

known. 

c. — ache'to-tin'neh. 

= Acheto-Unneh Roes 1. o. 

On the western headwaters of the Liard River, occasionally visiting 

Dease House and Lake. 

D. — daho'-tena'. 

= Ddhotend, Rosh 1. o. 

Below the last, on the Liard River. Sometimes called Sicanees by the 

traders; or else there is another tribe in the same region to which this 

name has been applied. 

E. — tah'ko-tin'neh. 

= Tdhko-t'mneh of boido of tho trsulere. 

Inhabit the basin of the Lewis River; are very few in number, and 
scarcely known to the whites. 

F. NEHAUNEES op the CfilLKAHT RIVER. 

Ckilkaht'ienaf Dall 1. c, nom. prov. 

Indians of Tinneh stock, inhabiting the shores of a river heading near 
the Chilkaht, but flowing in an opposite direction, and fiilh'ng into the Lewis 
River nccor Lake Lebarge. 

These people are bold and enterprising, great traders, and of gi'eat 
intelligence. They carry goods bought from the Chilkaht-kwan (who do 
not allow them to descend the Chilkaht River) to the Yukon, where they 
trade with the Crows and Nehaunees. I erroneously applied the term 
Chilkaht to them, which I have since discovered is a T'linket word. My 
infoiTOant must have been led into error in assigning it to a Tinneh tribe. 

They appear to be a numerous people, but have never mixed with the 
whites, except on a few occasions at Fort Selkirk, which they are said to 
have had afterward a hand in burning. 



34 

It will be seen from the above that the term Nehaunee covers a large 
number of bands, some of which are probably independent tribes, and the 
only thing which can be said to be known about them is that they all belong 
to the Tinneh stock. 

To the westward of the Nehaunees and Crows are the following two 
tribes, which complete the list of Alaskan Tinneh. 

AH-TENA'. 

= Ah'tenat Dall 1. o., their own tribal designatton. 

= Atnaer, Wrangell. 

= Atakhtan8, ErinnD. 

= Kei8chet-fiaer (ice-men) of tbo Bassian imdenfjidc Wrangell. 

= MiedtioffHkoif Worman in Tiklinienief. 

=: AtnaxthynnSj Piuart, Rev. Pbil. et Ethn., Les Atnnhs, 

= AtnaSf Lndewig, in Triibner Bib. Glott., ed. 1, p. 14, 211. 

= Yellawknife or Nehaunee IndianSf Ross, MSS. map. 

Not Ainahf Lndowig, Flat beads of tbo Frazcr River. 

Not YeJlowknivea of tbe Coppermine River, H. B. Terr. 

These Indians, known principally by report, occupy the basin of the 
Atna or Copper River, and reach to the sea at its mouth, having pushed 
themselves between the Ugalakmut Innuit and their relations of Chugach 
Bay. I was fortunate enough to be present in 1874 at their annual trade 
at Port Etches, to determine definitely their own name for themselves,* 
and to recognize in their speech many of the Tinneh words with which 1 
had become familiar on the Yukon. I also obtained from them a piece, 
weighing about five pounds, of the celebrated native copper, found in the bed 
of the river on which they live. They resembled strongly the Koyukuns 
in appe<arance, and wore the original pointed coats trimmed with beads, 
such as I had seen on the persons of the Tenan-kutchin. Their faces were 
oval and of pleasing and intelligent expression. On a visit to the vessel in 
my charge, they showed unusual tact and discretion in their behavior, which 
could hardly have been improved, though she was to them an object of the 
greatest curiosity, the only sea-going vessel they had ever seen. 

* Father Petitot, by a curions misreading of my text in Maaka atid iia licaourcea, bas arrived at 
tbe concluRion tbat I have confounded the Copper or Atna River with I be Coppermine River of Hearne 
and Franklin, becanse (on Ross's aotbority) I stated that the Ah-tena were sometimes called Yellow- 
kuifo or Nebannee Indians by tbe English, while tbo Yellowknives tbnt he knows are residents of the 
Coppermine Rivor. It wonld appear, apart from his misconception, that be has forgotten that the trad- 
ers freqnently apply the same name to widely different tribes, and that in qnoting them, then as now, I 
could not vouch for tbe proper application of any names except those I have personally verified. 



35 

They were tall and rather slender, but of good physique, of a cleai* 
olive complexion, and with straight black hair, arched eye-brows, and with- 
out hair upon the face. They appear to be not very numerous, but rather 
widely distributed on the river, trading with the interior Indians at its head- 
waters. The signification of their name has some relation to the glaciers 
which are found in their territory, but I could not make out its exact Eng- 
lish equivalent. I noticed no traces of T'linket words in their speech, and it is 
a question whether those noted by Pinart, in tliis as in other cases, were not 
due rather to the defective knowledge or memory of his half-breed inter- 
preter than to their actual existence as words incorporated in the language. 

TEHANIN'-KCTCHIN^ 

= TehaniV'Kutckinf Ross 1. c, as applied to them by the Yukon Indians. 

= Eenaytm, Wrangell, as of the Russians. 

= Tnaifia ur Tnaif Wrangell, as of themselves. 

=3: KinaJAt of the Kaniagmtit Innutt,^e Wrangell. 

= Kcnaittief Worman in Tilihmenief. 

= Kinai^ Buschmann. 

= Kinaif Kenaij Renaitzef Itynaif Lndewig In Triibner. 

= Ongagliakmuti-Kinaiaj KinaiUay Balbi, Atltis Etbn. 

= Kenai'tendf Dall 1. c., noni. prov. (erroneous). 

= True Thnaina, Ilolmberg. 

= K^nai'a'khoiafvay their own name according to the Ah-tena Indians. 

No satisfactory vocabulary, nor even a trustworthy statement of the 
name by which these people call themselves, has yet been published. By 
some words of Wrangell's and Lisiansky's vocabularies, and by the fact 
that they possess a totemic system, it may reasonably be surmised that 
they are more closely related to the Ktitchin tribes than to the western 
Tinneh. The word Kenai I have strong reasons for believing is an Inniiit 
word, and hence any application of it to them is erroneous. On the other hand, 
J cannot reconcile the form Tnaina with any of the forms in use among the 
Tinneh for denominating themselves as a tribe. I have some doubts of the 
correctness of the name supplied to me by the Ah-tenaj and so 1 have pro- 
visionally adopted the name supplied by Ross. This is that by which they 
are called by the Tenan-Kiitchin of the Tananah', with whom they are said 
to occasionally trade. 

They are among the least known of the tribes which reach the sea- 
coast. They are said to occupy the Kenai Peninsula on its northwest side 
from Chug^achik Bay to its head, and the shores opposite as far south as the 



3G 

bay near IHamna Volcano, the basin of the Knik and Suchitno Rivers, and 
their headwaters. They bury their dead in boxes above ground, on which 
they pile up stones. They are said to be more intelligent than the adjacent 
Innuit, from whom they purchase kyaks and other articles. They kill large 
numbers of the Rocky Mountain goat and use the skins for clothing. 

This completes the list of the Tinneh tribes of Alaska and the adjacent 
teiritory, and we now come to the stock or family of 

2.-T'LINKETS. 

= Thlinkefs of most Raseian nnd Gorman authors. j 

= KoloBhes or Koloshiana, Lndewig, and most English and French authors. 

= KoloucheSf Ba 1 bi . 

= KolocheSy Pinart, Bull. Soc. d^Anthr. 1873, Erman. 

= Tlinketf their own name for people of their stock. 

> Sitkhinskoij Worman in Tikhmenief. 

These people as a whole ai-e remarkably well differentiated from the 
Tinneh, and have been very fully described by Veniaminoff, Wrangell, 
Bendel, Pinart, and the writer. Of the tribes on Norfolk Sound especially, 
the material, vocabularies, &c., are remarkably complete. There arc several 
outlying tribes, however, of which the affinities are not positively deter- 
mined. The principal of these is the Kygani or Haida tribe, which has 
been very generally united with the T'linkets, but which I am disposed to 
so refer only provisionally ; and the Chimsyans or Nasse Indians, who 
very probably belong to a distinct family. The Billecoola are Selish; tlie 
Hailtzuh belong to tlie Vancouver Island family, though both have been 
referred to the Nasses. The language of the latter is, according to Gibbs, 
quite distinct from that of the TacuUies or Carriers, to which Ludewig com- 
pared it. 

The Yakutats in many respects, also, are differentiated from the other 
Tlinkets, though they belong, without doubt, to the same stock. The 
T'linkets may be divided as foUow^s, into five groups: 

"YAK'^TATS." 

= Tdk'ut4i8j Ball 1. c, Pinart, and most authors. 
= Takutatskai, Worman in Tikhmenief. 
= Yakoutats, Erman. 

These Indians inhabit the region between the coast-mountains Jind 



37 

the sea, from Bering Bay to Litnya Bay, occasionally traveling in canoes 
farther west or southeast for purposes of trade. On my visit to Bering 
Bay in 1874, I endeavored to get their own name for themselves, but had 
no interpreter, and neither the natives nor myself spoke much Chinook, so 
that I do not feel sure that they understood my inquiries. At all events, I 
could get no other answer than **Yakutat", wliich is evidently the name they 
give to the country they inhabit, but must, in all probability, have some 
other suffix or termination when applied as a tribal name. Their principal 
settlement is on a largg_streamj, abounding with salmon, and emptying int o 
Bering Bay or Yakutat. They fish and trade at Port Mulgrave in the 
spring before the salmon arrive, and hunt seal near the glaciers of Disen- 
chantment Bay. The women do not wear the kalushka, or lip-ornament 
They are said not to adopt the totemic system, so much in vogue among the 
other T'linkets, and eat the blubber and flesh of the whale, which the other 
tribes of their stock regard as unclean. 

CHILKAHT'-KWAN. 

The Chilkdht'-kwdn inhabit the valley of the Chilkaht River, wliich is 
of moderate size, and falls into the head of Lynn Canal. They are inti- 
mately related to the inhabitants of Norfolk Sound, and some of them may 
almost always be found sojourning at Sitka. They consider themselves, 
however, a distinct tribe, and have on some occasions been involved in hos- 
tilities with the Sitka people. They are a wild and untamable people, and 
said to be very numerous. They trade with the whites on the sea-coast, 
and with the Tinneh of the interior, by means of numerous small lakes and 
streams near the head of the Chilkaht River. In all essentials, they do not 
seem to diflFer from the Sitkans. 

SITKA-KWAN. 

=.Sitka'kicant tbeir o^vn apiKsllntion at Sitka. 

= AnioU'kvanyJide Pioart, for tbo tribo in general. 

< Siika-kwaWf PiDort. 

== ChiigagancSy Saiidifort, fde PiDart. 

=^ TchtMkitatticva of Marchaud. 

= Silkans o{ 'Ermau. 



38 

Local nntneB: 

Hud9&nu at Hood's Bay nod Hoochenu Rapids. 
Ahk on Frederick Sonnd. 
Kekk on Frederick Soand. 
Eklikheeno, Chatham Strait. 
KH*iu near Cape Decision. 
ffenneega on Prince of Wales Island. 
Tomgass near Fort Tonij^ass or Tongass. 
Sitka-hcan at Sitka on Norfolk Sound. 

These names may reqnire some revision hereafter, except the last. 

These people inhabit BaranoflF Island and its vicinity, Cliichagoff, 
Admiralty, Kuiu, Kuprianoff, and Prince of Wales Islands (the latter only 
in part), and the archipelago, of which these form a pait. They are among 
the best known of the Northwest American tribes, and information in rela- 
tion to them may be found in the works referred to under the head of 
T'linkets. The nickname of Koloshes, which has been extensively applied 
to them, arises, according to some authorities, from a Russian word meaning 
to pierce, in allusion to the perforations made for labrets in the lips of the 
women, and is asserted by others to be derived from "kalushka", a Russian 
word, meaning a little trough, in allusion to the trough-like shape of the 
labrets themselves. The latter would seem to be the more probable deriva- 
tion, as the custom of piercing the lip was common among tribes familiarly 
known to the Russians before they met the T'linkets; while no North 
American tribe in historic times has. worn any labret at all comparable, in 
size and grotesque appearance, to the kalushka. The latter would have 
struck the observer at once as a remarkable ornament, and was therefore 
more likely to be remembered and spoken frequently of in referring to these 
people. The Sitka-kwan have numerous large villages with large houses, 
often ornamented with carvings, and capable of standing quite a siege. 
They are a fierce and independent people, and of late years much demor- 
alized from the use of alcoholic stimulants, which they have even learned 
to distil from molasses for themselves. 

STAKHIN'-KWAN. 

These are a T'linket tribe, little diifferentiated from the last, occupying 
the mainland near the mouth of the Stikine River (a corruption of Stakhin). 
They consider themselves distinct from the Sitkans, and the two tribes have 



39 

frequently been involved in hostilities. Tliey do not penetrate far into the 
interior, but extend along the coast from tlie Lynn to the Portland Canal. 
Here they are bounded on the south and east by the Nasses and the Cliim- 
syans. We now come to the last group of Alaskan Indians, the — 

KYGAH'NL 

= Kygah'ni, tbeir own appellation. 

= Kaiganakai, Worman in Tikhnienief. 

= Kaigans, Ernian. 

< KyganieSj or KigamieSj Ludewig. 

= Haidak8f Ludewig, and authors. 

= Hydaha of authors. 

= Kyga'nij Dull 1. c. 

These people, which I refer with doubt to the T'linket stock, have 
their headquarters on the islands of Queen Charlotte's Archipelago, but 
there are a few villages on the islands forming the southernmost portion of 
Alaska Territory, south of Prince of Wales Island. They are a tall, hand- 
some, fierce, and treacherous race, not improved by the rum sold them by 
the Hudson Bay Company, and noted for their skill in carving wood and 
slate, and their chasing and other work on silver which they obttiin from 
the whites. In Alaska, they are very few in number. 

The Nasses and adjacent Chimsyan and other tribes are in so much 
confusion, from an ethnological point of view, that I am glad to avail myself 
of the fact that they do not, strictly speaking, come within the limits of this 
paper. 

The following is a recapitulation of the different Indian tribes of Alaska, 
with an approximate estimate of their numbers. I omit the population for 
those exterior to the Territory. 

TINNEH. 

(western.) 
Kaiyuhkhotana 2, 000 

Koyukukhotana 500 

Unakhotana 300 

(kOtchin.) 
Tenan-kutchin 400 

Tennuth-kutchin, extinct. 

TiUsah'kutchin, extinct 

Kutcha-kutchin 250 



40 

Natsit-kutchin 150 

Vunta-kutcliin. 

Tukkuth-kutcliin. 

Han-kutchin. 

Tutchone-kiitchin. 

Tehanin-kutchin 1, 000 

(eastern.) 
Abbato-tena. 

Mauvais Monde (Neliaunees). 

Acheto-tinneh. 

Daho-tena. 

Tdhko-tinneh. 

'' Chilkabt-tena." 

Ab-tena 1, 500 

T'LINKETS. 

(yakutats.) 
"Yakutats" 250 

(kwan.) 
Cbilkabt-kwan 1, 300 

Sitka-kwan 2, 200 

Stakbiu-kwan 1, 500 

(kygahni.) 
Kygabni 300 

(nasses.) 
Nasse Indians. 

Cbimsyans. 

Total AUiska Indians 11, 650 

Total Alaska Orarians 14, 054 

Total native population 25, 704 

Add Russians 50 

Add balf-breeds or Creoles 1, 500 

Add citizens (including lOO military) 250 

1, 800 

Total population of tlie Territory 27, 504 

Tbis estimate is probably over ratber tban under the real number, 
except for wliite citizens, wbose number fluctuates, and who, during the 
mining-season, may number as many as fifteen hundred. 



[ 



« 
4> 



II. 

ON SUCCESSION IN THE SHELL-HEAPS OF THE ALEUTIAN 

ISLANDS 



BY TV. H. UJLLiTJ. 



The notes of which this paper is the result were maxle while engaged 
in a hydrographic and geographical reconnaissance of the Aleutian Islands, 
under the auspices of the United States Coast Survey. They were made 
at enforced intervals of leisure, occasioned by weather which would not 
permit the ordinary surveying operations of the party to be carried on; a 
circumstance which will explain the limitations by which our observations 
were necessarily curtailed. Notwithstanding this limitation, however, it is 
believed results of value have been obtained. 

The character of the islands is tolerably well known, and a sketch of 
them, which gives all the details necessary for a comprehension of this 
paper, will be found accompanying the paper on the distribution of the 
Indian tribes on the general map of Alaska Territory. 

Their topography, with few exceptions, is higli and rugged ; their 
shore-lines very irregular, and mostly rocky; their vegetation rich and 
abundant, but confined to herbaceous plants and small species of Vaccinium 
and Salix^ none as a rule attaining to a greater height than four feet, and 
often creeping along the surface of the soil. The climate is moist and not 
cold, but inclement from the abundance of cloudy weather, fog, rain, and 
at certain seasons the prevalence of severe gales. The harbors are rarely 
closed by ice, and then only for a few days or until the first fresh breeze. 

41 



\ 



42 

I'he invertebrate fauna of the shores is abundant in individuals, but sparse 
in littoral species. Fish are abundant to the eastward, but more and more 
scanty west from Atka Island. Sea-birds are everywhere found in myriads. 
The sea-lion, the sea-otter, fur-seal, and varieties of hair-seal, once very 
abundant, are now scarce or even entii'ely extinct in some localities. 
There is yet an abundance of small whales ; some land-bii*ds, including the 
ptarmigan (Lagoptis albus) ; the blue fox has been introduced into many of 
the islands, and flourishes ; lemmings of small size are said to exist on 
Kreesa or Rat Island to the westward, and, from Unalashka eastward, 
are, with Spermophilus Parry% abundant. This comprises the indigenous 
vertebrate fauna of the present day. 

Wood is not abundant on the beaches, but is more plenty to the 
eastward, where the westerly current throws it on the eastern and northern 
shores of the islands. From an examination of the drift-stuff, it is evident 
that the larger portion of it comes from the east and south. The Sitka 
spruce, cedar and fir, Panaxc horridum^ cocoa-nut shells, and acacia-nuts 
are all from the western shores of America, either indigenous or as refuse 
thrown overboard by the merchantmen. The Yukon spruce, willow, birch, 
and poplar are much less common and rarely occur. 

The islands are washed by two seas, both notoriously stormy and foggy. 
There are no currents, on then* north shores, proper to Bering Sea. In the 
Pacific, the great easterly current passes entirely to the southward of the 
islands, not grazing them, and not affecting the water north of latitude 50^. 
It strikes the northwest coast of America at or near Dixon's Entrance, and 
here a strong but narrow branch is deflected to the northward, and, follow- 
ing the trend of the coast, finally to the westward; passing south of the 
islands, and being evident as a current as far west as Atka, when it gradu- 
ally spends its force, and is not perceptible in the extreme western islands. 
The tide in this region rises in the east and sets toward the west, adding to 
the force of the current during the march of the tide. It rushes into Ber- 
ing Sea through the numerous passes and straits, carrying its burden of 
drift-wood, and generally forming a severe rip or tide-bore during its pas- 
sage ; this, with the set of the Bering Sea tide, tends to form an occasional 
westerly drift or set, north of the islands. The northerly branch of the 



43 

Kuro Siwo passes far to the westward of the westernmost island, and 
between it and the warm current a broad strip of water, with a temperature 
of 35° Fahrenheit, intervenes. This is strikingly evident in the fauna of 
shoal water about Attn, where Arctic forms prevail almost exclusively. The 
strait between Kamchatka and the Commander's Islands is, at its narrowest 
part, one hundred and twenty nautical miles wide ; and, between them and 
Attn, it is two hundred and twenty miles wide. Between the Commander's 
Islands and the end* of the Aleutian chain is a great gulf of four thousand 
fathoms in depth, cutting off the fauna of Asia from that of America, except 
such portion as has spread from the Arctic along the shores southward 
on both sides of Bering Sea. I have been thus explicit in stating the 
physical features of the region, because they have a very important bear- 
ing on the subject of migration, and are usually wholly ignored in ethno- 
logical papers which treat of that topic. 

Shell-heaps are found on nearly all the islands of the Aleutian group. 
They are most abundant and extensive in the islands east of Unalashka, 
and on the few islands from Amchitka eastward, which are less high and 
rugged than the others; or on those where the greater amount of level land 
is to be found. The two necessaries for a settlement appear to have been 
a stream of water, or a spring, and a place where canoes coul^ land with 
safety in rough weather. Where these are both wanting, shell-heaps are 
never found, and rarely when either is absent. The favorite spots appear 
to have been on narrow necks of land, across which an easy portage could 
be made from one body of water to another. Safety from hostile attacks 
also governed the selection of village-sites, and hence the mouths of streams 
abounding with salmon, but offering no protection, were seldom made a 
place of settlement. The earliest inhabitants, however, appear to have 
been less particular in this respect than their more modem successors. 

On the islands west of Amchitka, shell-heaps are less abundant, the 
shores being less fully provided with food and drift-wood, and less acces- 
sible for canoes. 

We observed shell-heaps in the following localities: 

Attn Island. — 1. At the head of Chichagoff Harbor, east of the present 
village ; extent about tlu-ee acres and a half; the shell-heaps covered with 



44 

an ancient village-site of subsequent occupation. 2. On the western sliores 
of Saranna Bay. We were informed of similar deposits on Massacre Bay, 
and two other localities on the western and southern shores of Attn. 

Agattu Island. — ^We were informed that some old village-sites exist on 
this island, which was inhabited at the time of its discovery. 

Kyska Island. — On the south shore of Kyska Harbor, near a small 
portage, is a rather modem shell-heap. A modern village-site exists at the 
west end of the harbor, and one, quite extensive, on the bay on the west 
side of the island, opposite the harbor. 

Little Kyska Island. — ^Afforded no evidences of shell-heaps. 

Anichitka Island. — ^A flat and low island abounding with birds. Shell- 
heaps excessively abundant wherever a convenient cove presented a good 
site. A large settlement at the head of Constantino Harbor; another, 
smaller and apparently more modem, on the eastern shore of the harbor. 
Numerous large village-sites on the north shores of the island, west to 
Kiriloff settlement, the latter being quite modem, and abandoned in 1849. 
On the south shore, very extensive evidences of settlement, and a large 
resident population. 

Adakh Island. — Near the Bay of Islands were several small village- 
sites on shell-heaps, and this island is said at one time to have been very 
populous. 

Atka Island. — At Nazan Bay, only comparatively modem burial-places, 
rock-shelters, and a village-site were noticed. On Korovin Bay, there are 
several village-sites, but no old shell-heaps were seen. 

Amlia Island. — Said to have numerous old village-sites. 

Islands of the Four Craters. — Were in comparatively modem times 
occupied by a considerable population, especially on Kagamil, but no shell- 
heaps are reported, and the former activity of the volcanoes, not yet quiet, 
would hardly have invited early settlement 

Umnak Island. — Extensive evidences of early settlements and numerous 
village-sites reported. 

Unalashka Island. — On this and the adjoining islets, on every practi- 
cable site, shell-heaps or village-sites are to be found, with numerous more 



45 

modem rock-shelters utilized for burial-places. There are nine village- 
sites on Captain's Bay alone. 

Chika Rocks J Akutan Pass. — Here are remains of a small, but populous, 
settlement, but no shell-heaps. 

On the islands to the eastward of Unalashlta these remains are so 
numerous as not to be practicable to enumerate, except such as we actually 
visited or have been specially reported to us, namely : Sannakh Islands, 
village-sites very numerous; False Pass, two localities for village-sites; Port 
Moller, Aliaska Peninsula, shell-heaps extending over twenty acres, village- 
sites much less extensive. Unga Island, at Delaroff Harbor; Korovin 
Island, Nagai Island and Simeonoif Island, among the Shumagins. Chiachi 
Islands; Chignik Bay, Aliaska Peninsula, extensive village-sites; Chirikoff 
Island; and so on to Kadiak Island and Cook's Inlet. 

The population of the islands was estimated at fifty thousand by 
Shelikoff, and, in view of the evidences of habitation, the estimate could 
not have been excessive at one time, though perhaps too great at the time 
he visited the islands. The present population is about two thousand. 

The village-sites or shell-heaps are indicated, as far as liie eye can 
distinguish vegetation, by their brilliant green covering of herbage, which 
is only dimmed when covered by snow, and even in the height of spring is 
brighter and more verdant than the adjoining slopes. 

This is the result of the fact that the shell-heaps are great mounds of 
the most fertile material, which thousands of years would not suffice to 
exhaust by the ordinary di'aughts of nature. Bones, shells, jvnd all varieties 
of rejectamenta having been deposited here for centuries, the covering of 
soil which has accumulated over them is incomparably rich, and it has even 
been suggested that the solid beds of compacted fish-bones, which are to be 
found in some localities, might be quarried and exported as a fertilizer. 

Nothing is to be got from these deposits without extensive excavation 
and patient search. 

Our usual method in investigating these accumulations was as follows : 
The shell-heaps, especially those surmounted by village-sites, usually pre- 
sent an undulating appearance, which from some neighboring elevation is 
at once seen to result from the following cause : The method of house- 



46 

building in vogue among the ancient inhabitants was to excavate sh'ghtly, 
to build a wall of flat stones or of bones of the larger whales, and bank this 
up on the outside with turf and stones. In these ancient houses, there was 
usually a door at one side, as in most Innuit houses, and as many of the 
Aleuts practice even now. The enormous yourts, entered only by a hole 
in the top and accommodating a number of families, were of more modem 
invention, and are rarely found among the ruined villages. From throwing 
out debriSj and the gradual accumulation of material in the course of years, 
the house being more or less resodded every autumn, the outside embank- 
ment in the course of time became elevated from four to six feet above the 
level of the floor. The roof was formed of whales' ribs in default of wood, 
covered with wisps of hay tied together and laid on grass-mats across the 
rafters ; and all this was turfed over. Hence, when the house was aban- 
doned the straw and mats decayed, the earth and finally the rafters fell 
in (the latter being often removed to use in some new house), the rain and 
storms diminished the angles of the embankment, and, finally, the only 
evidence remaining would be a roundly rectangular pit, with steep sides, 
somewhat raised above the surface of the external soil. This might endure 
for generations without any practical alteration, as the stone walls within 
would prevent caving in at the sides, and the fiUing-up of the pit by the 
accumulation and decay of subaerial deposits would progress very slowly. 
As the ancient Aleuts built their houses as close together as possible, the 
surface which is. left by the disappearance of the structures above described 
is irregularly pitted all over with depressions from four to six feet in depth, 
and varying from ten feet square to dimensions of forty by twenty feet, or 
even much larger. There is usually, on the highest point of the bank or 
knoll where the village stood, a pit much larger than the others, which was 
probably the workshop or kashimf of the settlement Around this we usually 
found tools and implements more abundantly than about the smaller pits 
or remains of houses. We also found that the floors of the pits hardly 
afforded anything until we reached the strata of the shell-heap upon wliich 
the houses had been erected; while the outer embankment, containing 
everything which had been thrown away, was correspondingly rich. 

We therefore adopted two methods of procedure. When stormy 



47 

weather prevented surveying work, we would muster six or eight men with 
picks and shovels, clad in storm-proof rubber-coats, boots, and sou'westers, 
and attack a shell-heap. Having, if possible, detected the kashim, one party- 
would enter the pit which represented it, and dig away the embankments 
from the inside, having first cleared away the superficial covering of vege- 
table mold, often a foot deep, and the rank herbage upon it This gave 
them a good "face" to work on, and was the easier part of the work. The 
others would start near the edge of the shell-heap, if possible taking a steep 
bank bordering on the sea or on some adjacent rivulet, and run a ditch into 
the deposit, going down until the primeval clay or stony soil was reached, 
and this was steadily pushed, even when quite barren of results in the shape 
of implements, until the day's work was done. This latter gave us a clear 
idea of the formation and constitution of the shell-heaps ; enabled me to 
distinguish between the different strata and their contents; to make the 
observations repeatedly; to fully confirm them by experience in many 
localities; and thus to lay the foundation for the generalizations suggested 
in this paper. While this work was barren in "finds" compared with the 
excavations in the superior and more modem accumulations, implements and 
utensils were by no means entirely wanting; on the contrary, several hun- 
dreds were collected in the period from 1871 to 1874, though I do not doubt 
that we moved half a ton of debris for every specimen found. Thirty 
specimens from all sources we considered a good day's work, though we 
frequently obtained a larger number and often fewer. We excavated in this 
manner in Attn, Amchitka, Adakh, Atka, many localities in Unalaslika, 
Amaknak Island, and the Shumagins, and made casual examinations or slight 
excavations in numerous other localities. 

In order to give a clearer idea of the arrangements of the village-sites, 
I subjoin a sketch, not representing with exactness any special site, but 
not dissimilar to one examined at Constantino Harbor, Amchitka. This 
represents the outlines of the houses as more distinct than they are in reality. 
The village had been built at the top of a steep bank, overlooking the broad 
sandy beach of the harbor, and a small stream divided the base of the bank 
from a marsh to the north of it. 

The absence of any differentiation into stone, iron, and bronze ages in 



48 




the archaeology of America is well known, ae is the fact that the conditions 
of the Btone age and the most advanced civilization exist simultaneously 
■^ in the social state of living inhabitants of 
the North American continent in dififerent 
.."^^^ regions. Hence it follows, in our archeology 
as well as in our paleontology, that we must 
break away from received ideas and nomen- 
clature, which fulfill their pm-pose in accel- 
erating the study of the successive epochs 
in Europe, but which, when applied to the 
diflTering conditions of America, to a ceriain 
extent at least, fetter and confuse. Even 
in America, the conditions are by no means 
BO uniform as to authorize a single system 
K^kwhim" aMtch. of nomenclature in archjeology. For intel- 

ligent study we must separate at least three regions, the Mississippi Valley, 
the Pacific Slope, and the Mexican Region, and perhaps to these should bo 
added an Atlantic Region, extending from the Chesapeake to Labrador. 

The generalizations in this paper, however, cannot claim even so 
extended a range as might be implied by one of these regions. They refer 
only to the past conditions of life, as the facts in evidence show to have 
existed in the Aleutian Islands and the immediately adjacent shores of the 
continent It is probable that the insulated condition and the naiTow range 
of subsistence within which the ancient islanders were confined had much 
to do with the sharpness of the contrast between the successive stages which 
the strata of the shell-heaps reveal. 

From the observations and collections about to be enumerated, it appears 
to me probable that the following generalizations are well founded : 

I. That the islands were populated at a very distant period. 

II. That the population entered the chain from the eastward. 

III. That they were, when they first settled on the islands, in a veiy 
different condition from that in which they were found by the first civilized 
travelers. 



49 

IV. That it is possible that the later population was partly a distinct 
wave of emigration from the first; that is, that the emigration did not take 
place gradually and with a steady progress, but that a later influx may have 
taken place, of people who (while related to the firstcomers) may have 
had some opportunities for development in manners and arts while tempora- 
rily resident on the adjacent continent, while at the same time the firstcomera 
had been developing under different and more restricted conditions on the 
islands. 

V. That the people who first populated the islands were more similar 
to the lowest grades of Innuit (so-called Eskimo) than to the Aleuts of the 
historic period; and that wliile the development of the other Innuit went 
on in the direction in which they first started, that of the Aleuts was 
differentiated and changed by the limitations of their environment. 

VI. That a gradual progression from the low Innuit stage to the 
present Aleut condition, without serious interruption, is plainly indicated 
by the succesision of the materials of, and utensils in, the shell-heaps ot 
the islands. 

VII. That the difficulties by which they were surrounded and the 
necessity of coping with natural limitations, by which the continental 
Innuit were not restricted, led to a more rapid and a greater intellectual 
development on the part of the Aleuts in certain directions; and that this 
progress is shown, among other ways, in the greater development of the 
possibilities of their language, in its more perfect grammatical structure, 
and in a much more thorough system of numeration, as compared with 
that of the continental Innuit. 

VIII. That the stratification of the shell-heaps shows a tolerably 
uniform division into three stages, characterized by the food which fonned 
their staple of subsistence and by the weapons for obtaining, and utensils 
for preparing this food, as found in the separate strata; these stages being — 

I. The Littoral Period, represented by the Echinus Layer. 
II. The Fishing Period, represented by the Fishbone Layer. 
III. The Hunting Period, represented by the Mammalian Layer. 

IX. That these strata correspond approximately to actual stages in 
the development of the population which formed them; so that their 




I ■ ■•«- 



50 

contents may appropriately, within limits, be taken as indicative of the 
condition of that population at the times when the respective strata were 
being deposited. 

To make clear the succession 

of the strata in the shell-heaps, 1 

subjoin an ideal section of one of 

them, with one of the house-pits 

Bri\____ -.,.-rs.^^_^--^..-^.trT .^..^-J! ^ of a subsequent village surmount- 

SedianofsMUl^eap. ^°& ^*5 ^^^ «^^*^^^ «^^^^& ^^^^ 

A. Original hardpan. stouc-walls of the latter Still iu 

c.' Fid!Ze k^r. place beneath the covering of 

D. Mammalian layer. iii ij jjv'i.* 

E. Modem deposit, and vegetable mold. Vegetable mold and dehrts. 

A.— THE LITTORAL PERIOD. 

In most of our excavations, especially in Attu, Amchitka, and Adakh, 
we found the first stratum of the shell-heaps, above the primeval soil or 
hardpan, to be composed almost exclusively of the broken test and spines 
of Uchintis {Strongylocentrotus) BrobacMensis^ (Mull.) Agassiz, recently 
described by E. Perrier under the name of Loxechinus violacetis. This 
is at present the common and only species of the family found living 
in the Aleutians. With it were found sparingly the shells of the following 
edible moUusks, all found living in the adjacent waters at the present time: 

Modiola vulgariSj Fleming. 

Mytilus edulis, Lin. 

Purpura lima^ Martyn. 

Purpura decemcostata^ Mid. 

Litorina sitkanaj Phil., and vars. 

Topes staminettj Conr. 

Saxidomus squalidus, Desh. 

Macoma nasuta^ Conr. 

Acmcea patina and A.peltaj Esch. 

The list is given in the order of the frequency of their occurrence, but 
they do not form altogether more than one-tenth of one per centum of the 



51 

stratum. Bones of all vertebrates, except very nirely tliose of fish, seemed 
totally absent in tins stratum. 

Shells were not sufficiently abundant to modify the appearance of the 
layer, which was totally free from any admixture of earth or extraneous 
matter, and presented the aspect, until closely examined, of fine, pxu-e, uni- 
form, greenish-white sand. This bed varied in thickness from a total of two 
feet to three feet in a vertical direction. The deposit extended everywhere 
underneath the shell-heaps, covering an area of three acres and a half at 
Attu, about four and three-quarters acres at one of the Amchitka vil- 
lages, and at Adakh half an acre or more, by measurement. Traces of it 
were found in all the shell-heaps examined, though its depth and extent 
were less fully determined at other points than those above mentioned. 

The echinus, though possessing no edible tissues of its own, is furnished 
with ovaries on the inner side of the dome of the test, radiating firom the 
center. These, when in full condition, which occurs in some individuals at 
all seasons of the year, offer two or three tablespoonfuls of really palatable 
minute eggs, tasting like an oyster, and of a bright-yellow color. It would 
require forty or fifty adult individuals to afford a good meal for a man. 
They are eaten to this day in a raw state by the Aleuts. We may arrive at 
some slight idea of the length of time it must have taken to have formed 
such enormous deposits of this material, by a simple calculation. It is not 
at all likely that a community of natives could constantly obtain a sufficient 
supply of this kind of food at any one locality for any great length of time 
continuously. It is probable that they migrated from place to place within 
a certain area, subsisting at one place until the supply became short, and 
then going to another, and so on until the original locality had become 
restocked, which might readily occur, such is the abundance of this animal, 
in two or three months. It is also probable that at some seasons other kinds 
of food might be resorted to, such as birds' eggs in the spring, &c. We 
may suppose that one locality might supply them with echini for three 
months of the year, at different periods during the year. It is probable, 
also, that at that time, with the limited amount of food to be obtained, the 
communities would be small, probably not exceeding twenty persons each 
on the average. 



52 

Upon these theoretical considerations as a basis, we may proceed to 
make a calculation.* Taking the least thickness of the beds at two feet, 
which I consider a fair average for the ordinary shell-heaps, the amount 
required to cover an acre two feet deep would be 87,120 cubic feet, using 
the United States statute acre (= 43,560 square feet) as a basis. Admitting 
that each person consumed one hundred echini per day, a community of 
twenty persons would consume two thousand per day, or, in three months, 
184,000 echini. Having taken an echinus of the largest size, dried, and 
reduced it to coarse grains, such as those of the layer in question, I find 
that it occupies a cubical capacity of one and three-quarters cubic inches. 
The specimen was unusually large, not one in fifty, as seen on the shores, 
attaining its size. Furthermore, it was not practicable for me, without 
reducing it to dust, to make the dry fragments as compact as they are in the 
Ecliinus layer; so, if there be any error in this pail; of the calculation, it 
will be on the side of prudence. At this rate, it would take 988 echini to 
make one cubic foot of the layer, and for the sake of convenience, it not 
being likely that an estimate of 1,000 to the cubic foot will be excessive, I 
shall adopt that number. This would give over eighty-seven millions of 
echini to a stratum two feet deep and covering an acre. Under the circum- 
stances previously assumed, this would be formed by a community of twenty 
persons visiting one locality for three months in each year and eating one 
hundred echini four inches in diameter per diem per head in a little more 
than four hundred and seventy-three years. 

To form a deposit like that at Amchitka under the same cu'cumstances 
would require over twenty-two hundred years. 

It would matter practically little whether one hundred largo echini or 
eight hundred of half the diameter were eaten, the contents, either of nutri- 
ment or of solid material, in each case being about the same. Tlie individuals 
not containing ova are rarely found except at a depth of several fathoms. 
They seem to enter the shallower water when gravid and to retire to the 
deeper water after discharging their eggs. This has probably some connec- 

* I must disavow any intention of proving anything absolately by this calculation. It is merely 
intended to giro a clearer idea than coald otherwise be conveyed of the length of time which would be 
occupied in forming such a deposit under circumstances not in themselves improbable, and which may 
not materially differ from those under which the particular deposit mentioned was actually formed. 



53 

tiou witli the mode of fecundation. Hence the tests of barren echini would 
not form an important factor in the accumulation of delris. Judging by the 
abundance of echini, as they exist to-day, it is not probable that more than 
twenty people could find sustenance from that source at any one place, noi 
at that place for more than a quarter of a year, and then only at intervals 
The size of the specimen I selected was four inches in diameter ; the average 
size will not exceed two and a half inches. Then birds' eggs, occasional 
stranded seals and whales (whose bones would be left on the beach and 
finally washed away or destroyed), young birds, and the vaiious edible 
orchidaceous roots, the Fritillaria root, and that of the ArcJiangelicay — ^all these 
would be consumed and leave no trace. The various moUusks, apparently 
scarce at that period, would leave a much smaller cubical waste material in 
proportion to the nutriment they afforded than the echini. Indeed, of the 
Modiola and MytiluSj hardly anything but the horny epidermis remains in 
these beds, and these ai*e the most nutritious and abundant moUusks of the 
region. I account for the absolute absence of bones of any kind, except 
those of fish, from the Echinus layer, by some superstition like that which 
necessary economy has forced upon the minds of the present Innuit of 
Norton Sound. These people, believing tliat the guai'dian spirits of the 
beluga and salmon will be angry if any parf of their gifts is wasted, carefully 
preserve all the bones in a store-house, and at times take the accumulation 
of years away and secrete it in some secure place where the dogs and wild 
animals cannot reach it The Indians have a similar notion on the Yukon. 
It would seem impossible to doubt that dead carcasses at least of some sea- 
animals must have been obtained and utilized for food by the littoral people, 
and their bones may have been similarly treated. Food from all of these 
sources would have diminished the increase in depth of the Echinus layer in 
proportion to the amount of nutriment they afforded, and the time represented 
by it would be thus increased. On the whole, I am disposed to assign a 
time of not less than one thousand years for the accumulation of this stratum. 
When we reflect how long the savages of Tierra del Fuego, living in a very 
similar climate and in a not dissimilar manner, have been known to exist 
without any perceptible change in their mode of life, this does not seem an 
excessive estimate. That these savages were anthropophagi I do not doubt, 
though there are no evidences of it in the shell-heaps. 



J 



54 

No human remains distinctly referable to this period have been dis- 
covered by us. Their mode of disposing of their dead remains in doubt. 
It is not impossible that they exposed them on the surface. Their houses, 
if they had any, must have been temporary structures of drift-wood, straw, 
and mats ; at all events, they have utterly disappeared and left no sign. 
The littoral settlements aj)pear to have almost always been situated upon 
some bank or hillock near the beach, but beyond the reach of storms or 
the highest tides. There are no evidences of any changes of the level of the 
land since the stratum was formed. The western islands, where it is most 
strongly marked, are metamorphic, not volcanic or eniptive like many of 
the more eastern islands. 

We find in the Echinus layer no evidences of fire in the shape of char- 
coal (one of the most indestructible of substances when buried) ; and we 
know that the Aleuts of the historic period were accustomed to eat fish 
and most of their other food raw. Indeed, such is, and probably always has 
been, the scarcity of drift-wood on the western islands and its value for 
other purposes, that little of it has ever been used for making fires. No 
lamps have been found in the Echinus layer, nor any baking-stones or 
hearthstones, so we may reasonably conclude that these ancient people 
were not in tlie habit of using fire for domestic purposes, even if they were 
acquainted with its use. The climate, though inclement from a Caucasian 
point of view, is no more so than that of Magellan Strait, where the natives 
still go nearly naked. The total absence of awls, bodkins, knives, needles, 
or buttons, in fact of any bone utensil whatever which might be used in 
making clothes, and of any bone or stone implements for dressing skins, 
leads to the conclusion that these people did not wear much clothing ; and 
what they might have worn was probably of a very simple character, such 
as a rude mantle of skin, softened by rubbing between the hands or with 
an ordinary pebble from the beach, like that of the Fuegians. It is not 
unlikely that they might have made some coarse fabric of straw or grass 
which would require no implements to sew, and would, if cast ofi^, decay 
and leave no trace. 

No weapons of any kind were found in the tons of this pulverized 
Echinus-shell which we examined. There is no evidence that they were 



55 

acquainted with the use of the hand-lance or spear, though they may have 
had sHngs and weapons resembling a "slung-shot". How low in the scale 
of humanity must these creatures have been who were content to pick up 
sea-eggs for a living! 

It may be asked, What is found in this layer to distinguish it from an 
accumulated wash fi-om the sea? I may answer as follows: It must be 
noted that the Echinus layer always occurs under later deposits full of 
implements, and unmistakably human in their origin. It asually is situ- 
ated on some small knoll or other natural elevation of fhe original soil. It 
extends usually over a less area than the subsequent shell-heaps, and is 
thickest where they are thickest, i. e., in the most central portion of the 
remains of the settlement. These facts appear to prove conclusively that 
no other agencies than those referred to above could Iiave been concerned 
in the formation of this layer, even if implements had been entirely absent 
But we do find hammer-stones, round pebbles from the beach with an in- 
dentation formed on either side for the finger and thumb, and bruises on the 
periphery, where the ancient had cracked his sea-eggs and shell-fish. We 
find heavy sea-shells broken, evidently for extracting 
t!»e animal; and toward the top of the layer we begin 
to find net-sinkers of very rude patterns. These, how- 
ever, occur only near the uppermost surface, where the 
Echinus layer joins the stratum which I have termed | 
the Fishbone layer. 

And now we mark a sudden, sharp, and extraordi- 
nary change in the whole chai-acter of the deposit. We ' 
have seen that a people have existed here, which, so far 
as disco very of vestiges or relics informs us, were without J 
houses, clothing, fire, lamps, ornaments, weapons (unless ' 
of the most primitive kind), implements of the chase, for fishing, or even 
for cooking what they might have found upon the shore. If any of these 
things were possessed by them, they must have been formed of such rude 
or perishable material as to have entirely passed away. It would appear 

• The turner nuuibPW rt-fcr to tlio uniiilwr of the epvcimun iu the Elhrologicri Catalogue of Ihe United 
Srnten Nntional Miiscnui, the emkller niimber to my own field-cntnlogue, and the fractioDH to tbe ruUtivo 
linear size of tbe figure to tbe apMlmoD. 




5ii 

that tbey must have had rafts or rude canoes of some kind, but no trace of 
tliem is left. On the whole, it is eminently probable that they were sunk 
in tlie lowest depths of barbarism. Are we to ascribe the sudden change 
in their food, and tlie sudden inci-ease in the kind and number of impl6- 
ments found in the deposit, to the stimulating example of some genius who 
had invented a seine, or is it to a new incursion of people who bad devel- 
oped in a less restricted field the ingenuity which led to tlie invention and 
manufacture of new and varied implements'? Probability would seem to 
point to the latter explanation. 

B.— THE FISHING PERIOD. 

On the uppermost surface of tlie Echinus layer are found a few rude 
net-sinkers, indicating that to the primitive hand-nets or scoop-nets, with 
which the echinus-eatei's might have secured their food, had been added 
the larger, more elaborate, and more effective seine. 




Kd. 13C0T.— Knite d 
'IsblnDa U.ver, AniiikDak CaTO.AmaliDi 
Juidaalika. | linear. 




While the rude character of the early sinkei's, and tlie better-formed 
and more carefully-finished character of modem ones, would be evidence 
of progress in one direction, yet it must be noted tliat rude sinkers occur in 
all, even the most modern, deposits. Yet the fact that all the more ancient 
ones are rudely fashioned, and it is only among the modem ones that 
we find any attempt at finish or Kynimetry, indicates tliat there was a 
progression, even if this was not attested in other ways. 



57 

It may be remarked also that the use of the seine would tend to knit 
the interests of the community together, as individuals could use hand-nets 
or gather echini, but the united labor of several would be required not only 
to*use, but to make, the seine. Better material than the twisted grass, which 
might serve for hand-nets, would also be required to make a seine efficient 
If this were supplied by sinew or raw-hide line, it would require the culti- 
vation of a new industry to utilize the raw material. The sinew from 
stranded whales was the probable source of supply. 

Whatever might have been the cause of the change, it is a fact that 
we find immediately surmounting the Echinus layer, in all cases, a bed 
composed of fish-bones, intennixed with moUuscan shells, and rarely the 
bones of birds. Traces of Echinus test or spines may be occasionally seen, 
but these and the other materials mentioned form so small a proportion of 
the whole mass that to casual inspection it presents the appearance of a 
solid bed of fish-bones compacted and forced together by time, the ti'ead of 
those ancient feet, and the weight of the accunmlations above. Here, 
as in the Echinus layer, we find a remarkable absence of earth, decayed 
vegetable material, or carbonized wood. The bones are clean and free from 
detritus. Had the people built houses, at least like those of the modern 
Aleuts, depressions in the strata of fish-bones, masses of earth from their 
turfy walls, or stones, would somewhere present themselves. There is 
no doubt that the fish were eaten raw, as that has been the custom until 
very recently among the historic Aleuts, and has not entirely died out to 
this day. But had fire been commonly used, we should anticipate some 
remains of charcoal in the deposits, or lamps, if fish-oil had been their fuel. 
These, however, have not occurred in all our researches. It is probable 
that these people lived in temporary huts of mats or skins, retiring and 
rising with the sun. 

The fish-bones composing the layer are those of species still commonly 
found in that region. They are chiefly the bones of the head and vertebrae 
of two kinds of salmon (hoikoh' of the Russians, and another, Salmo sp.), 
.<and similar parts of the cod {Gadtis macrocephaluSj Tilesius), the halibut 
(Ilippoglossm vulgaris f^ Cuvier), and several species of herring, sculpins, and 
floundera, which I cannot, at the date of writing, specifically identify. The 



58 



layer is so hard that a bar and pick-as are required to disintegrate it The 
beds vary in thickness, being in different places from one to three feet in 
depth, and at least two feet being about an average. This layer is well 
developed at Attn, Kyska, Amchitka, Adakh, most places examined on 
Amaknak Island, and in the various shell-heaps examined on the island of 
Unalasldia. To this period I refer also the lowest stratum excavated in a 
remarkable cave situated on Amaknak Island, Captain's Bay, Unalaahka. 
A short account of our excavations in tliis cave (which we entirely cleaned 
out in the seasons of 1872 and 1873) has been published in the Proceed- 
ings of the California Academy of Sciences, from which the subjoined 
section and topographical sketch have been reproduced. 

This cave is situated under a large isolated mass of porphyrite, wliich 
stands up like a low tower on a flat, 
composed of old shingle-beaches, raised 
a few feet above the present sea-level. 
This flat unites higher areas of Amaknak 
Island to the north and sonth. The 
Cave Rock stands close to the beach, 
and is probably a portion of an old reef, 
an obstruction to which is probably due 
the formation of the flat The rock is 
about twenty-five feet high from the 
level of the flat to its summit. Its sides 
are abrupt, and it is covered with grass 

S3 feet. 




Rfdnced biu-t of be ktcali y of (he citc abmiiiiK bo 
1o« IslbiTDi beiwcDD thotilghot perlkma of llie iilinil 
udtUi lud watb. 




Vriilcol HetlDDaf the Amskni 
irlboBoC of it A. upper Mmtom 
ntum of "lEltiAen roTnue", ihell 



le rack, llie beub wmlbireit d 
>et modeto depoilt. B, l*yer • 
iBjer). D, low™ ■tratom of 



(be flat lilbniui 
ogle or beach-wom 
ilo mold iri(b ikelel 



above. The greatest height of the cave inside is perhaps ten feet. The 




KUa na8),_SIODe bDir«, with biudfl Indicittcd by dotted line, edgs gnrnnd, 
•Dd hole fbi Iwhitijt chipped throneb i FUbhooe teyw, Amaksak Cave, An>ih> 
IMk Iibnd, C*pUlD'( Bay, Untlaabka, |. 




59 

entrance is not more than four feet in height from rock to rock, and is on the 
side opposite to the beach. It was originally walled up, and the upper border 
was, when first examined, only a foot or two above the level of the outside 
soil. We enlarged it by excavating to its full dimensions for convenience 
in working and to light the interior. Disregarding the order of excavation, 
it may be briefly stated that we found the floor of the cave to be an irreg- 
ular concave bed of soft porphyritic rock, covered first by a layer of 
organic mold, two feet in thickness in its greatest depth, and inclosing skel- 
etons and some stone implements. This layer I refer to the Fishing Period. 
Above this was a layer, six or eight inches tfhick, of kitchen refuse, indicat- 
ing that the cave had been used as a temporary camping-shelter by occa- 
sional hunting-parties, rather than as a dwelling-place. This layer, evidently 
of much later date, I refer to the early part of the Hunting Period. Above 
it was a layer of beacli-wom shingle, apparently deposited by water. Then 
cam^ another layer, from 18 to 20 inches thick, of fine organic mold, con- 
taining many implements and human remains, apparently referable to the 
period extending from the later part of the Hunting Period to the time 
immediately preceding the discovery of the islands by civilized people. 
Probably during this later period, while used as a burial-place, the roof of 
the cave had received a coat of red ochre or clayey ore of iron, and, per- 
haps to avoid desecration by the Russians, the door had been walled up 
with stones, in which condition it remained until a few years before the 
time of our investigations. The details of each layer will be mentioned 
under the period to which I have referred them. I will only remark hero 
that no evidences of civilized influence of any kind were discoverable in 
any of the articles found in the cave, and it imquestionably in its latest 
contents antedates the Russian occupation of the islands. 

The invention or introduction of the seine, judging by the remains 
found, worked a revolution in the economy of these savages. Fish, when 
ra^, is a substance which cannot be conveniently dismembered by teeth 
and nails The use of sharp chips of stone as knives, doubtless of great 
antiquity, was soon superseded by the introduction of much more artistic 
implements of rhomboid or semi-lunar form. These at first had merely the 
edges ground instead of chipped; but later the entire surface was ground 



(50 

Rmooth, and sometimes holes were deftly formed by chipping, in order that 
the lashing of the knife, to a wooden handle like that of a furrier's or chop- 
l)ing knife, might be made more secure. 

The finest-ground knives of the most artistic shapes do not, however, 
appear in this stratum, but above it 

The first rude and rough lance-heads, such as might be useful in secur- 
ing salmon in shallow water, now begin to appear ; and toward the upper 
surface of the fish-bone layer, bone .implements begin to be introduced. 
This application of an easily-obtained substance, namely, the bone and 
ivory of the sea-animals, which then frequented these shores in the greatest 
abundance, seems to have stimulated the aboriginal mind much as in later 
days the invention of the printing-press and telegraph have affected modem 
races. The first forms were notably rude and roughly shaped, as the stone 
tools with which they were made must have been of the most primitive 
character, and the art was a new one. Still these rude objects have their 
counterparts, of more artistic shape and smoother and more delicate finish, 
in the weapons of the continental Innuit of to-day. 

As may be seen by fig. 13,000, at the termination of the Fishing 

Period, the manufacture had already much progressed beyond the rude 
forms figured with it ; though this is indicated rather by the sharpness of 
the finish than by the shape. The latter is variable for different uses, 
though the form 13,000 does not appear in the stratum until long after the 
others. 

When the skin-canoe first came into use, or how the present indis- 
pensable and artistic bidarka was gradually elaborated from the fii'st crude 
conception of a boat, we have no means of knowing, as the materials of 
which the earlier canoes must have been composed are liable to decay. 
It is not improbable, however, that this improvement was coeval with the 
Fishing Period. The canoes of this epoch, however, were probably less 
highly ornamented and less perfect than those of the Hunting Period^ as 
we find none of the little ivory paddle-rests and other ornaments which are 
now in use, and which are not uncommon in the Mammalian layer. 

But, with the invention of the hand-lance of stone and the application 
of bone to the same use, a multitude of new wants and appliances sprang 




l'M€0 (1*25).— Kudo Htono hand-lance head 
from upper Fishbone layer, Cbichagoff Har- 
bor, Attn Inland, |. 




13000 (i:{'J).— Ii«ine linnddart bfud, lowciit Mamma* 
Han layer, Aniukiink Cave, Aiutknak Island, CapUiD*e 
Bay, Unaloshko, |. 




(897).— Bono lance-bead, npper Flabbone layer, shell-heapB, Unobiabka 
Island,!. 




13990 (423).— Bone hand-dart bead, npper 
Fishbone layer, Anmknak Cave. Amaknak 
Island, Optain'H Hay, Uunlonlika. J. 



61 

into being. The savage mind was awakened and stimulated by many new 
applications for their rude weapons or for the results of the chase. Unlike 
subsisting on echini, which cannot be kept for future use, but must be eaten 
the day they are secured, the possibility of laying up a store of dry fish 
would ease the gnawings of necessity, give time for mechanical work and 
invention, and would often preserve life, which must, under similar exigen- 
cies in the preceding epoch, have been lost by famine or sacrificed to 
avert the starvation of other individuals. A store of provisions necessitates 
a store-house, a protection against the ravens and the weather. Here we 
have the first intimations of that enforced progress which is the result of 
preceding progress, and which, in the present instance, may have been the 
compelling cause which finally led to the construction of permanent winter- 
dwellings and villages. But the absence of means for lighting such dwellings; 
drift-wood being too valuable and scarce to use for fires, and lamps not being 
invented, would retard the savages' progress in that direction. The boldest 
of them would hesitate to immure himself in unnecessary darkness, which 
his animism would not have failed to people with innumerable evil or mis- 
chievous spirits. At that time, and before the blubber of the sea-animals 
was utilized for oil, it would doubtless have seemed the extremest extrava- 
gance to devote to burning, the fish-oil which was their greatest luxury. 

The right of the strongest being then in all probability the only law, 
and their stores being a coveted prize, the necessity of watchfulness and 
self-defense or ready escape would tend to determine the savage against 
putting himself in an underground house, where he might be killed 
"like a rat in a hole" without hope of defense or escape, or in which ho 
might sleep undisturbed while his hard-earned stores — ^necessarily kept for 
dryness above ground — were carried off by a thief in the night Add to this 
the probability that it was only about this time that the opportunities for 
subsistence would have rendered it possible to congregate large communities 
in one locality for mutual protection, a work of time, slowly-growing confi- 
dence, and mutual trust, and it may readily be seen that the fishermen were 
only approaching the social state which made fixed villages possible* At 
the same time, the increasing means of subsistence with the improved methods 
of capture would obviate the cruel necessity of cannibalism, if it had pre- 



G2 

viously existed, and in the ceaseless straggle by which the northern barbai-ian 
wrests his sustenance from a niggardly environment, a sarplus store of food 
would give him now and then a breathing spell. This would render it 
possible for an occasional inventive or aesthetic idea to germinate and grow. 

The sharp line of definition between the Echinus layer and the Fish- 
bone layer, which suggested an incursion of fishermen upon the echino- 
phagi, is not paralleled in the line between this and the Mammalian stratum. 
The distinction is readily marked in an actual section of a shell-heap, but 
the uppermost portion of the Fishbone bed contains some mammalian 
bones, and' the Mammalian bed throughout, but particularly at its base, con- 
tains a fair proportion of fish-bones. In fact, the change is what we might 
expect in the progress of a race stimulated by new invention or application 
of means which placed new, valuable, and eagerly-accepted powers within 
their reach. 

- Unlike the previous stratum, the limitations of population and con- 
sumption, of demand and supply, are so vague that even the most lax 
hypothesis will not permit us to attempt any computation of the length of 
time which it might take to form a layer like the Fishbone layer. I believe 
it to have been nearly as long as the time requii'ed for the Echinus layer, 
but this is only an assumption. 

The earliest remains of man found in Alaska up to the date of writing 
I refer to this epoch. These are some crania found by us in the lowermost 
part of the Amaknak Cave, and a cranium obtained at Adakh near the 
anchorage in the Bay of Islands. 

These were deposited in a remarkable manner, precisely similar to that 
adopted and still practiced by most of the continental Innuit, but equally 
different from the modern Aleut fashion. 

•^ At the Amaknak Cave we foimd what at first appeared to be a wooden 
inclosure, but which proved to be made of the very much decayed supra- 
maxillary bones of some large cetacean. These were arranged so as to 
form a rude rectangular inclosure covered over with similar pieces of bone. 
This was somewhat less than four feet long, two wide, and eighteen inches 
deep. The bottom was formed of flat pieces of stone. Three such were 



63. 

found close together, covet^ed with and filled by an accumulation of fine 
vegetable and organic mold. In each was the remains of a skeleton in the 
last stages of decay. It had evidently been tied up in the Innuit fashion to 
get it into its narrow house ; but all the bones, with the exception of the 
skull, were reduced to a soft paste, or even entirely gone. At Adakh, a 
fancy prompted me to dig into a small knoll near the ancient shell-heap ; 
and here we found, in a precisely similar sarcophagus, the remains of a 
skeleton, of which also only the cranium retained sufficient consistency to 
admit of presei'vation. This inclosure, however, was filled with a dense 
peaty mass not reduced to mold, the result of centuries of sphagnous 
growth, which had reached a thickness of nearly two feet above the remains. 
When we reflect upon the well-known slowness of this kind of growth in 
these northern regions, attested by numerous Arctic travelers, the antiquity 
of the remains becomes evident A figure of this cranium is appended. 

In both localities, the skulls were much softened and partially deficient, 
requiring the greatest care to preserve them. One of the Amaknak skulls 
is now in the collection of the California Academy of Sciences, the others 
are in the United States Army Medical Museum at Washington. Dr. 
George A. Otis, U. S. A., curator of this invaluable collection, whose 
researches into this branch of ethnology are well known, has kindly fur- 
nished me with the measurements (made at the museum under his direction) 
of nearly all the crania collected by myself or by the parties under my 
charge from 1865 to 1874 inclusive. Tliese crania now form part of the 
Army Medical Museum, and comprise a much larger number of undoubted 
Aleut crania than exist altogether in all the other museums of the world. 
The table comprises measurements of crania dating from the earliest deposits 
affording such remains, as above, and successively down to those of natives 
who must have been living about one hundred and fifty years ago. For 
the use of the four figures of Aleut crania which are here given, I am also 
indebted to the liberality and courtesy of Dr. Otis. 

I have made use of some measurements of crania, from the northern 
part of Bering Sea, examined by the late lamented Jefl&ies Wyman, but 
which were by accidental circumstances (over which he had no control) 
erroneously named or taken to be what they were not. In his pamphlet 



64 



(Obs. on Crania, Boston, 1868), five crania are described as Tsuktslii, 
which are all Asiatic Eskimo; and of five from the ''Yukon River", only one 
(7530) is an Indian cranium, the others being Eskimo fi'om St. Michael's, 
Norton Sound. I have also used the means of Dr. E. Bessels's measure- 
ments of crania of Greenland Innuit, given in a paper (Einige Worte iiber 
die Innuit des Smith Sundes) in the Arch, f Anthropologic for 1875. In 
this paper of Dr. Bessels are also given measurements of some of the crania 
obtained by me in the Aleutian Islands. 

The following tables may throw some light on the subject discussed in 
the second part of this paper, while possessing a general interest for the 
craniologist: 







le of nhile'* Iwma, ind rafemd to tbe 



low.— Craoliim from the Bay or Iiluds, Adakh I>1«id,Alenliuii, Ibnnd In 
ir Flablng Period. 

1104, 1100.— Crania trem lock-afaeltei on an laland In Naian Bay, Alka Iiland, AleDttana, nfemd to tlw B 
4od. 

lOM.— Cranlnm af cliUd tnm roolc-abelMr, Stlaroff Harbor, Ungai i 



65 



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69 



The crania of Orarian tribes of Northwest America and Extern Siberia, 
when compared with those of Greenland, show a greater cubical capacity ; 
a head of about the same length, but proportionately much broader in its 
broadest part and with a broader forehead. The skull is also proportion- 
ately not so high. The coronal ridge, [typical to a certain extent of all 
Orarian crania, and from which it occurs tJbat the terms "roof-shaped" and 
" scapho-cephalous " have been applied to them,] which is very strongly 
marked in some Greenland skulls, is less apparent in the majority of the 
Northwestern Orarians, and the decrease in cranial capacity occurring from 
a diminution in this particular is made up for by a broadening of the 
cranium. 

The following table shows the facts alluded to. The number of cmnia 
from the Northwest affording the means used range from 36 to 42, being 
taken from the preceding tables, and compared with a series of means from 
99 to 101 Greenland skulls measured by Dr. Bessels. 



I..ocality. 


Capacity. 


Length. 


Breadth. 


Breadth of 
frontal. 


Height. 


Northwestern 

Greeulaud •. 


1401 
12S0 


176 
175 


144 

137 


Ill 
102 


130 
i:)6 



Among the northwestern people, the crania of the Aleuts collectively, 
compared with the Northwest American and East Siberian Innuit crania, 
show differences precisely similar to, but less in degree than, those which 
have been pointed out as distinguishing the northwestern people from the 
Greenlanders ; the Aleuts, as might be expected, showing the greater special- 
ization, while the continental people tend more toward the Greenland type. 



• 


Capacity. 


Length. 


Breadth. 


Brooilth of 
frautal. 


nelglit. 


Aloota 

• 

Innait 


1409 
iaP8 


17G 
177 


14d 
138 


iiQ 
103 


12G 
131 


• 



In obtaining these means, an average of twenty-five Aleut crania have 
been employed, and an average of fifteen of Asiatic and Northwestern 
American Innuit. 

The people of the Aleutian Islands were formerly divided into two 
principal groups or tribes according to some authorities on the subject. 



70 



namely, the Atkans and (Eastern or) Unalashkans. A compai-ison between 
about the same number of Aleut crania, from the east and from the west, 
shows the differences to be very tiiA^al, if, indeed, they are not such as would 
disappear entirely with the examination of larger numbers of specimens, or 
under mensuration by a different person. 



Eastern . 
Weetem 



Capacity. 


Length. 


Breadth. 


Breadth ot 
fi-ontal. 


H.eiRht. 


1434 
1400 


177 
176 


150 
149 


115 
115 


128 
131 



The crania supposed to belong to the era of Fishermen have not been 
included above. Indeed, they are so imperfect, for the most part, that it 
would be worse than rashness to attempt any generalizations upon them. 
Compared with the twenty-two more modern crania referred to the epoch of 
Hunters, they stand as follows: 





Capacity. 


Length. 


Breadth. 


Breadth of 
frontal. 


Height. 


Flohermen 


1390 
1418 


173 
176 


145 
148 


117 
115 


132 
130 


Hunters ; 





A slightly smaller capacity might have been expected of the ancient 
Fishermen, but it may not have existed, and, except for the few individuals 
concerned, the above comparison does not prove it. The other differences 
are of the most trivial description. 

The average facial angle among the Aleuts appears to have been 
about 72°. 

In this connection, I may ventm'e to remark that, while not a professed 
craniologist, I have had the opportunity of examining a very large number 
of aboriginal crania, and have become impressed* with the great range of 
variation which occurs in cases where no hybridity can be reasonably 
asserted. It has appeared to me that while certain features, hardly defina- 
ble, are to be recognized in crania from a single locality, yet when a com- 
prehensive series of crania of any race to the number of several hundred are 
examined, if the people be widely distributed in area, and subjected to vari- 
ous conditions of diet and surroundings, it will invariably be found that 
nearly all the so-called characteristic types of crania may be recognized, and 



71 

that from dollchocephaly to bracliycephaly a series of individual variations 
will be found closing up apparent gaps. I am far from denying that bra- 
chycephalic or dolichocephalic crania may be found to be characteristic of 
races restricted to a limited area or uniform conditions, but that craniology, 
any more than oology, is an exact science, seems yet to be proved. That 
a race can be identified by cranial characteristics, though often assumed, 
has never been satisfactorily estabHshed, and the practice of characterizing 
a people from the examination of half a dozen skulls, as has occasionally 
been done, seems little short of absurdity. I cannot refrain from suggest- 
ing that much of the apparent confusion in certain departments of American 
archaeology is likely to be cleared up when its full measure is allowed to the 
factor of individual variation. When such extremes in difference of form, 
for instance, as 199"" and 165"", with respective breadths of 137"" and 
144"", are on record among Eskimo crania, and by no means very excep- 
tional, a little hesitation in accepting world-wide theories, based on a few 
narrow or broad skulls of a given people, seems not unreasonable. 

C— THE HUNTING PERIOD. 

With the ability to kill, by means of bone weapons, and aided by some 
kind of skin canoes, not only fish from the shores, but sea-animals, and 
even birds, many new instruments were required. Many new wants and 
applications of material sprang into being. To utilize the results of the 
chase, many new contrivances were necessary. With this expansion in 
their powers, and this change in the habits of the aborigines, the stratum 
which I have termed the Mammalian layer began to be deposited. This 
was eminently an epoch of hunters. 

The Mammalian layer has been recognized wherever we have made 
excavations. It attains a varied thickness in different localities, due to 
differences in population and abundance or scarcity of the animals hunted. 
Many refuse or kitchen heaps were entirely deposited during this epoch. 
It is evident that the population, whose increase had begun during the last 
period, now that the means of sustenance were so greatly enlarged, might 
expand until the food supply and consumption were again in equilibrium. 



72 

That it did increase very largely, there is hai'dly any room to doubt. To 
show this, the increased number of shell-heaps of this period is suflScient 

They extend over all the islands, the Peninsula of Aliaska, and we 
have in the National Museum bone implements of pattern similar to those of 
the Mammalian layer, obtained near the mouth of the Stakhin or Stikine 
River. These last are dissimilar to Indian weapons, and the modem 
Indians of that region never use bone for arrow-points. I am tolerably 
well satisfied that the deposit whence these were obtained is also an Innuit 
shell-heap. Where we have made excavations we have found the Mamma- 
lian layer varying from two or three feet to eight or ten feet in thickness. 
The combined thickness of the shell-heaps (including the deposits of the 
Fishing and Hunting Periods), on Iliuliuk Spit, Unalashka, is about fifteen 
feet. The difference is chiefly due to the differences in population and 
length of occupation of the various localities. We have no means of esti- 
mating the length of time required to produce these accumulations, but we 
may obtain hints of it from the facts relating to the Amaknak Cave. Here 
we have the three skeletons deposited some time during the Fishing Period. 
These were then gradually covered by an accumulation of mold, resulting 
from the decay of vegetable matters and organic refuse, possibly brought 
in by foxes who might have had their nests in the cave, or partly from 
material which might have gradually worked its way in from the exterior 
by the aid of the weather. This would have been a very slow process, 
when we note that the cave is so protected by its contracted aperture that 
hardly anything could be earned in by the wind; the bottom not being 
below the natural surface of the outer soil, it would receive little or no 
wash from the flat outside. Considering the great antipathy, exhibited by 
the Innuit generally, to approaching a burial-place of this kind, to say 
nothing of camping on it, the covering of the remains bm-ied there must 
have been complete, and the original use forgotten, before the deposition of 
the next layer could have been commenced. The Cave Rock, as shown in 
the sketch, stiinds on a narrow isthmus, and, being a damp place, presents 
no qualifications for a dwelling. The layer C is composed of kitchen 
refuse, bones, broken arrow-heads, odds and ends of carvings half finished, 
&c., &c. It seems evident to me that it was made by occasional parties of 



73 

natives forced to seek shelter from storms until the surf subsided, so that 
they might launch their bidarkas from the stony beach beyond. The 
material, as a whole, is that of a temporary camp of traveling hunters 
rather than that of a dwelHng, and the cave is situated close to a frequently- 
used portage or cut-oflF. The six inches of debris from the repasts of occa- 
sional visitors (who unquestionably were men of the Hunting Period) must 
have accumulated very slowly. Then it would seem as if some tidal or 
earthquake wave was instrumental in forcing a layer (B) of heavy shingle- 
stones from the adjacent sea-beach into the cave. . After this had been 
accomplished, the use of the cave was again changed, and it became a 
second time a refuge for the dead. The upper layer (A) was exclusively 
composed of decayed organic matter, from which refuse was excluded, 
apparently only the bodies of the dead, and articles placed with them, 
contributing to its formation. This material is free from any taint of 
civilized influences, and, as I have previously mentioned, unquestionably 
antedates the advent of the Russians, The length of time taken to form 
the layer of eighteen or twenty inches of this mold cannot have been small. 
About the time of the Russian advent (in all probability) the mouth of the 
cave was walled up, perhaps to avoid its desecration by the bigoted Greek 
missionaries. In this condition it remained until 1870, or thereabouts, 
probably about a- century after its being closed. While estimates may 
diflfer largely as to the actual time occupied in all this, few will be inclined 
to dispute its being very considerable. If we allow a thousand years for 
the duration of the Littoral Period, or deposition of the Echinus layer (and 
I am disposed to do so), then I think that fifteen hundred or two thousand 
years is not an excessive estimate for the duration of the Fishing and 
Hunting Periods. It must be recollected that the proportion of the refuse 
to the food-supplying material in fish, and especially in mammals, is much 
less than in the case of the ecliini; consequently, the population being 
similar, the time required to form a layer of fish-bones or mammalian 
bones would be greater than that required to form an equally deep layer 
of echinus shells. But the population undoubtedly increased considerably, 
which would vitiate the proportion if it were not that the area of the shell- 
heaps also increased very greatly in the later epochs. On the whole, I am 



74 

inclined to think that three thousand years is a moderate estimate for the 
time required to form these mounds of refuse. 

The constitution of the Mammalian layer is, as would naturally be 
expected, much more heterogeneous than that of either stratum previously 
deposited. 

The contents, besides the remains of shells, fish, and occasionally of 
echini, which have been previously enumerated, are principally as follows : 

LOWEB MAMMALIAN LAYER. 

Bones of the following manmials : 

Callirhinus ursinm, fur-seal. 

Eumetopias Stellerij sea-lion. 

PhocGj or hair-seals, two species. 

Rosmarus ohesus^ walrus ; rarely in the eastern islands. 

Phoccena vomerina, puffing-pig. 

Orca ateTj the killer whale. 

MIDDLE MAMMALIAN LAYER. 

The above, and the following mammals and birds : 

Megaptera versabilisj the hump-backed whale. 

Diomedea brachyura, the mottled albatross. ' 

Mormon corniculutus, the horned puffin. 

Mormon drrhatus^ the tufted puffin. 

Vria sp., several of the divers. 

Phaleris sp., several of the smaller auks. 

Lagoptis albuSj the ptarmigan. 

Larus leucoptertis or glaucescens^ the larger gulls. 

Rissa tridactyla, the kittiwake. 

And bones of several species of eiders and other ducks. 

UPPER MAMMALIAN LAYER. 

All the preceding, and also the bones of — 
Bal<Bna Sieholdii, Pacific right whale. 
Bal€cna mysticetuSj bowhead or Polar whale. 





leoea.— Obaldlui d»t-hfail, upper MiiDDulliin 
Uy«n. ■tirll beapa. Fort MoUrr. AUnakn PcniD- 
.nl.,|. 



ISMS (ISD.-QiurUlts d*Tt- 
polQt for boDe huid-luoe, apper 
KnimnlUn lajer (A), Anikkoik 
Cave, Duklubka. \. 




^ 



1WI8 (139).— H«d of vbnUnK-lBDce. 4, '^'x upper UammftliMi 
layer (A>, Amaknak Care, TTnaJaabka, OrMn aUU, jtronnd aharp op 
botb edgea ; tba otbnr aids flaC 



75 

Bhachianectes glaucuSj the California gi^ay whale. 
Sibbaldius sulfureuSj the sulphur-bottom whale. 
Balcenoptera veliferUj the fin-back whale. 
Physeter macrocephaluSj the sperm whale. 
And various species of birds not identified. 

Also in the most eastern islands, and rarely even there, the following 
introduced species : 

Vulpes lagopuSj the Arctic fox (afterward introduced by the Russians 
into many other islands). 

Canis familiaris var. borealiSj the Eskimo dog. 

All these remains are largely mixed with organic matter in a perfect 
state of decay, such as would result from the decomposition of grass and 
other vegetable fibers, turf, drift-wood, and all the soft rejectamenta of a 
savage people. 

Remains of houses of the half-underground type, afterward so univer- 
sal, appear only in the middle stratum, showing that not until then had the 
population so multiplied and mutual confidence suflSciently matured, for the 
more ancient, temporary, above-ground houses to begin to be supplanted 
by more substantial and comfortable structures. 

With the new resources at their command, the invention of new forms 
of implements and entirely new tools greatly multiplied, rendering it nec- 
essary to attempt a sort of classification in considering them. 

WEAPONS. 

These were greatly improved, and forms multiplied, and were made 
oiten in more artistic fashion, with some attempts at ornamentation. They 
consist of hand-lance heads of stone, obsidian, and bone, or both combined. 
The later forms for seal-hunting had bone barbs and obsidian tips, combining 
thus sharpness for incision and toughness for retention. The later whale 
harpoons were always slate-tipped, the modem Aleuts ascribing some poison- 
ous quality to that stone, which they assert will invariably kill the whale in 
a few days, providing the slate-tip remains in the wound, even if the dart 
has penetrated but slightly. It would be impossible, without fig^ng 
hundi'eds of these weapons, to show the gradual progress in finish and 



76 

adaptations of form which, as a whole, characterizes the weapons of the 
successive portions of the shell-heaps. I have therefore contented myself 
with a selection of the more characteristic types. 

These seem to show not only a gi'adual progress, but a remarkable 
similarity in type of the earlier weapons of the Aleuts to the modem types 
in use among the Eskimo of the adjacent region. These Eskimo types ai-e 
very ancient and have been handed down, with some improvements but 
not much alteration of form, from a period probably contemporaneous with 
these Aleut weapons. The stone dart soon ran its course among the Aleuts, 
and became with them merely an appendage of the bone dart-head. This 
was owing to the lesser facilities which it aflFords for retention in a wound 
Avhen compared with the bone barbs. When bone was fii-st applied to this 
purpose, the weapons were of a most primitive character. No. 16083 exhibits 
one of these rude and clumsy forms. At first, all the weapons seemed to 
have been barbed on one side only, and this type persists to the present day; 
but points barbed on both sides were introduced at a very early stage, and 
also still persist, each type being in some respects better fitted for some 
special purpose. The bone points were first made to be permanently 
attached to the shaft of the dart. But an improvement was soon intro- 
duced, by which it was detached, but not lost, being still made fast to a 
cord attached to the shaft, when a wounded animal had worked it out of its 
socket This saved the shaft from breaking, an important consideration 
with the Aleuts, from the scarcity of wood suited to the purpose. But the 
oldest form still persisted, and is now in use among the Eskimo, but chiefly 
as children's toys for shooting at a mark or at small birds. Various modifi- 
cations of the type represented by No. 16079 were found in various paiis 
of the shell-heaps above the lower Mammalian layer, on the whole improv- 
ing much in finish as we pass to the specimens from the upper strata. None 
of them, however, earned this form to the perfection which has been reached 
by the modem Eskimo, a specimen of whose work is shown in No. 16413. 
When the double barbing was introduced, we have no means of deciding ; 
but none of our specimens are from a gi-eater depth than the middle Mamma- 
lian stratum. At first, the barbs of one side were longer than those of the 
other, and a tendency to this may be noted in most modem Eskimo dart- 





16413.— 31 odeni EakimnboDe durtheail, Cape Elelln, NaaiTali Inland. Bntng B<«.1. 
Intmlnceil to abow slinllarlty of (ypa n)iubln«l wlih artialle Aniah In the mndKra 
KiOiIbki mapon. 




13084 (3S7}.~Aleat bone dart-head, mlddlo Mnmiunlian layer, Naxan 
Bay, Atka Island, f . 




13083 (328). — Aleat boDe dart*bead, middle Maniiualian layer, 
Adakh Island, |. Thia cut ia eonraTed a little too anioothly to abow 
the roagbneaa of the original compared with tbo next figure. 




13083 a (388a).— Aleat bone dart-head, npi>er Mammalian layer, Adakh 
Island, |. 




15073.— Modem Eskimo dart-head, Coi>o Etolin, Nanivak Island, Bering Sea, 
|. Introdaced to show similarity of type with greater finish in the modem 
weapon. 




10063 a (897).— Aleut bone dart-head, to hold obsidian point, up- 
per Mammalian layer, Ulakbta Spit, Unalashka, }. 




lliKTi (459).— Ditto of later part of Hooting Period, boriol-place, Amaknak Island, Una- 
IsAhka, }. 




1568.— Modern Eskimo dart-bead, Cape Etolin. Nouivak Island, Bcriug Sea, 4. Intro- 
duced to show identity of type of tbe prehistoric Aleut weapon with the better finished 
modem one of the continental Innnlt. 



77 

points of the same type. But with the Aleuts the form soon became nearly 
symmetrical, as figured in 13023 and 13023 a. Some of these points from 
the middle and upper parts of this stratum are beautifully finished and sym- 
metrical. They are always thinner than the Eskimo weapon of the same 
type, and for this reason probably, were not weakened by a hole in the 
butt. If secured by a cord it was probably made fast to the haft just 
in advance of the butt. Again, however, as a general proposition, the 
modem Eskimo weapon of the same type is more cleanly and sharply finished, 
and always stouter and stronger. Instead of being flattened, like the Aleut 
weapon, it is carinated on each side, thereby much increasing its strength. 
The Eskimo weapons more generally have a conical haft, wliile the Aleuts 
made theirs more commonly with a wedge-shaped square haft. 

The final improvement in dart-points was made, as far as we can- 
judge, about the time of formation of the uppermost Mammalian strata, 
none of the examples occurring in the lower or middle layers. This 
was the pointing of the bone-dart with obsidian or stone. As compared 
with the rude implements of the Fishing Epoch previously figured, 
Nos. 16058 and 16062 show much better workmanship, and the final type 
to which the stone points gravitated is shown by No. 12995. Stone dart- 
points, except the small ones for bone hafts, are not abundant after the early 
part of the Hunting Epoch. The bone article served the purpose much 
better, and hence was universally used. Still we find occasional specimens 
of stone heads, even to nearly historic times. An unusual modification, 
oflFering many objections to its general use (and as a type, I believe, unique), 
was found in the uppermost stratum at Port MoUer, and is figured with the 
others (No. 16083 a). The final form of tlie stone-pointed bone dart is shown 
by figure 14937, while the Eskimo weapon of the same type is represented 
by 1568, below the first. The Eskimo have worked out the same type of 
weapon, finely finished, but their less restricted environment made its use 
less universal than it became among the Aleuts. A specimen of one of the 
slate whale-harpoon heads carefully ground is also figured (No. 14918). 
It came from the later deposits of this period. In the middle Mammalian 
layers at Ulakhta Spit, I was puzzled by certain round bone or ivory articles 
which I found. They were made of that part of the walrus tusk or sperm- 




78 

wlialo tooth whicli has a central hollow or core, which had been reamed out 

Some of the old Aleuts explained to me that these 
things were placed on the point of a dart when- 
practicing at a mark, in order that it might not 
13215 (263^-Bntton for dart, of sperm- become bluntcd. Tho anncxcd figuro shows one 

tr hale-tooth ivory, upper Mammalian 

layer. Constantino Harbor. Amchilka,|. of thcSC, which I found iu tho UppCnUOSt hiyCr at 

Amchitka, very nicely finished and much more artistic than the older speci- 
mens of Unalashka. 

IMPLEMENTS. 

Use relating to dress. 

With the ability to kill sea-animals affording skins for clothing, and the 
utilization of these skins, which we have some reason to think took place 
about the latter part of the Fishing Period, came the necessity for new 
implements to adapt the skins to their proposed use. Accordingly, in the 
lowest beds of the Mammalian period we begin to find, for the first time, 
various implements of this kind. The most common (as the least valuable 
and most likely to be lost or thrown away) are pumice-stone skin-di'essers 
or rubbers, of variable shape, but always with flattened sides and rounded 
edges, and usually longer than wide. These do not materially alter in ap- 
pearance in the diflPerent strata. The coarse grain of the pumice, which 
floats on the sea and may be found on most of the beaches, is admirably 
adapted for removing the remnants of flesh and tendinous matter fi-om a 
dry, raw skin. Then we find rude bone skin-dressers, more or less chisel- 
shaped, and hardly to be distinguished from the wedges hereafter to be 
described, except by not being hammered at the thicker end. These bone 
dressers, however, improved greatly in form and finish. One from the lower 
stratum is figured (16079) above, and another from the upper stratum 
(16088) is remarkable for the care with which it is finished and the excava- 
tion of one side clear to the tips of the horn-processes, which aflForded a 
secure grip to the prehistoric tanner. This implement is even better finished 
than most of the modem Eskimo tools of the same kind which have\ come 
under my notice. 

In addition to these implements, small, sharp stone scrapers, usually 
ground flat, and with chipped edges, are found throughout the Hunting 




IBO-8 (Wrt).— Dwr hom aim ilro.rr. np- 
pvT lliiiiininliau Ititr, IVirt UiiUi'i, Aliaaks 





(T59).— Bone ■klU'dreMcr, loircr Uanunallu Ujer. Fort UuUsr. Alluka PeuuNila, I. 






UCnSa ISHI) Upper HunmalUD layer, CmuUutiDS Hu-Iht, Amebltkk, f 



79 

Period. These were used for removing the remnants of flesh and muscle 
from the edges and corners of the skin in places not reached by the larger 
implements. To cut and sew the skin, when dressed, other implements 
were required. The knife figured under the Fishing Period had been by 
this time much improved in its general finish by being ground smooth over 
its entire surface, instead of merely at the cutting edge. No. 16054 shows 
a fine example of this type. These knives, of course, were used for many 
other purposes besides cutting the dressed skins; but for this they were 
better than scissors, not cutting the hair. Something similar is used by 
all furriers. For piercing the skin, in order to insert the thi'ead, an awl 
was used. This, from the earliest times, was preferably of the wing- 
bones of birds. They answered the purpose better than other bones on 
account of the hollow in them, and their harder texture, which made it 
easier to keep them sharp. The more modem awls are the better finished, 
but the general form is not changed from that of the primitive type. 
One is figured above from the lower, and one from the upper. Mammalian 
layer. With these things are found a great variety of whetstones 
of all shapes and sizes, on which the bone and stone tools were 
brought to a sharp edge. The thread was twisted, of whale-sinew, and 
attached by a little resin, fi-om the bark of pine or spruce drift-wood, to a 
bit of quill or bristle^ like a cobbler's '* waxed end", in lieu of a needle. In 
the remains of a woman's work-basket, found in the uppermost layer in the 
cave, were bits of this resin, evidently carefully treasured, with a little 
birch-bark case (the bark also derived from drift-logs), containing pieces 
of soft haematite, graphite, and blue carbonate of copper, with which the 
ancient seamstress ornamented her handiwork. There were also a multi- 
tude of little bone splinters, used as needles or awls. Among the modem 
Aleuts, the fibers of baleen were formerly made use of for a similar puipose. 
These things were once inclosed in a basket of woven grass, which had 
shared the fate of its owner, and passed away. I suppose that the birch- 
bark was also used by these natives as tinder, for which its resinous .prop- 
erties peculiarly adapt it. Up to the close of the Fishing Period, though 
it is incredible that they should not have been acquainted with the use of 
fire, yet there are no evidences of its having been used in any way. We 



80 

# 

may safely conclude that it did not come into general use until the absence 
of woody fuel was made up for by abundant supplies of oil and blubber 
from the slaughter of sea-animals. Not only must there have been an 
abundant supply for savage appetites, but there must have been an abun- 
dant surplus to induce them, habituated to cold and exposure, to use such 
valuable food as fuel. This had also an important bearing on the use of 
half-subterranean houses, where light would be needed a large part of the 
time in winter, and on the employment in mechanical and other labor of 
time which would otherwise have been devoted to sleep or idleness. This 
brings us to utensils of — 

Use in mechanic arts, (&c. 

The use of oil for lighting and cooking purposes necessitated a lamp 
of some kind. All the Innuit use a lamp of similar construction. It bears 
a slight resemblance to the ancient Greek lamp, being merely a saucer or 
dish of stone or clay, with a wick, usually of sphagnum, arranged along the 
edge. Some Innuit tribes have elaborated this conception, and form large 
semi-lunar dishes of steatite for this purpose. Most of the tribes, however, 
use a lamp entirely similar to that of the ancient Aleutian hunters, an oval 
or circular shallow dish of stone or baked clay. 

Clay suitable for pottery is exceedingly rare in the Aleutian Islands, 
and hence does not appear to have ever come into general use. No pre- 
historic pottery has ever been found there. Many of the continental Innuit, 
however, make rude pots and cups, as well as lamps, of burned clay. 
The annexed figures show a typical stone lamp from Unalashka, and a 
unique form from the upper beds. The latter was probably carved by some 
storm-bound hunter in his temporary shelter, as it was broken in several 
pieces when found, and had never been used. Fire other than in lamps 
was never used in their houses by the early Aleuts, and even in historic 
times the same is reported by the old voyagers, who say that when the 
natives were cold they folded their long robes about them, " built a fire of 
grass, and stood over it ". Small lamps a couple of inches in length are 
sometimes found, suggesting toys ; but these were carried in their kyaks by 
the natives, who used them to warm themselves in winter, or when chilled 



81 

by long contest with the icy-cold watera. They were lighted and held 
under their garments until the heated air, confined by the gut-shirt or kam- 
layka, had served its purpose. 

In the course of time, however, wood from the shores, when unsuited 
for other purposes, was used as fuel, the fires being made in the open air, on 
stone hearths, built for the purpose. Many of these hearth-stones were 
found by us bearing the marks of fire. They were preferably somewhat 
concave on the upper surface, but otherwise irregularly shaped. The natives 
also used the bones of cetaceans, spongy and full of oil, for fuel. They 
sometimes placed fish or meat between two concave stones, plastered the 
chinks with clay, and baked the whole in the fire until done. Much of their 
food, including algae, shell-fish, most true fish, the octopus or cuttlefish, and 
blubber, was eaten raw. The old men, to this day, ascribe the various com- 
plaints, which have afficted later generations, chiefly to the pernicious prac- 
tice of cooking food. Wood was prepared for various uses by splitting it 
with a maul and bone wedges. These latter articles are among the most 
common relics of the Mammalian layer. They are to be distinguished from 
skin-dressers of similar shape by their ruder outline and by being ham- 
mered at the broader end. A specimen is here figured, which had received 
much hard usage. They were usually cut from the jaws or ribs of whales. 
The cutting of the bone, from the marks left on fragments found in the 
shell-heaps, was usually done with a sharp-edged stone used as a saw or 
file, and very rarely with any other tool. There is hardly any stone on 
the islands, such as serpentine, fit for making celts or adzes. They were 
probably imported from the continental Innuit at great cost, and very 
highly valued. We know that small thin iron chisels, shaped like the native 
celt (which was always attached like an adze to a wooden knee or handle), 
were among the most profit able trading goods of the first discoverers. 
Fifteen and even twenty of the finest sea-otter skins were cheerfully paid 
for one. To the great value which they attached to them I refer the 
absence of these implements from the shell -heaps. Not one was found 
in all our excavations. And in only one case, that of a comparatively 
modem, though prehistoric burial-place, has an adze or celt been found 
in the Aleutian Islands. This is one of the ethnological peculiarities of the 

G 



82 

region. The fact that among the thousands of implements, weapons, &c., 
that we have collected in this region, there should be but one celt, shows 
their extreme rarity and the high value probably placed on them. This 
solitary specimen is here figured, No., 13034. There are also no axes, 
grooved or otherwise, hammers, gouges, or hollow chisels, found in this 
region. 

The intertribal traffic I have referred to is universal among the Innuit. 
Among other articles which were found in a prehistoric burial-place, on 
Kagamil, were a number of the kantags, or wooden dishes and receptacles, 
made by the Nushagak and other continental Innuit, and undoubtedly 
imported before the advent of the whites. Many other articles of use and 
ornament, wliich we know these people possessed, and which were in part 
imported, I have left unmentioned, as this paper relates merely to the relics 
of the shell-heaps, village-sites, and rock-sKelters of the prehistoric time, and 
to admit articles which are not indicated by the deposits in question, except 
by way of illustration, would too gi'eatly expand this paper. These points 
may be hereafter treated of elsewhere. 

The "fiddle-bow drill" was an instrument largely used in their carv- 
ing and working bone and ivory ; but for obtaining fire, two pieces of quartz 
were stinick together over some down obtained from the wild cotton-grass 
or rush, which had been sprinkled with sulphur from the crevices of the 
volcanos. 

In the upper layers alone we begin to find the ivory ornaments and 
appendages, which now form part of every kyak or bidarka; and the thin 
strips of bone with which was ornamented the wooden visor used by the 
Aleuts to protect themselves from the glare of the sun when in the kyak. 
Various little nondescript carvings, wliich we found in the top stratum, were 
without doubt used as appendages to the peak of the visor, which was 
further ornamented with the long translucent bristles of tlie sea-lion. 
Among other articles found in these strata only are bone handles for dishes 
or baskets, bone spoons, and needle-cases of the bones of birds' wingij. 
These were sometimes rudely ornamented with a tracery of lines, dots, and 
circles, all strictly of the Innuit type. Chips of quartz and obsidian were 
used to finish the shafts of their darts, and the throwing-board was invented 



83 

to give a better aim to the hunter, whose moist habitat precluded the use of 
the bow with its hygrometric string of sinew. Doubtless, many of the small, 
sharp pieces of sandstone which we found were used as files in finishing 
their bone and wooden implements and weapons. In fact, the number and 
variety of the tools and implements used could only be illustrated by a very 
large series of figures; hence I can only offer here, for this epoch, a brief 
review. 

DWELLINGS. 

Whatever may have been the character of the huts or dwellings of the 
more ancient islanders, they were at least of so temporary and perishable a 
nature that they have left no traces in the shell-heaps. The first evidences 
of permanent dwellings appear in tlie middle and upper Mammalian layers. 
It is probable that at first they were comparatively small, and resembled the 
present houses of the continental Innuit As the communities became 
larger and the builders more skillful, larger houses were built, of the com- 
nmnistic type characteristic of most American aborigines ; but the accumu- 
lation of long logs for the support of the roof must have been in such cases 
a work of years. In all the village-sites I have examined, a large propor- 
tion of the houses were small and of the strict Innuit type, namely, with 
a door at the side, and probably a hole in the roof for ventilation. The 
houses were built with the floor somewhat below the level of the outside 
soil, the walls of whale-ribs, sticks of wood, or upright stone walls, covered 
outside with mats, straw, and finally turf. Rude bone picks, for excavating, 
were not uncommon in the shell-heaps. The roof was formed by arching 
whale-ribs, or long sticks of drift-wood, matted, thatched, and turfed like 
the sides, with a central aperture. A platform, somewhat raised, around the 
sides of the house afforded a place for sitting and sleeping. Later, each 
village had a large house, or Tcashim^ which served as a common work-shop, 
and a lodging for strangers, as well as for a town-hall for their discussions 
and festivals. In all this, they agree precisely with the present Innuit. Still 
later, in a period not very greatly antedating the historic, the Aleuts began 
to build large communistic dwellings with features peculiar to themselves, 
without doors, and entered by the hole in the roof, the inmates descending 
on a notched log placed upright. These large yourts were divided, by par- 



84 

titions of wood, stone, or matting, into small rooms like the state-rooms of a 
steamer, but without doors ; open toward the center of the yourt, and each 
accommodating one family. Sometimes the dead were inclosed in the 
apartment they had occupied when living, which was filled with earth and 
walled up, while the other inhabitants retained their apartments as before. 
We found, in the course of our excavations on Ulakhta Spit in one of these 
old yourts, three skeletons thus inteiTcd. The bodies were tied with the 
knees brought up to the chin, as is now customary among the continental 
Innuit. 

The building of houses and lighting them with lamps must have exer- 
cised a powerful modifying influence on these people. Rising and retiring 
with the sun, their progenitors relied on heaven for their light and warmth. 
Now the lamp formed at once a center of attraction for the members of a 
household, prolonged their available hours of labor, and cheered the dreary 
nights of winter. Not only would the utilitarian side of the native mind 
become developed, but it might begin dimly to experience sensations of the 
beautiful. Probably the greater comfort and mutual confidence in which 
they existed would tend to modify for the better the dreary animism which 
characterizes all of the most degraded and savage races. 

This brings us to the consideration of those objects found in the shell- 
heaps, and solely confined to the uppermost strata, which may be fairly 
denominated — 

ARTICLES OF ART OR ORNAMENT. 

The expression of aesthetic feeling, as indicated by attempts at orna- 
mentation of utensils or weapons, or by the fabrication of articles which 
serve only for purposes of adornment, is remarkably absent in the contents 
of the shell-heaps. As a whole, this feeling became developed only at the 

period directly anterior to the historic epoch. It was doubtless exhibited 
in numerous ways, of which no preservation was possible, so that the early 

record, even for a considerable period, would be very incomplete. We 

know that great taste and delicate handiwork were expended on articles of 

clothing and manufactures of grass fiber, which would be entirely destroyed 

in the shell-heaps, arid of which only fragmentary remains have been 

preserved on the mummies found in the latest prehistoric burial-caves and 



85 

rock-shelters. I have elsewhere treated this part of the subject in extensOy 
and will pass it by here with the foregoing allusion. There can be no 
doubt also that, by the insertion of feathers, hair, and whisker-bristles 
of the seal, as well as in other ways, the bidarka or kayak was tastefully 
ornamented. The double or two-holed bidarka, peculiar to the Innuit of 
Kadiak and the Aleuts, became a necessity from their method of hunting, 
whicli necessitated two persons, one to hurl the dart and the other to steer 
and manage the bidarka. The single kayak, common to all the Innuit, is 
comparatively inefficient in sea -otter hunting. The three-holed bidarka 
appears to have been a Russian innovation. The bidarra, or umiak, does 
not seem to have been as extensively used among the Aleuts as it is among 
the ordinary Innuit ; and it is noteworthy that on the whole west coast it 
has not the special character of a "woman's boat", which is characteristic of 
it among the Greenlanders and eastern Innuit. 

There are some articles used on the kyak which are usually made of 
bone, and often preserved in the upper MammaHan stratum, and upon 
which some attempts at ornamentation were bestowed. These are little 
pieces of bone or ivory, in general shape resembling a kneeling figure, 
with one or two holes, through which cords were passed. These cords 
were made fast at the outer angles of the kyak, passing over the 
upper ridge of it, and drawn taut. On each side, one of the bone append- 
ages was placed, to raise the cord a little, so that a paddle or dart might 
be slipped under the latter, and so made fast to the kyak. There are 
usually at least two of these transverse cords placed in advance of 
each seat and two behind the stem seat, making six in all, in a double 
kyak, and requiring twelve appendages. The latter were, in some cases, 
carved to represent figures of animals. Another species of ornamentation 
has already been alluded to in the flat, thin strips of bone which were 
fastened to the wooden visor worn in hunting. These were frequently 
ornamented with typically Innuit patterns of parallel lines, dots, concen- 
tric circles, with zigzag markings between them, and radiating lines. All 
these were in black on the white basis of the bone or ivory. These bone 
ornaments also served the purpose of strengthening tlie visor against a blow. 
At the tip, there was usually suspended a small bone carving, bead, or figure, 



80 

attached to a sea-Kon whisker. Most of the small nondescript carvings 
found in the shell-heaps can be referred to this species of omament. ^ Vari- 
ous utensils and the bone heads of darts often received a few rude lines by 
way of ornament, or sometimes the patterns above mentioned. Everythmg 
of this kind that we obtained from the shell-heaps was very crude. Some 
of these articles, from the later prehistoric burial-places, were much more 
ornate. The markings can seldom be accurately described as marks of 
ownersliip. I have never seen anj^ definite mark or ornament of this nature 
among the Aleuts or Western Innult^^^They readily recognize their own 
utensils and weapons without any such aid^*lM4s£ "^^^^^^^ *^^® leory 
" marks of ownership", " batons of command", ancT^Mghli^^®' has been 
sti-etched far beyond the i^oint of endurance or accuracy, aNl^* among 
writers on the Innuit Drawings, engravings on bone or wood, ancP^^jJ^^^^^® 
of any kind, so far as I have observed, are all subsequent to the pelUP"" 
covered by the shell-heap deposits. They are invariably quite modern, 
though the taste for them is now widely spread among the Innuit, especially 
those of the regions where ivory is readily procured. Tlie coloration of 
wooden articles with native pigments is of ancient origin, but all the more 
elaborate instances that have come to my knowledge bore marks of com- 
paratively recent origin. The pigments used were blue carbonates of iron 
and copper; the green fungus, or peziza^ found in decayed 'birch and alder 
wood ; haematite and red chalk ; white infusorial or chalky earth ; black 
charcoal, graphite, and micaceous ore of iron. A species of red was some- 
times derived from pine bark or the cambium of the ground-willow. In 
later prehistoric burial-places, the wooden carvings bear tliese colors nearly 
as bright as when fiirst apphed. 

Beads were made of sections of the hollow bones of birds, of bits of 
gypsum imported from the continent, seal and orca teeth, and especially ol' 
amber. This substance occurs sparingly in the lignitic deposits of Tanaga, \ 

Unalashka, Atka, and Amchitka, and was reckoned of the highest value 
by the Aleuts. The pieces were usually very small and were simply 
pierced and roughly rounded. I have seen no ancient carved beads. I 

Pieces of the red bills of the auks, the claws of the little auk set one into 
anotlier like the ^'larkspur rings" of children, were used, with small bone 



\ 
\ 



i 



N 



87 

carvings, as pendants to the bead necklaces. We found no application of 
shell to purposes of use or ornament. This may be partly explained by 
the dull colors and thin texture of most of the Aleutian shells. There are 
a few, however, which would seem to have been quite suitable, but we 
found no evidences of their use. 

In some of the latest prehistoric burial-places, we found, beside other 
carvings, masks, toys, and once a rude wooden doll, but with one exception 
we have found no imitations of the human form or face in the kitchen- 
heaps. This exception was a small and very artistic ivory carving, perhaps 

once lashed to the peak of a visor, or to some other article, 
of which the annexed figure is a representation. It does 
not, however, give a sufficiently clear idea of the delicacy 
of the carving, which is really exceptional. The face has 
the usual Innuit characteristics, and four little holes at the 
sides were evidently for seeming the lashings. The back 
is quite concave, as if it liad been fitted to some small 
cylindrical object. The upper part is carved like the beak 
16069 {738).-Bono oarv- of a bird. Thc objcct is too slight to have been any kind 

Sng from the iipperraoat /••it <■ t /• 

Mammalian atratum, Port of utcusil, aud probably was madc for ornament alone. 

Mollcr, Aliaaka Peninsula, 

+. It indicates superior ability in the carver, and a great 

advance on the Usual aesthetic condition of the Innuit of those times. 

In a general way, the love of ornament was exhibited in the better 
finish and neater proportions of all utensils and weapons, and in the model 
of the bidarka, as we have elsewhere noted in the course of this paper. 

The custom of piercing the flesh in order to attach an ornament or 
appendage to the person is very ancient and widely spread. It would be 
assuming too much to infer any necessary connection between the instances 
of occurrence of this practice in widely-separated regions. It probably 
took its origin in some of the dark and gloomy superstitions of early 
barbarism, akin to those which now impel some savages to lacerate their 
bodies to appease evil spirits or please their fetishes. This, by sui-vival, 
has not improbably grown into a custom in which ornamentation, so- 
called, is the only motive, and which still flourishes in civilized nations. 
The thinner portions of the body, such as the lobe of the external ear, the 




88 

nasal cartilage, and the lips, afford greater facilities for the practice, and 
have been generally adopted for the purpose. Among some African tribes, 
the Botocudos in Brazil, the T'linkets of the northwest coast, the prehistoric 
Aleuts, and the modem Innuit, labrets or plugs inserted into holes made for 
the purpose in the lips, are now or have been used. In a large and very 
ancient carved wooden button, covered with grotesque heads, and which a 
friend purchased with some other antiquities in Japan, is one head which 
has two ivory labrets inserted precisely as is now the custom near the 
eastern shore of Bering Strait. The face upon which these are placed is, 
however, of Tartar features, and bears no resemblance to any Orarian or 
Indian tribe. It is, therefore, not impossible that a similar custom was 
once established on the Asiatic coasts. A great variety exists, however, in 
regard to this usage. Among the Botocudos, a large wooden plug is 
inserted into the lower lip, and one in the lobe of each ear, with women, 
stretching these members prodigiously, and affording a horrid spectacle. 
The T'linket women have a similar but smaller labret, but place little tufts 
of wool, fur, or short strings of beads in successive small punctures around 
the periphery of the external ear. The western Innuit have two labrets, 
worn only by males, one below each comer of the mouth, and of more 
aioderate size. The women have ear-rings made of bone, and often rather 
prettily carv'^ed. The Magemuts of Cape Romanzoff and Nunivak form 
an exception to this rule, however, as among them the women also wear 
peculiar labrets of a C or J shape, sometimes two and sometimes more, in 
the lower lip, whence they project like little horns. The Norton Sound 
Innuit women used to wear an ornament through the nasal cartilage, but 
tliis practice is nearly extinct. The Eskimo of the west shore of Bering 
Strait are said to wear no labrets, and my experience agrees with this state- 
ment. The ancient people of Kadiak and the Aleutian Islands also knew 
this custom. Cook figures a cleat-shaped labret as worn very rarely by 
the men in a hole in the middle line of the under lip, and what appear to 
be a pair of small curved labrets like those of the Magemut Innuit, which 
he states were universally worn by the women. He also speaks of their 
piercing the upper lip below each nostril, and wearing small beads or 
rounded labrets in the apertures. They also wore a string of beads in the 






tl9X) |1M1 Bone Ubnt from iippcr Wtm- 

in.illnn layer (A). Am.-iknok Cave, Udv 
lubliit. \. 




89 

nostrils and ornaments in the ears. The ahnost universal Innuit practice 
of tatooing perpendicular lines on the chin of women he also mentions and 
figures, as well as a few transverse lines on the upper part of the face, 
extending backward from near the outer comers of the eyes. Billings and 
Langsdorf also figure the cleat-shaped labret An earlier practice is 
revealed by our researches of a large central labret like those of the 
T'linlcets or Botocudos, worn in the low^r lip, probably by the women, but 
this is not certain. Those found by us in the Amaknak Cave were asso- 
ciated with the remains of a woman's work-basket, before alluded to. The 
earlier forms were less nicely made and less elaborate than the later ones. 
This form of labret appears to be strictly prehistoric among the Aleuts. 

Nos. 12991 and 14933 from the Amaknak Cave, and similar speci- 
mens from the upper stratum at Amchitka, are of the most ancient type. 
They are heavy rudely-carved pieces of wahnis tusk, smoothed by wear, 
and somewhat decayed by the moisture of the earth in which they lay. 
No. 16139 is remarkably heavy, and only an overpowering sense of its 
beauty and the demands of fashion could have supported its wearer under 
the infliction. No. 16136 is nyich lighter and more neatly finished, from 
an easily- worked black bituminous shale, but larger than any of the others, 
and capable of being worn only by olie whose lip had been greatly enlarged 
by pressure. No hunter exposed to the icy blasts and cold waters of winter 
could have worn such articles, which would have subjected the extended 
strip of flesh to freezing, and been an insufferable annoyance otherwise. 
We may conjecture that they were the ornaments of dandies or women. 
The expanded edge of the largest labret was worn inside and uppermost, as 
its weight bore dow:n the lip into a horizontal plane. Under the head of 
art may be reckoned the carvings found with human remains ift burial-caves. 

As I have elsewhere described these remains in detail, and as they are 
not found in the shell-heaps, but only in the more modem burial-places, I will 
merely describe their general character in connection with the various 
methods of burial known among the ancient hunters of the Aleutian Islands. 

We found the dead disposed of in several ways : first, by interment 
in their compartments of the communal dwelling, as already described; 
second, by being laid on a rude platform of drift-wood or stones in some 



90 

convenient rock-shelter. These lay on straw and moss covered by matting, 
and rarely having either implements, weapons or carvings associated with 
them. We found only three or four specimens in all, in these places, of 
which we examined a large number. This was apparently the more ancient 
form of disposing of the dead, and one which more recently was still pur- 
sued in the case of poor or unpopular individuals. Lastly, in comparatively 
modem times, probably within a few centuries and up to the historic period 
(1740), another mode was adopted for the wealthy, popular, or more dis- 
tinguished class. The bodies were eviscerated, cleansed from fatty matters 
in running water, dried, and usually placed in suitable cases in wrappings 
of fur and fine grass matting. The body was usually doubled up into the 
smallest compass ; and the mummy-case, especially in the case of cliildren, 
was usually suspended (so as not to touch the ground) in some convenient 
rock-shelter. Sometimes, however, the prepared body was placed in a life- 
like posture, dressed, and armed. They were placed as if engaged in some 
congenial occupation, such as himting, fishing, sewing, &c. With them 
were also placed eflfigies of the animals they were pursuing, while the hunter 
was dressed in his wooden armor, and prov^led with an enormous mask, all 
ornamented with feathers and a countless variety of wooden pendants col- 
ored in gay patterns. All the carviilgs were of wood, the weapons even 
were only facsimiles in wood of the original articles. Among the articles 
represented were drums, rattles, dishes, weapons, eflSgies of men, birds, fish, 
and animals, wooden armor of rods or scales of wood, and remarkable masks 
so arranged that the wearer when erect could only see the ground at his feet 
These were worn at their religious dances, from an idea that a spirit, which 
was supposed to animate a temporary idol, was fatal to, whoever might look 
upon it while 'so occupied. An extension of the same idea led to the mask- 
ing of those who had gone into the land of spirits. The practice of preserv- 
ing the bodies of those belonging to the whaling caste, a custom peculiar 
to the Kadiak Innuit, has erroneously been confounded with the one now 
described. The latter included women as well as men, and all those whom 
the living desired particularly to honor. The whalers, however, only pre- 
served the bodies of males, and they were not associated with the parapher- 
nalia of those I have described. Indeed, the observations I have been able 



91 

to make show the bodies of the whalers to have been preserved with stone 
weapons and actual utensils instead of effigies, and with the meanest apparel 
and no carvings of consequence. These details and those of many other 
customs and usages, of which the shell-heaps bear no testimony, yet of the 
existence of which, from analogy and circimistantial evidence, there can be 
no doubt, do not properly come within my limits. From the hints I have 
given, a tolerably natural picture can be drawn of the life of the people I 
have described. 

In concluding this division of my subject, I must reiterate the remark 
that the evidences of progress indicated in the succession in the shell-heaps 
rest on a comparison of the best productions of each period, and that the 
inference must not be drawn that all the productions of a particular class in 
any one period are superior to all of a preceding period. Rude and primi- 
tive forms appear in every stratum, finely finished and ornate forms only in 
the later deposits. Poor workmanship is as often the product of individual 
want of ability as il is of general barbarism. Yet when we find no evidences 
of good workmanship at all, we may draw fair conclusions as to the gen- 
eral conditions which existed among the fabricators as a race. 

I conclude from the foregoing facts that the generalizations with which 
I prefaced my account are not ill-founded so far as they relate to the fol- 
lowing points : The very ancient existence of a population on these islands, 
in a much more savage condition than recorded in any historic account ; a 
population distinctly of Innuit stock, and with habits similar to those of the 
other Innuit, except so far as modified by the peculiar surroundings, which 
brought out local characteristics not common to the other branches of the 
same race ; also, that a tolerably clear case of gradual progression has been 
made out from the commencement of the Fishing Period to the latest 
deposits, and that the sharp line which separates the Littoral Period from 
those which succeed it may be due either to an incursion of more advanced 
people, or less probably to a change in habits due to new inventions and a 
greater supply of food ; that the several strata shown to exist correspond 
to actual stages of development in the social history of the people who 
formed the shell-heaps; and, lastly, that the contents of the latter form an 
approximate index to the character of tliose stages and the relative develop- 
ment of the fishermen and hunters of that ancient time. 



I 



III. 

ON THE ORIGIN OF THE INNDIT. 



The question of the origin and migrations of the Innuit, particularly 
those inhabiting Greenland, has been the subject of a good deal of discus- 
sion. It is only within a few years, however, that material has accumulated 
sufficiently to admit of any well-founded generalizations. Among the 
various papers on this subject, the most recent are those of C. R Markham 
and Dr. Henry Eink, printed in the ^'Arctic Papers" of 1875, by the Geo- 
graphical Society of London. The former paper was printed long ago, but 
has received revisions and additions in the present volume, which seem to 
entitle it to be considered as a fair representation of the author's present 
views. The paper by Dr. Rink is also not new, but unfortunately only an 
abstract of it is given in the volume mentioned, and the original is not 
accessible to me. It was, however, much later in its publication than Mr. 
Markham's.* In 1870, the present writer offered a brief resume of his own 
views on the subject in a work on Alaska and its Resources (page 374 
et seq.), in which an opinion similar to that of Dr. Rink was maintained. 
Subsequent observations, extending over three years, in the Aleutian Islands, 
have not altered this opinion. Mr. Markham sketches out the following 
programme for the migrations of the Innuit : 

*' During the centuries preceding the appearance of the Innuit in Green- 
land (1349 A. D.), there was a great movement among the people of Central 
Asia." " The pressure caused by these invading waves (of population) on 

* I bave, since this paper was written, bad an opportnnity of perosiug '^ Tales of the Eskimo'', by 

Dr. Riuk| in wbioh the same yiews are enanoiated more at length. 

93 



94 

the tribes of Nortliem Siberia drove them still farther to the north." ** Year 
after year, the intruding Tatars continued to press on." " Their descend- 
ants, the Yakuts,^ pressed on until they are now found at the mouths of 
rivers falling into the Polar Sea. But these regions were formerly inhabited 
by numerous tribes, which were driven away still farther north over the 
frozen sea.t " Wrangell has preserved traditions of their disappearance, § 
and in them I think we may find a clue to the origin of the Greenland 
Eskimos." " The Yakuts were not the first inhabitants * * of the 
Kolyma." *^ The Omoki, * * the Chelaki, * * the Tunguses, and 
the Yukagirs were their predecessors. These tribes have so wholly disap- 
peared that even their names are hardly remembered."T[ " The Onkilon, 
too, once a numerous race of fishers on the shores of the Gulf of Anadyr, 
are now gone, no man knows whither. Some centuries ago, they are said 
fo have occupied all the coast from Cape Chelagskoi to Bering Strait ; and 
the remains of their huts of stone, earth, and bones of whales are still 
seen along the shores." " The Omoki are said to have gone northward 
over the Polar Sea. The Onkilon, too, fled away|| north to the land whose 
mountains are said to be visible from Cape Jakan." " Here we have prob- 
ably the commencement of the exodus of the Greenland Eskimo," &c. 

Mr. Markham goes on to elaborate his theory to the effect that the 
wanderers "without canoes" pushed on from the Siberian Capes to the 
Parry Islands, an unknown region of 1,140 miles in breadth, the march to 
Melville Island occupying probably more than one generation. He then 
mentions various Innuit remains found at different points in the Parry 
group between Banks Island and Baffin's Bay, as illustrations of the 
supposed march. He considers that they kept marching steadily eastward 
along and north of Barrow Strait, finally arriving in Greenland on the 

* The Yakuts are Scythians, allied to the Turks, not Tatars. 

t No proof of this proposition is adduced ; videpoatea, 

$ The tribes to which Wrangell refers belonged to a mnch later era than that mentioned. 

IT The Tangnses, still namerous in Eastern Siberia, are a Tatar race. So far from the other tribes 
having wholly disappeared, Wrangell states that there were in 1820, in the Kolyma circuit alone, 1,139 
Yukagirs and others, related to the Koraks. In Eastern Siberia, in 18€0, by the Russian census obtained 
by me from the governor of Kamchatka in 1865, there were in all about five thousand of these people. 
I have a Tungnse portrait taken from life in 1865. 

I Wrangell, page 178, states that the Omoki and Schelagi disappeared from their wars with neigh- 
boring tribes, smidl-pox, and devastating sickness. The Onkilon still exist, according to Wrangell, on 
Anadyr Gulf (page 372;. 



95 

eastern shore of Smith's Sound. Thence, as new parties arrived, he supposes 
they may have separated, some to the north, others remaining as the Arctic 
Highlanders' ancestors, others still going south, driving out the Noraemen, 
and peopling Greenland- Further on, he assumes it as certain that the 
Arctic Highlanders came from the north. He also makes the point that 
there are people speaking an Innuit dialect on the coast of Asia at the 
present day. 

Still another theory, largely held by those who have less knowledge 
of the subject than Mr. Markham, is that these and other people came into 
America via the Aleutian Islands. 

Before entering into the subject in detail, it may be as well to premise 
that in the far and distant past, a period so ancient as to lie wholly without 
the scope of this paper, it seems probable that the first population of 
America was derived from the west. E. G. Squier and the late George 
Gibbs believed in diflFerent lines of immigration, one from the southwest 
in the direction of Polynesia, and another from the north. That this is 
probable cannot be denied, but it will always remain doubtful. 

The fact that the home of the highest anthropoid apes is in Africa, 
and also that of some of the least-elevated forms of man; that we have 
none of the higher anthropoid animals, recent or fossil, in America, and 
none are known anywhere outside of the Asiatic and African regions, tells 
forcibly against any. hypothesis of autochthonic people in America. I see, 
therefore, no reason for disputing the hypothesis that America was peopled 
from Asia originally, and that there were successive waves of emigration. 

The northern route was clearly by way of Bering Strait; at least, it 
was not to the south of that, and especially it was not by way of the 
Aleutian Islands. 

Linguistically, no ultimate distinction can be drawn between the 
American Innuit and the American Indian. There are no ultimate or 
fundamental grammatical distinctions in the formation of their respective 
languages. Both are agglutinative. So, also, are classed some tribes of 
Eastern Asia by Max Miiller. Consequently, theories of remote origin 
apply equally well to both Indians and Innuit But secondary distinctions 
are abundant, and the Stiimme of the Eskimo is as clearly sepai'ated from 



96 

that of the Indian and from all others as any stock of similar culture 
known to philology. The Innuit stock is eminently characterized by 
uniformity, and -the Indian races, so-called, by divereity in secondary 
characters. 

The question before us, however, is not of this ultimate character. 
We have the well-defined Innuit or Orarian stock, with a known distribution. 
Whence and why did they come there? What was their original condition? 
These are the queries awaiting a solution. 

I shall assume, what is also assumed by Mr. Markham, that the 
original progenitors of the Innuit were in a very primitive, low, and 
barbarous condition. I think that for one locality at least, the Aleutian 
Islands, this is suflSciently proved in Part II of this paper. The prehistoric 
inhabitants of Perigord seem to have been little better off, and it is not 
improbable that man, when he first began to spread over the earth, was 
everywhere, as far as culture (and possibly language) is concerned, in much 
the same condition. It may be suggested that the men of the Fishing 
Period were the real progenitors of the Innuit, and the Echinophagi were 
an older and different race. But this does not practically affect the 
question. Assuming that the Fishermen were the true ancestors, their 
culture was still so low as to oflFer no appreciable objection to the assumption. 

Now, to the enthusiastic theorist, on regarding the maps, drawn usually 
to a most minute scale, the Aleutian Islands form a convenient and natural 
bridge from Asia to America. But on examination of the facts we find that 
a gap of one hundred and thirty-eight statute miles separates the 
Commander's Islands from Kamchatka, and another of two hundred and 
fifty-three miles exists between the former and Attn. Here is one of the 
deepest gulfs known in any ocean, over which rolls a rough, foggy, and 
tempestuous sea. Is it probable that over this sea, without compass or 
chart, and with what must have been the rudest of canoes, the ancient 
barbarians could have found their way to, and landed on, a rocky and 
inhospitable shore in safety in sufficient numbers to have peopled America 
or even the Aleutian chain? There can be but one answer. 

When Bering and his party landed on the islands named after him, 
they - found no inhabitants, but the shores abounded with herds of a sea« 



97 

cow {Rytind) not known to have existed anywhere else, which were killed 
without any great difficulty, and which aflForded abundant and not 
unpalatable food. Had these islands ever been inhabited b)' savages, 
would they have unanimously left this unfailing supply of food for 
explorations on an unknown and stormy sea, and finally settled in 
preference on islands nearly bare of all food except echini? 

I do not think it conceivable. 

Finally, the Tatar, Japanese, or Chinese origin of these people, so 
favorite an hypothesis with many, finds no corroboration in their manners, 
dress, or language. M. Alphonse Pinart, who has carefully studied the 
language with imusual facilities for comparison, finds iii it no trace of these 
foreign tongues. 

Much has been made, with some show of plausibility, of the casting 
up, by the great easterly Pacific cuiTcnt, of Japanese junks on the coast 
of America and the Aleutian Islands. But it must be recollected that these 
junks (the construction of which implies a people already far advanced in 
the arts), which have undoubtedly been thrown up in this manner, are first 
carried clear to the coast of Apaerica in latitude 50° before the northerly 
returning branch of the current would throw them on the islands. Then 
they are as likely to be carried south as north by the southerly arm of the 
current. In point of fact, many more are known to have been cast on the 
continent than have ever been known to reach the islands. The drift by 
which a Japanese junk, on which three persons (all men) remained alive, was 
finally cast on the south shore of Adakh in 1871 occupied nine months. 
During this time, the men lived on rain-water and the cargo of rice, and 
when cast on the shore would inevitably have starved if they had not 
been discovered by an Aleut hunting-party. 

Continents are not peopled, nor do whole races emigrate, in this manner. 

I conclude, therefore, that the Aleutian route is totally indefensible, 
and should be rejected from any hypothesis intended to be reasonable. I 
learn from whalers, familiar with the Arctic Sea and Bering Strait, that, at 
present, in winter, the natives are accustomed to cross the strait on the ice. 
There are, therefore, no a priori reasons why they might not have done so 
in the past. In fact, as between the route by way of Bering Strait and 



98 

any other which might be suggested, there is no satisfactory comparison to 
be made in point of facility. 

I assume, then, that the larger part of North America may have been 
peopled by way of Bering Strait. Mr. Markham's proposition that popula- 
tion may have reached the Polar Archipelago by way of Wrangell Land 
and the unknown Polar region, does not involve any weighty objections 
except our ignorance of the region indicated. I am told b)'^ the whalers 
that in cruising near Wrangell Land they have noticed on the shore vivid 
green spots, like those that are the peculiar characteristics of the Aleutian 
Kjokkenmodden; and that they believe that land to be, or to have been, 
inhabited. With the greater facility afforded by the Strait route, however, 
we may doubt whether the majority of emigrants would select that by way 
of the Polar Sea. 

But with these points I have little to do. I believe that this emigration 
was vastly more ancient than Mr. Markham supposes, and that it took place 
before the present characteristics of races and tribes of North American 
savages were developed. For confirmatory testimony I refer the reader to 
Part II of this paper. 

While the Innuit at present are almost exclusively maritime, it is by no 
means certain that all branches of their stock have always been so. Indeed, 
we have occasional instances, like that of the Arctic Highlanders, where we 
find a strictly Innuit tribe without the means of navigation. It is known 
that, at a period not very remote, the Innuit occupied territory much farther 
to the south or east or inland than they do now. Franklin records the existence 
of Innuit two hundred miles farther up the Mackenzie, in his time, than 
they range at present There are many facts in American ethnology which 
tend to show that originally the Innuit of the east coast had much the same 
distribution as the walrus, namely, as far south as New Jersey.* I have 
already mentioned that the National Museum has received relics, apparently 
of Innuit type, from shell-heaps near the mouth of the Stikine River, col- 
lected by Lieut. F. M. Ring, U. S. A. This is nearly four hundred miles 
sduth and east of the most southeastern Innuit of the northwest coast. And 
this is not, in my opinion, the most southern ancient limit of these people 
by any means. Wliether the strange similarity of the skulls of the Northern 

*Dr. Leidy, since the above was written, reports a walrus tusk from the phosphate beds of South Carolina. 



99 

Mound-builders, and of certain tribes once inhabiting the coast and islands 
of Santa Barbara County, California, to those of the Innuit, has any real 
bearing on the subject or not, must remain in doubt. The facts, however, 
are worthy of note in this connection. 

Dr. Rink, in his admirable paper, the abstract of which I should like to 
quote entire, arrives at this conclusion: That the "Eskimo appear to have 
been the last wave of an aboriginal American race, which has spread over 
the continent from more genial regions, following principally the rivers and 
water-courses, and continually yielding to the pressure of the tribes behind 
them, until at last they have peopled the sea-coast. In the higher latitudes, 
the contrast between sea and land, as affording the means of subsistence, 
would be suflScient to produce a correspondingly abrupt change in the 
habits of the people, while farther to the south the change would be more 
gradual." This last suggestion chimes in with what we know of the more 
gradual differentiation in characteristics between the ancient Innuit of 
Aliaska and Kadiak and the Indians of T'linket stock to the east of them; 
and a similar state of things which exists between the Indians and Innuit 
of the Lower Yukon as compared with those of the middle part of the 
Arctic American coasts. Dr. Rink suggests that the Yukon basin might 
have been the path by which the orginal inland Eskimo traveled toward 
the sea. Yet it is not improbable that they went by several roads. It is 
noticeable that those tribes now wearing labrets are those most adjacent to 
Indian tribes having a similar practice, and vice versa. The doctor further 

suggests that the uniformity of habits and development among the Innuit 
must have been promoted by the necessity of co-operating against hostile 

Indian tribes and the uniformity of the new region entered by them; "but 

as soon as a certain stage of development was attained, and the tribes spread 

over the Arctic coast toward Asia on the one hand and Greenland on the 

other, the further improvement of the race appears to have ceased, or to 

have been considerably checked." One reason of this may be found in the 

fact that, as soon as the treeless and barren Arctic coast was occupied, the 

struggle for existence against cold and famine would have occupied all 

their powers, and the opportunity of further development afforded by an 

abundance of food and partial leisure, at times, such as was enjoyed by the 



100 

Hunters of the Aleutian Islands, would have been denied them. Dr. Kink 
further di'aws comparisons between the tales, language, customs, and espe* 
cially the traditions of diflFerent branches of the Innuit stock, and shows an 
astonishing unifonnity, almost amounting to identity, between them. This 
identity exists in the stories received from the people of Cape Farewell and 
Labrador, for instance, who appear to have had no intercouree with each 
other for upward of a thousand years. As the distance from Cape Fare- 
well to Labrador, by the ordinary channels of Eskimo communication, is 
as great as from either of these two places to the most western limit of the 
Eskimo region, it may be assumed that a certain stock of traditions is more 
or less common to all the tribes of Eskimo. Dr. Rink's studies (and no one 
has investigated the subject of Innuit traditions more thoroughly or with 
greater success) lead him to the following conclusions: 

"I. That the principal stock of traditions were not invented, from time 
to time, but originated in the stage of their migrations while they were 
making the great step, from habits of life which had matured inland, to 
those rendered necessary by an occupation of the coast. At this same 
period, the national development was going on in other branches of culture. 
The traditions subsequently springing up are more or less composed of 
elements taken from the older stories, and have only had a comparatively 
temporary existence. 

"11. That the real historical events upon which some of the principal 
of the oldest tales are founded consisted of wars conducted against the same 
hostile nations, or of journeys to the same distant countries ; and that the 
original tales were subsequently localized, the present nan-ators each pre- 
tending that the events took place in the country in which they now reside, 
as for instance in Greenland, or even in special districts of it. By this 
means, it has come to pass that the men and animals of the original tales, 
which are wanting in the several localities in which the tribes have now 
settled, have been converted into supernatural beings, many of whom are 
now supposed to be occupying the unknown regions in the interior of 
Greenland." 

I may add that the old tale of the half-human, half-supernatural beings 
which inhabit the interior is also common to the Aleuts, who call these 



,. • , • • •* 



101 

beings Veygali or Vaygeli ; while it is hardly within the range of possibility 
that any living beings could ever have subsisted or existed in the rugged 
and contracted area which forms the interior of even the largest of the 
Aleutian Islands. 

Now as to the facts on which Mr. Markham bases his hypothesis ; they 
are, when confirmed by consulting original authorities, about as follows: 
That there are numerous traces of inhabitants on the north shore of Asia 
and the archipelago in the Polar Sea north of America, where no people 
now live; that there were once numerous tribes in Eastern Siberia no longer 
existing; that Wrangell mentions that the Omoki (Sabine's ed., p. 187), a 
** nation" possessing "a certain degree of civilization, and acquainted with 
the use of iron before the an-ival of the Russians"; '*left the banks of the 
Kolyma in two large divisions with their reindeer," probably turning "to 
the west along the Polar Sea", numerous yourts still existing "near the mouth 
of the Indigirka", though no one remembers any settlement there, and the 
place "is still called Omokskoia Yourtovicha". He mentions a tradition that 
they went northward, driven by the small-pox and other contagious diseases 
brought by Russians, and also a tradition that about two hundred years ago 
fifteen canoe-loads of Onkilon (Asiatic Innait), in consequence of some feuds 
with the Chukchi, fled to WrangelPs Land, and were perhaps followed by 
one Chukchi family; also that the Innuit invasion of Greenland in the 
fourteenth century proceeded from the north, and the Innuit tribe of "Arctic 
Highlanders" still live in North Greenland, separated by some distance from 
any other Innuit tribe. 

All these facts can be explained without Mr. Markham's hypothesis, 
which stretches them beyond their endurance, and contains statements and 
inferences not justified by the text of the works he refers to. This will 
readily be seen by consulting the notes I have appended to the extracts I 
have quoted from his paper. 

Certainly, emigration caused, according to Wrangell, in the seventeenth 
century, by the advent of the Russians, could not have produced an invasion 
of Greenland three hundred years previously, and there are no traditions 
recorded of any earlier exodus from Eastern Siberia on which to base an 



102 

hypothesis, though I would not be understood as asserting thai such did not 
occur. 

Certainly, the homogeneity of the Innuit stock in traditions, habits, and 
language is too great to have resulted from the modification in a few cen- 
turies of an incongruous horde of Mongols, Scythians, and Chukchi. 

We have no knowledge of the Arctic Sea to justify us in asserting that 
there is a bridge of ice and land, even in winter, between Wrangell's Land 
and the Parry Archipelago, a distance of a thousand miles, in which no land 
is known to exist, and in some parts of which deep water and strong cur- 
rents, which we know to be there, would put a barrier of open water across 
the desert of a thousand miles of broken ice. 

The occupation of the Aleutian Islands by human beings, in all 
probability the ancestors of the present Aleuts, is, I think, shown by Part 
II of this paper to be of very ancient date. This is still further confirmed 
by the modifications in their language, which, though evidently of Innuit 
stock, has become greatly differentiated from the other Innuit dialects. For 
instance, the Aleuts can count up to two thousand by the decimal system, 
according to Veniaminoff, while their nearest neighbors, the Kaniagmut, 
can only count up to two hundred. The words, too, with few exceptions, 
are quite different in the two dialects, while all the other Innuit tribes have 
many words in common. It is noteworthy, too, that the tribes who have 
pressed upon the Innuit people of the northwest coast have traditions of 
origin to the southeast, as, for instance, the T'linkets, who profess to have 
come from the Nasse River region. 

My own impression agrees with that of Dr. Rink that the Innuit were 
once inhabitants of the interior of America ; that they were forced to the west 
and north by the pressure of tribes of Indians from the south ; that they 
spread into the Aleutian region and northwest coast generally, and possibly 
simultaneously to the north ; that their journeying was originally tenta- 
tive, and that they finally settled in those regions which afforded them 
subsistence, perhaps after passing through the greater portion of Arctic 
America, leaving their traces as they went in many places unfit for perma- 
nent settlement ; that after the more inviting regions were occupied, the 
pressure from Indians and still unsatisfied tribes of their own stock, induced 



/ 



103 

still further emigi'atioii, and finally peopled Greenland and the shores of 
Northeastern Siberia ; but that these latter movements were, on the whole, 
much more modem, and more local than the original exodus, and took 
place after the race characteristics and language were tolerably well ma- 
tured. It is also not improbable that the earlier Innuit built their iglu 
always of stone, a habit probably formed in a region where intense cold 
did not render this mode of construction undesirable. 

Mr. Markham says that the American Eskimo " never go from their 
own hunting range for any distance to the inhospitable north "; but during 
the voyage of the Polaris, Dr. Bessels saw, among the Arctic Highlanders, a 
couple of people who had made their way there from Cape Searle, Cum- 
berland Island, a northward journey of some thirteen hundred miles. Is it 
sti'ange that the American Orarian should have followed where the peculi- 
arly American musk-ox and lemming led the way ? It is probable that 
when our knowledge of the habits of these people shall be enlarged we 
shall find that such journeys are, even now, not rare. The point where 
the Eskimo are accustomed to cross into Greenland, Dr. Bessels informs me 
is at Cape Isabella. 

As to the Asiatic Innuit, Onkilon, or Tuski, which have so singularly 
served as a starting-point for many ethnologists and theorists in their delin- 
eations of the origin of the Innuit, I published, in 1870,* an account 
derived from one of themselves, which may fitly find a place here. 

At Plover Bay, Eastern Siberia, I was informed by Nokum, a very 
intelligent Tuski (Asiatic Innuit), who spoke English, that the inhabitants 
of the country were of two kinds, " deer-men " (i. e., true Chukchis or 
people allied to the Koraks), and " bowhead-men" (Tuski or Orarians, who 
hunt the Arctic "bowhead" whale). The "deer-men" were the original in- 
habitants, and the " bowhead-men", to which class he belonged, had come, 
long ago, from the islands (the Diomedes) to the northeast. He said the 
reason why they came was that there was war between them and the people 
who wore labrets (the Okee-ogmut Innuit). The latter proved the stronger, 
and the former were obliged to come to the country of the " deer-men". 
The latter allowed the " bowhead-men" to settle on the baiTen rocky coast, 

'Alaska and its Resources, Bo6tou, lb70, p. 375. 



\ 



\ 



104 

and formed an offensive and defensive alliance with them against the invad- 
ers from the eastward. On interrogating one of the Chukchi, or deer-men, 
who visited the vessel, he stated that the above was similar to the Chukchi 
tradition. 

Noticing, in Emma Harbor, and many other places, the remains of 
stone yourts or houses, similar to the wooden ones of Norton Sound, and 
like them half-subterranean, I asked Nokum who made them. He replied 
that that was the kind of house which his people lived in very long ago, so 
long that his grandfather only knew of it by ti-adition ; but wood being 
scarce (and the stone proving to make very cold houses), they had adopted a 
mode of building their habitations which was like that practiced by the 
" deer-men " and much better adapted to the climate of the country. 

While I give little weight to the localizing and the stories of individ- 
uals, which may be found in the traditions of savages, yet in a general way 
this accords so well with the circumstances, independent of the tradition, 
that I consider it as probably founded on truth. It should be borne in 
mind that the Chukchis do not intemiarry with the Innuit, and speak a 
totally different language, apparently allied to, if not identical with, that of 
the Koraks. Their complexion is darker and redder, and their noses more 
nearly aquiline, or even Roman, than in the Innuit I have observed. They 
are taller, thinner, and more reserved in demeanor. Some impoverished 
bands of Chukchis, having lost their reindeer, have been obliged to take to 
the Innuit mode of life for a subsistence. This, and the common use of the 
trading jargon, containing words of both languages, as well as corrupted 
English and Hawaiian words, has led to the greatest linguistic confusion in 
regard to these people. 

In support of the above tradition, it may be noted that in 1648, when 
Simeon Deshneff sailed thi'ough Bering Strait from the north, he found 
natives wearing labrets who were at war with the Tuski. This report was 
confinned by Shestakoff in 1730, and more fully in 1711 by Peter Popoff, 
who had been sent to collect tribute from the. Chukchis. At the time of his 
visit, the Tuski were living " in immovable huts, which they dig in the 
ground ". He found among the Tuski ten islanders, prisoners of war, who 
wore labrets. 



105 

Sauer, in his journey from St. Lawrence Bay to the Kolyma River, 
saw Tuski still living in the ancient undergi-ound houses, which were built 
of driftwood. According to later travelers, and from the best informfition 
accessible, these huts are now entirely abandoned, and have formed subjects 
for speculation in most works relating to the region. From information, 
derived piincipally from masters of vessels in the whale-fishery, I conclude 
that at present the Asiatic Innuit range from Koliuchin Bay to the eastward 
and south to Anadyr Gulf. At the last-mentioned place, a party of them 
plundered the hut of the International Telegraph explorers during their 
absence in the spring of 1866. I have a portrait of a couple of them, taken 
from life, at the mouth of the Anadyr River, by the artist of the exploring 
party. Subsequently the robbery of the hut occuiTed, and one of them, 
mistaking a bottle of liniment for liquor, drank it, and passed to those 
regions where liniment is uimecessary. After this the explorers saw no 
more of them. 

The Innuit are everywhere at. a standstill or diminishing. To the 
reflux of the great wave of emigration, which no doubt took place at a veiy 
early period, we may owe the numerous deserted huts reported by all 
explorers on the north coasts of Asia, as far east as the mouth of the Indi- 
girka. At one time, I thought the migration to Asia had taken place within 
a few centuries, but subsequent study and reflection has convinced me that 
this could not have been the case. No doubt successive parties crossed at 
different times, and some of these may have been comparatively modern. 

With regard to the disappearance of the Siberian tribes, of which Mr. 
Markham makes so much, I think we shall not be far wrong in accepting 
the views of Wrangell, that they were carried away chiefly by famine, 
internecine strife, and the contagious diseases introduced by the Russians. 
If the tradition be true that some of them departed for Wrangell's Land, it 
is not improbable that they chose that course rather than that to the 
eastward across the Straits, because the pressure of the invading Innuit 
interposed an effectual barrier against their progress in the latter direction. 

Whether the views I have expressed be considered as well founded or 
not, it seems to me that they are on the side of probability ; and if my 
remarks shall be the means of inviting attention to the region of which I 



106 

have spoken, and stimulating actual investigation of the facts in the field, a 
sufficiently satisfactory end will have been attained. 

The reports of the last few years as to the condition of the ice north of 
Bering Strait have been so favorable for explorations, and the ethnological 
and geographical points to be settled by such investigations are of such 
deep interest, that the apathy which has prevailed among explorers is 
surprising. It would seem as if no part of the Arctic region offered so 
many inducements for investigation as this, and certainly nowhere would 
exploration be attended with less risk to life and danger to tlie vessels, or 
more interesting results for the explorer. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

U. 8. GEOGRAPHICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGION. 

J. W. POWELL, Gkologist in Cuarok. 



APPENDIX TO 



PART I. 



LINGUISTICS. 



107 



CONTENTS. 



Ptgei 
Notes on the natives of Alaska J. Furuhrlm Ill 

Terms of relationship used hy the Inntlit W. H. Dall 117 

Comparative vocabalaries OiBBSaml Daix... 121 



109 



NOTES ON TBE NATIVES OF ALASKA. 

(Commnnioated to the late George Oibbi, M. D., in 1862.) 



By His Excellency J. Furuhelm, 
Late Governor of the BHsatan-Amerioan Colonies. 



The customs of the different tribes inhabiting the coast from Puget 
Sound to Mount Saint Elias, as well as the islands known as the Prince of 
Wales and King George Archipelagos, resemble each other very much. 
These tribes are collectively called by the Russians "Kalosh", or "Ka- 
lushia", the origin of which is now unknown. Generally, it is derived from 
Kalushka, which is the name of a wooden ornament usually worn by 
Kalosh women in the under lip. The Kalosh call themselves "T'linkit'' — 
matij to which word they add antuhwan^ L e., an^ village; tukwan, common — 
that is, man living everywhere, or man belonging to all villages. Besides 
this general appellation, they also call themselves by the name of the vil- 
lage in which they live; so, for instance, the Sitka Kaloshes would call 
themselves Sitka-kwan. 

The name Eskimo is given by Russian authorities only to those natives 
who inhabit the peninsula of Aliaska and the coast-line farther north, though 
it is evident that the Aleuts ought to be included in the list. 

A FEW WORDS ON THE SITKA, PROPERLY CALLED THE 
SITKA-KWAN DIALECT OF THE T'LINKIT LANGUAGE. 

There are more than thirty letters in this language, if every sound 
were designated by a separate letter. It has the same number of parts of 
speech as every European language, except the articles, for instance, Vlinfkitj 
a man; Vlizin\ strong; tshalmnaky one; hat, I; stakhani\ do (imperative); 
iltuzini, done; geke\ well; tshitah, of, from; ushy if; a'h, exclamation. 

Most of the root- words are monosyllables, but are usually united with 

lU 



112 



one another, as, for exan.ple, katshin, an arm; hero the word ka means a 
man; tshitiy a paw; tfigitgatolj pregnant; here the word tu means hini or 
her, kitj belly, gat^ child, and a, is. There are two numbers, singular and 
plural. There are only two cases, nominatives and instrumental, for in- 
stance, te, a stone, of, from a stone, to a stone, and tetfchj by a stone; tek^ 
stones and so forth, tekich^ by stones; in'^ water, &c.; i'wfcA, by water; i'nh, 
waters; i'nhtchj by waters. The plural is generally formed by adding the 
letters kh or kh-khj and sometimes also ass^ t, hi, or A/m, to a substantive. 

The instrumental case is formed by adding the letters tsh; for instance, 
nominative, ass, a tree; instrumental, asstshy by a tree; plural, nominative, 
iskj and instrumental, assktsh. 

Adjective nouns are not declined, but have three degrees of com- 
parison. 

The comparative is formed by adding to the positive the word aganaky 
which means greater, much, more, or past; examples, iekhe, good; agan- 
akh'iekhe, better; flekHushke, bad; aganakh-flekliushkej worse. 

The comparative, if in the negative, is formed by adding the word 
akin, backward. 

The superlative is formed by adding the word iutchiganakli, which 

means greater than botli; examples, iufcJiiganakh iekhe, the best one. The 

superlative, if in the negative, is foraied by adding the word ushkintiti, less. 

The method of counting is not founded on the decimal system, but on 

the first five numbers. 

The cardinal numbers are: 

tleka-hatshinkhat, 30. 
natz'kekha, 60. 

natzkeka-katshinkliat, 70. 
tahunkha, 80. 

tatshka', 40. 

tatshka-katshinkhat,' 60. 
tahunkha' -katshinkhat,90. 
kitshinkha, 100. 

chinkatkha', 200. 



tlekh, 


1. 


ishinkatlekh, 


11. 


tekh, 


2. 


ishinkhateh, 


12. 


natzk, 


3. 


ishinkat' -kanatzk, 


13. 


iahun', 


4. 


ishinkat-katahun', 


14. 


ketshin', 


6. 


ishinkat-kaketshin', 


15. 


iletuahu, 


G. 


ishinkat-katletushu', 


16. 


iahatushu, 


7. 


ishinkat-katahatushu', 


17. 


netzkatushu', 


8. 


ishinkatkanetz-katushu, 


, 1«. 


kushuk', 


9. 


ishinkat' -katushuk' , 


19. 


ishinkat', 


10. 


tleka, 


20. 



113 

If they wish to count beyond two hundred, they must say two hundred 
and one hundred to it, or twice two hundred, &c. 
Ordinals are the following : 



talle'nah, 


single, 


tjetushua'. 


sixth, 


shuku', 


first. 


tahatushua'. 


seventh. 


taha', 


second, 


netz-katushua'. 


eighth. 


natzka'. 


third, 


kushuka'. 


ninth. 


tahuna'. 


fourth, 


tshinkata'. 


tenth, &c. 


. kitshina', 


fifth. 







Adverbial numbers are formed by adding te'iw' : examples, cliatleta' in\ 
once ; tdhta!in\ twice, &c. 

Personal pronouns are of two species : 

I, hat and hatsh. 

thou, wa'e, ue^ and uetsh. 

he, u^ i, and utsh. 

we, uanf and uantsh'. 

you, iuan' or iUantsh. 

they, ass -i ( asstsh. 

utaass' ) \ utaasstsh'. 

The former are used with passive and neuter vei'bs, for instance: haPuaaj 
I will ; hdtunni, I became ; Ua^e uhuha'ni^ thou wilt become ; u eshtatanij he 
has become. 

The latter personal pronouns are used with active verbs, for instance : 
Jiatsh etahaniy I do ; netsh egisiniy thou dost ; utsh ekuhseani, he will do. 

Possessive pronouns being also of two sorts, are always used in com- 
bination with a substantive. They are: ah, my; igori,thy; feT, his; a, our; 
i, your ; asstiiy their. For instance : ahish, my father ; igishy thy father ; 
tuish, his father; a-ish, our father; i-ish, your father; asstush, their father, &c. 

The second sort of possessive pronouns are : ahagi^ mine ; iagi, thine ; 
tuagij his ; aagi, our ; a-etUagij their. For instance : ahagi ahish, my father ; 
iagi igish, thy father ; tuagi tuish, his father, &c. 

The verbs are active and passive, and have three persons. The conju- 
gation in persons is cfiectcd by changing the middle syllabic or beginning 



114 



of verbs. Examples : hatsh ehusini^ I did ; tiStsh effisinij thou didst ; utsh 
e usinij he did. 

The letter h shows the first person singular; i or ^ indicates the second 
person. The omission of the above-named letters is also a sign of the third 
person singular, and the addition of s shows the third person plural. 

Moods are three, indicative, subjunctive, imperative; and there is also 
a participial form. Examples: katsh hatliashetfj I hold; Vretsh itli(ishetin, thou 
heldest; hatsh enkustanigin^ I do (subjunctive); etidshuiy do (imperative); 
etinij doing (participle). There is no true infinitive, but the participle is 
often so understood. 



Tenses are six : 






Present, 


etahanij 


I do. 


Imperfect, 


etahanegifij 


I did. 


Perfect, 


ehusiniy 


I have done. 


Phiperfect, 


ehusinigiHj 


I had done. 


First future, 


ekukasiani 


1 shall do. 


Second future. 


enkusini 


I shall have done. 



Present tense has no definite terminations. 

Imperfect is formed by adding the syllable egin or gin to the present 
All past tenses are generally characterized by the tennination in, which 
does not assume any modification in the second or third person, either sin- 
gular or plural. 

The future tenses have no definite terminations either ; but sometimes 
the syllable ku or kuk or the letter n in the beginning of the verb denotes 
the future tense. 

EXAMPLES OF MODIFICATIONS OF VERBS. 



hatsh etahani'j 


I do. 


hatsh etaJiane^ gan, 


I did. 


U'Ctsh estagini\ 


thou dost. 


Urctsh etaine'gin. 


thou didst. 


u-tsh staniy 


he does. 


u-tsh etane'gin^ 


he did. 


Vrantsh* etatuni, 


we do. 


u-a'ntsh etagane'gin. 


we did. 


i'U-antsh etaginiy 


you do. 


iu-a'ntsh etagine^gin. 


you did. 


astsh esatanij 


they do. 


astsh esitane'gin, 


they did. 


Hcnahgaii tlinkatanitukwu ashaki 


in, with all men one 


God (supernatural 


being). 




• 





115 



A FEW WORDS ON THE LANGUAGE OF THE ALEUTS OF 

UNALASHKA. 

The language has fifteen letters: a (Latin), g (as in Gabriel), t?, i 
(Latin i), t, 1chj I, w, n, ng^ s, tj u (Latin w), A, tsh. 

It has no articles. Numbers are three: singular, dual, and plural. 

Chief cases are three: nominative, dative, and prepositional, which is 
also possessive. They are ^iivided into indefinite, possessive, and personal- 
instrumental cases, so that each substantive noun may have thirty-two dif- 
ferent terminations. 

Possessive cases are those which contain a possessive pronoun joined 
to a noun; as, for instance, adakhj father, is the indefinite nominative case, 
and adangy my father, adanfj thy father, adan'ing, my fathers, &c., are pos- 
sessive nominative cases. 

The latter are divided into unipersonal, polypersonal, and impersonal. 

Personal-instrumental cases are used when the impersonal pronoun 
one^s is used in the instrumental case, for example, hy one^s arm. 

Adjective pronouns have three degrees. 

Numerals extend to 10,000 and more. Verbs have numbers, pereons, 
moods, tenses, voices, forms, and conjugations. 

A verb is the most variable word of this language, so that it assumes 
more than 800 diflferent terminations, or variations, in the active voice alone. 
Nay, the verbs are often combined with other words, as, for instance, with 
siga, perfectly, completely; to, more than once; sigasiada^ very much; 
tdsiada^ exceedingly, and so forth; so that in this way one and the same 
verb, kamgelikj to pray (to say one's prayers), assumes more than forty 
different meanings, kamgasigaliky to pray fervently; kamgasigataUk^ to pray 
fervently and many times; kamgasigasiadalik^ to pray very fervently; kam- 
gasigatasiadaliky to pray very fervently and many times; kantgasigatasiada- 
taliky to pray with the utmost fervor and many times, &c. The verb to kill^ 
in the imperative mood, may be expressed by dshasa! gana' n^ ashasa' ganahthin^ 
ashalaga'da, ashalagadakagan^ ashada-uluik, &c. 

* The third person is of two sorts in some tenses; for instance, "they 
tiike" is sukung\ or sukum!ang\ 



116 

Moods are the following: indicative, subjunctive, substantive, obliga- 
toiy, and imperative. The participle, sometimes called the infinitive, lias 
all numbers and all persons. Chief tenses are six, present, two past tenses, 
and three future. 

The degrees of verbs are formed by inserting the words diga^ siaga,, 
&c., as aforesaid. 

Voices are three, active, neuter, and passive. 

The gerund has three tenses, present, past, and future; three persons; 
three numbers; and two moods, indicative and subjunctive. 

The participle has every tense, three numbers, and all cases; it can 
both be conjugated and declined. Several adverbs and almost all preposi- 
tions have numbers. 

In long clauses, the verb is placed at the end. The peculiarities, or 
rather defects, of this language consist in — 

1. The want of substantive verbs, so that, instead of "reading is use- 
ful", you must say "he who reads is thereby improved"; and 

2. In the want of abstract nouns, verbs, and adverbs, as, for example, 
to sanctify^ to reason^ to bless, the blessivg, reasonably^ &c. 

They have no word for "to suffer" and "to forgive". 

The Aleut language contains two chief dialects, Unalashkan and Atkan. 
The last is divided into two branches. 

The difference between the Unalashkan and Atkan dialects chiefly con- 
sists in the different ways of forming the plural of nouns, the first by add- 
ing ng, the latter by adding s or sh; as, for instance, the Unalashka Aleuts 
say tanging (islands) and the natives of Atka tangis. 

Diminutive words of the former language terminate in dak; those of 
the latter language in Jcutshak. 



TERMS OF RELATIONSHIP USED BY THE INNUIT: A SERIES 
OBTAINED FROM NATIVES OF CUMBERLAND INLET. 



By W. n, Dall. 



My great-grandparent (either sex, said by either sex), 

My grandparent (of either sex, said by male), 

My grandparent (of either sex, said by female), 

My father (said by son or daughter), 

My mother (said by son or daughter), 

My father's brother (said by male). 

My mother's brother (said by male). 

My father's sister (said by male), 

My mother's sister (said by male). 

My father's brother (said* by female). 

My father's sister (said by female), 

My mother's brother (said by female). 

My mother's sister (said by female), 

My father's brother's wife (said by male). 

My mother's brother's wife (said by male). 

My father's brother's wife (said by female). 

My mother's brother's wife (said by female), 

My father's sister's husband (by male). 

My mother's sister's husband (by male ), 

My father's sister's husband (by female), 

My mother's sister's husband (by female), 

My father's brother's son (said by male), 

My mother's brother's son (said by male), 



shee-lur-ai-ya. 

ee'-tu-ah. 

su'-kee-yiih. 

ata'-tu-guh. 

anan'-nu-gOh. 

fik'-aguh. 

iing'-figilh. 

tit'-chu-giih. 

tit^-chu-guh. 

lik'-ugflh. 

ai'-yugCih. 

ting'-ugfih. 

ai'-yuguh. 

ai'-ya. 

ai'-ya. 

tik'-waga. 

uk'-waga. 

ing'-au-gwa, 

ing'-au-gwa. 

ai'-ya. 

ai'-ya. 

eeth'-lua. 

eeth'-lua. 

117 



118 



Ily father's sister's son (said by male), 

My mother's sister's son (said by male), 

My father's brother's son (said by female), 

My mother's brother's son (said by female). 

My father's sister's son (said by female). 

My mother's sister's son (said by female). 

My father's brother's daughter (said by male), 

My mother's brother's daughter (said by male), 

My father's sister's daughter (said by male). 

My mother's sister's daughter (said by male), 

My father's brother's daughter (said by female). 

My mother's brother's daughter (said by female), 

My father's sister's daughter (said by female). 

My mother's sister's daughter (said by female), 

My elder sister (said by male or female). 

My younger sister (said by male or female). 

My elder brother (said by male or female). 

My younger brother (said by male or female), 

My brother's wife (said by male). 

My brother's wife (said by female). 

My sister's husband (said by male\ 

My sister's husband (said by female). 

My brother's wife's brother. 

My brother's wife's sister, 

My sister's husband's brother, 

My sister's husband's sister. 

My son's wife's brother, 

My son's wife's sister, 

My daughter's husband's brother, 

My daughter's husband's sister. 

My son (elder or younger, said by male or female), yuh-giin'iightih. 

My daughter (elder or younger, said by male or female), ptin'ee-giih. 

My son's wife (said by male or female), u-ku-a'-gali. 



eeth'-lua. 

eeth'-lua. 

eel-yu'ga. 

eel-yu'ga. 

eel-yu'ga. 

eel-yii'ga. 

u-u-ru'-ga. 

u-u-ru'-ga. 

ii-u-ru-ga. 

u-u-ru-ga. 

il-yu'-ga. 

iUyu'-ga. 

il-yu'-ga. 

il-yu'-ga. 

ang'-ai'-yiiga- 

nu'kwaga. 

'unee'-yuh. 

kai-tiing-u'-ta. 

ning'-a'-hu-ga. 

uku'-aga. 

shukee'-uga. 

shiikee'-uga. 



For these there does not appear to 
be any specific term. 



119 

ft 

My son's child (either sex, by male or female), yting-u'-tagha. 

A person not of the family (a stranger), shau-a. 

Relatives by marriage. 

My daughter's husband (said by either parent), ning'auk'shau-a. 

• My daughter's husband's father (said by either parent), ting'u'tikshau-a. 
My daughter's husband's brother or sister (said by 

either parent), ting'u'takshau-a. 
My daughter's husband's son by another marriage (said 

by either parent), iliik'-shau-a. 

Some of the peculiarities of these terms of relationship are, that the 
form of the term appears to depend in some cases more on the sex of the 
speaker than on that of the person to whom the term refers; and also that 
the relations instituted by marriage of a son appear to result in constituting 
tlie wife's connections, so far as they are specifically named, as a part of tho 
husband's family, while the relations instituted by the marriage of a daugh- 
ter are distinguished by the Suffix of sJiau-dy indicating literally that they 
are strangers, or do not belong to the family proper. 

These terms, or rather the relations of the various terms, are probably 
the same throughout the Inniiit stock, which is my excuse for introducing 
them here. • 

They were obtained from a native and his wife, well known in the 
United States as having made part of the company on board the Polaris, 
and both of whom spoke English with tolerable facility. The same terms 
were taken down repeatedly on several occasions, compared and corrected 
three times, and great care taken that they sholild be as free from errors as 
the circumstances would permit. Nevertheless, some misapprehensions may 
have crept in, for which the indulgence of the student is requested. This 
will be readily granted by those who have had personal experience in such 
difficult and tedious attempts with aboriginal languages. 



VOCABULARIES. 



I. 

1. — Vocabulary of the Yak'utat^ 

A tribe of the T'linkit Nation (living between Port Mulgrave, Alaska, and 
Cape Spencer), obtained from His Excellency J. Furuhelm, governor 
of the Russian Possessions in America, by George Gibbs. 

2. — Vocabulary of the Tahu-kwan^ 

A clan of the T'linkit Nation (occupying Taku Inlet, Alaska), obtained 
from Dr. Tolmie, of the Hudson Bay Company, by George Gibbs. 

3. — Vocabulary of the Skat-kwaUy 

A clan of the T'linkit Nation (Alaska), obtained from a half-breed at Port 
Townshend, Washington Territory, in May, 1857, by George Gibbs. 
Note. — The within vocabulary, a dialect of the T'linkit or Sti- 
kine, was obtained at Port Townshend, June, 1857, from Henry 
Barker, a half-breed, said to be the son of an American shipmaster. 
He gave the name Skat-kwan as that of his clan, or kwan. According 
to him, the Sit-ka-kwan and Tan-ta-kwan (Tongas) both speak the 
same. He was much less intelligent than Ozier, the T'simsian' half- 
breed, but the vocabulary is believed to be reliable. — G. G. 

4. — Vocabulary oftJie Stakhin' -kwan^ 

A clan of the T'Knkit Nation (living on the coast of Alaska, near the Stikine 
River), obtained from Captain Dodd, of the Hudson Bay Company, 
at Victoria, Vancouver Island, in May, 1857, by George Gibbs. 

Note. — This, I am informed, is reliable, and, indeed, making 
allowance for difference in spelling, nearly coincides in the same 
words with that obtained by me from Barker. It extends very con- 
siderably the means of comparison afforded by that, and is therefore 
retained. — G. G. 

5. — Vocabulary of the SiH -ka-kwan^ 

A clan of the T'linkit Nation (inhabiting the Baranoff Archipelago, Alaska), 
obtained at Sitka, Alaska, in 1870, by Lieutenant E. do Meulen, 
United States Army, communicated by W. H. Dall. 



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SQ »!h n ^ 1.^ »!S 




VOCABULARIES. 



II. 

1. — Vocabvlary of the Tongas^ or Tanta-kwan. 

(Fort Tougas, Alaska.) 

A clan of the T'linkit nation, obtained from a vocabulary of the Hudson 
Bay Company, by George Gibbs. 

2. — Vocabulary of the Kai-ga'-ni. 

(Soatheramost Alaska.) 

A clan of the Haida nation, obtained from a vocabulary of the Hudson 
Bay Company by George Gibbs. 

3. — Vocabulary of the Chutf -sin-ni. 

(Qaeeu Charlotte Islands.) 

A clan of the Haida nation, obtained from some women of the tribe at 
Olympia, Washington Territory, in 1854, by George Gibbs. 

Note. — A dialect of the Haida. The following was chiefly col- 
lected from some women who visited Olympia in the summer of 1854. 
The words marked with an asterisk (*) were obtained in 1857 from a 
Haida Indian at Victoria, who professed to understand the language, 
and are le^s reliable. The principal difficulty experienced was from 
the nasal and indistinct utterance of the speakers, and many words 
are probably imperfectly written. — G. G. 

135 



130 



4. — Vocabulary of the Skiif-a-get 

(Skit'-a-get Inlet, Qaeen Charlotte iBlands.) 

A clan of the Haida nation, obtained from a woman of the tribe at Nana- 
aimo, British Columbia, September, 1857, by George Gibbs. 

Note.— Skit-ta-get is on the western side of Queen Charlotte 
Islands, in the passage between the two large ones. It is, of course, 
one of the Haida family. The Haidas call the T'simsian, Kil-kat'. 
The Haidas call the Tongas, Kais-ha-deh'. Haida means "people". — 
G. G. 

5. — Vocabulary of the Kaniag'mut Innuit 

(Kadiak Island.) 

From a man and woman of the tribe (a divirion of the Innuit) obtained at 
Victoria, Vancouver Island, June, 1857, by George Gibbs. 

Note. — The natives from wliom this was obtained were taken 
from on board a Russian vessel. The man was employed at Fort 
Victoria as a watchman. — G. G. 



137 



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VOCABULARIES. 



III. 

1. — Vocabulary of Tsim-si-an', 

Obtained through Capt. W. A. Howard, from Dr. Kennedy of the Hudson 
Bay Company, with additions by George Gibbs. 

2. — Vocabulary of (lie Naas. 

» 

(A dialect of the T'sim-Bi-an'.) 

Obtained from Celestin Ozier, a half-breed, at Port Townshend, Washing- 
ton Territory, in May, 1857, by George Gibbs. 

Note,— Celestin Ozier, of Victoria, a T'sim-si-an' half-breed, from 
whom the within was obtained, gives the name Kis-pach-lohts to the 
tribe at Fort Simpson; KP-kus-kha-mo'-ltiks to that on the Naas River 
at old Fort Simpson, and Nis-kah to one fartlier north. Says the 
T'sim-si-an' call the Tongas. Ki-dah'-niits, and the Sebassa, Kit- 
haht'-la. 

According to Father Loetuis, the T'sim-si-an' wants the letters w^ 
r, Ij Pj and / The first becomes m in sounding English words, I is 
changed to w, p to A;, and / to c or A;. I doubt this, however ; I may 
be convertible with w, but neither that nor p are wanting. The lan- 
guage is, however, nasal. — G. G. 

3. — Vocabulary of KU-tist-zu. 

(A dialect of tbo T'sim-sl-an'.) 

Obtained from Dr. Tolmie, of the Hudson Bay Company, by George 
Gibbs. 

143 



144 

4. — Vocabulary of tJie Ha-iU-zukh 

(Bel-bella of Milbank Sonnd, British Colnmbia.) 

Obtained from an Indian known as **Capt Stewart", at Victoria, Vancou- 
ver Island, in April, 1859, by George Gibbs. 

Note.— Hailt-ziik or Hailt-ztikh is the name applied to them- 
selves by the Indians of Milbank Sound and vicinity. The name 
Bel-ber-la is given them by others. 

This vocabulary was obtained from an Indian well known as 
"Captain Stewart", through the medium of Frederick Minni, a Ca- 
nadian, who spoke the language. It may be considered as correct, as 
I subsequently used it in procuring that of the Bilikula, and was per- 
fectly understood. 

The analogy of several words with the same in different dialects 
of the Sound languages will be noticed. — G. G. 

5. — Vocabulary of the Kwa'-kiutT, 

(A dialect of tho Ha-ill'-ziikli.) 

Obtained from two women of the tribe at Nanaimo, British Columbia, in 
September, 1857, by George Gibbs. i 

Note. — This agrees very well with another obtained from a boy 
in the summer of 1855. — G. G. 

(N. B. — In these and other MS, belonging to Mr. Gibbs, and of which I have 
sapervised the pablication here, the original orthography has been preserved in all 
cases ; except where the sabstitntion was perfectly evident, as in dropping the c in ck^ 
replacing ow by ati, x by A*«, etc. This will acconnt for the want of uniformity, to 
obtain which could not safely be attempted ; notwithstanding this, the material is too 
valuable to be lost, though less precious than if it had been arranged by its lamented 
wner,— W. H. Dall.) 



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NOTE ON THE USE OF NUMERALS AMONG THE T'SIMSIAN'. 



By George Giuds, M. D. 



Tlie numericals given elsewhere appear to be simply used in common 
coimting. In counting mew, a diflFerent set are used, as is the case in the 
Nikwalli. 



One (maD), kohl. 


Seven (man). 


ttip-hm-dohl'. 


Two ter-pa-duV. 


. Eight 


yuk-la-dohl'. 


Three kwuMohn'. 


Nine 


k'stimma-sohl^ 


Four t'htilp-tohl'. 


Ten 


k'pohl. 


Five k'stin-sohl'. 


Twenty 


kidddhF. 


Six kttl-dohl'. 


Thirty 


kiddohl' t'ke-pohl'. 


Once, kohl; kul. 


First, 


k'skokh. 


Twice, kQ-pel. 


Second, 


kupel. 


Thrice, kali. 


The last. 


st'hi-lan^ 


Four times, t'kahlp. 


Before, 


hiakokh^ 


And theace on like the cardinals. 







And I suspect in counting salmon, still another; as the word "kig-geet t'de 
kep'h" is given for 30 in such a case. 

CONJUGATION OF TUB VERB. 

WorkT, tum-at-laltsi (fpaHiciplej working or come to work). 

Work, imp.^ aht-lalt-sin. 

Working, participle (f ), yah-gwalMalst'-bu. 



I work, 
Then workest, 
He works. 
We work, . 
Ye work, 
They work, 
I will work, 
Thou wilt work. 
Wo will work, 



nu-iu-at-laltsi. 

nan-at-laltsi. 

kweet-aMaltsi. 

num-at-laltsi. 

nun-at-laltsi. 

nun-siim-at-laltsi. 

triu-aht-lalt-sin-nu. 

triuaht'lalt-sin-ni. 

triu-aht-lalt-siunum. 



I worked, 
Tlion workedst, 

We worked. 
Ye worked. 

Shall I work T 
I do not work. 



naht-lalt-su. 
uaht-lait'Sin. 

naht-lalt-siim. 
aht-lalt-siim. 

tRin•<1ht•lal^8e•nQ•wie• 
alh'ker-hahtlalstrhi. 

155 



( 



156 



PHRASES. 



I go there, 
Where do you got 



kwee-da-tiim-roi. 
u'ilah tem - koi- 
iem. 
Where do you come from T n'dah wii waht- 

keu. 
From there, kweet. 

Ill the house, tsin-i-waalp. 

Ou the hill, la-ho'pa. 

What is his namet nahtl-wahtka. 



What is your namet 
My canoe, 
By and bye. 
Formerly, 
I want to drink, 
I am hungry, 
1 am tired. 
Come and eat. 



nah-waan. 

ntikh soh iiL 

nau-een. 

ke-kohtl. 

sah'-diimak-sob. 

kut-ti-noh. 

8iin-nahtP-nii. 

kttl-l^-iau-kan 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

U. S. GEOGRAPHICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGION. 

J. W. POWELL, Gkoukiist in Ciiatigr. 



PART II. 



TRIBES 



OK 



WESTERN WASHINGTON and NORTHWESTERN OREGON. 



By QEORGE GIBBS, M. D. 



157 



Department of the Interiok, 

Office of Indian Affairs, 
Washington, October 13, 1876. 
Sir: I have great pleasure in transmitting herewith, for such use as you 
may deem proper, in connection with material of like nature collected by 
yourself, a copy of a paper prepared by George Gibbs, M. D., some years 
since, " On the Indians of Western Washington and Northwestern Oregon." 
This paper appears to have an exceptional value, and I should be grati- 
fied if you could secure its publication. 

Very respectfully, 

S. A. GALPIN, 

Acting Commissioner. 
Prof. J. W. Powell, 

Geologist in charge United States Geographical and 

Geological Survey of (lie Rocky Mountain Region^ 

Washington, D. C. 



ino 



CONTENTS. 



Geograpliical distribation 163 

Notices of particaUr tribes 170 

Popalation 181 

Tribal or|(anization and government 164 

Property 186 

Slavery 188 

Retaliation 189 

Wars 190 

Food 193 

Far-trade 197 

Society, marriim^ and domestic relations 197 

Sepulture 200 

Feasts 205 

Gambling 206 

Medicine and diseases 207 

Domestic manners 209 

Names 210 

Pecnliar customs • 211 

Flattening the head 211 

Arrival at {puberty 212 

Measures of value, time, 4&o 213 

Houses r.... *214 

Canoes 215 

Clothing, utensils, &o : 219 

Domestic animals 221 

Symbolic writing 1 222 

Mounds and earthworks 222 

Migration 283 

Notioesof early travelers •• 225 

Early visits of white men • 236 

Table shosring relations of tribes named 241 



11 



161 



TRIBES OF WESTERN WASHINGTON AND NORTHWESTERN 

OREGON. 



By GEOitGR GiDBS, M. D. 



. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

In the western district of Washington Territory, — that is to say, between 
the Cascade Mountains and the Pacific, — there is found, compared witli the 
extent of country occupied, an extraordinary diversity in the aboriginal 
tongues. Mr. Hale, the ethnologist, who accompanied Captain Wilkes's 
expedition, recognized among them eight languages belonging to five dis- 
tinct families, and to these are now to be added six other languages which 
escaped his observation. In addition, there are dialects of several but par- 
tially intelligible, even to those speaking the same general language. 

As might be inferred, the tribes inhabiting this district are divided into 
bands having far less connection with each other than is the case with the 
Indians of the prairie, where a more wandering life bringing them continu- 
ally into contact serves to keep up an identity in the common tongue. 
With all this diversity of speech, there is notwithstanding a general resem- 
blance in character, manners, and habits throughout the district, but modi- 
fied by geographical position and by other causes operating on both the 
physical and moral condition of the race^^ 

Among nations whose life is almost altogether sensual, the character is 
affected to a more perceptible degree by exterior circumstances than among 
the cultivated. Scarcity or abundance of food, its nature, the modes of 
obtaining it, the occupations and amusements of life, climate, dress, all, to a 
marked extent, operate not only upon individuals, but upon the tribe. 
Except upon the strongest evidence, it could hardly be believed that the 



164 

Flathead of the Rocky Mountains, whose virtues approach him more nearly 
to the ideal savage of romance than any other upon the continent, was the 
kinsman, if not the progenitor of the Niskwalli; or the "Comanche" a rela- 
tive of the Snake "Digger". 

In a geographical view, the district presents three natural divisions: 
the Columbia River, the Coast, and Puget Soimd; to which might perhaps 
be added a fourth, in the prairie country between the Kowlitz River and the 
Puyallup. The Cascade Range, which separates the latter from the great 
interior basin has a general elevation of from five to seven thousand feet, 
much broken however by ridges and elevated points; the great volcanic 
peaks: four of which, Mt Adams, Mt St Helens, Mt. Rainier, and Mt. 
Baker, lie north of the Columbia: towering far above all. The width 
of this range varies from fifty to seventy-five miles. It is timbered on the 
east side with pines and larch; on the west, with fir, spruce, and the white 
cedar or arbor viUe. The forest country on the western side may be said 
to extend to the ocean, the prairies occupying a comparatively small area. 
The skill of the Indians not enabling them to cope with the forest, they 
have been confined for the most pai-t to the borders of the rivers and sound, 
to the coast, and the small prairies between the sound and the Columbia. 

The banks of the Columbia, from the Grand Dalles to its mouth, belong 
to the two branches of the *Tsinuk nation, which meet in the neighborhood 
of the Kowlitz River, and of which an almost nominal remnant is left; upon 
the elevated plateau lying south of Mt Adams and Mt St Helens, 
and upon the southern and western slopes of the latter, are the Klikatat 
and the Tai-tin-apam ; on the Kowlitz, the tribe of that name, once numer- 
ous, but now almost extinct; and in the mountains north of the Lower 
Columbia, between Shoalwater Bay and the heads of the Tsihalis, the tribe 
of Willopah, (Owhillapsh,) or, as termed by Mr. Hale, Kwalhioqua, now 
reduced to a handful. These alone belong to four of the five families of 
languages above mentioned: the Tsinuk together forming one; Klika- 
tat and Taitinapam belonging to the Sahaptin^ of which the Walla- 
Walla and Nez Percd are the leading types; the Kowlitz to the western 
branch of the Selish or Flatheads, and the Willopah to the same division 

^Chinook of authore. 



165 

with the Tahkali or Carriers, living on the headwaters of Frazer River, and 
the Klatskanai, Umkwa, and Tu-tuten of Oregon. 

The position of the Tsinuk previous to their depopulation was, as at 
once appears, most important. Occupying both sides of the great artery of 
Oregon for a distance of two hundred miles, they possessed the principal 
thoroughfare between the interior and the ocean, boundless resources of 
provision of various kinds, and facilities for trade almost unequaled on the 
Pacific. From the Dalles to "Cape Hotii", below the Cascades, the river 
flows westward through a pass in the mountains, and with but a narrow 
margin occasionally intervening; but farther down it opens into what Lewis 
and Clarke denominated the Wappatu Valley, connecting with the valley 
of the Willamette by that river, and by the Kowlitz with the Tsihalis 
country and the basin of Puget Sound. Through this district it runs 
northward, the course of the valley trending with it until it is again diverted 
by the Tsinuk Mountains to its original westerly course. Toward the 
mouth it spreads into extensive bays, the north side lined with precipitous 
rocky bluffs of that range, while on the south the mountains which separate 
it from the Twallatti plains close in and unite with the Coast Range. 

From the Dalles to tlie Cascades, the navigation is uninterrupted. At 
the latter point, which is the dividing ridge of the mountains, a series of 
rapids occurs, below which the influence of the tides is felt, and the river may 
be considered as navigable to the sea. The immense quantities of deposit 
annually brought down during the freshet occasion, however, extensive 
sand-bars, which are scattered at intervals to its mouth, encumber its 
estuary, and to a great degree create the difficulties of its entrance. The 
banks of the Columbia, where elevated above the freshets, arc clothed with 
evergreens, fir and spruce predominating, and the same vegetation extends 
over the general face of the surrounding country, which, joined to its rocks 
of basalt and volcanic conglomerate, throw an aspect of gloom over the 
landscape. It is only in the early summer when the cottonwood and maple 
of the low grounds are in fresh leaf that the prevailing monotony is broken. 
The freshets of the Columbia overflow not merely the low islands, but most 
of the alluvial country bordering the river. They take place during the 
summer commencing in May or June according to the mildness of the 



166 

season, and subsiding toward the end of July. Freshets also occur on it» 
tributaries, but these are more directly the effect of rains and are highest 
in the winter, whereas those of the Columbia arise from the melting of snow 
in the Rocky Mountains. The two principal branches on the north, below 
the Cascades, are the Kathlaputl Wiltkwu, or Lewis River, and the Kow- 
litz. The floods of these rivers liave an important influence upon Indian 
economy in their relation to the salmon fisheries, which furnish the most 
important staple of subsistence. 

The mouth of the Columbia might perhaps more coiTectly be consid- 
ered with the coast section, with which it is intimately connected; portages 
leading from Baker Bay to Shoalwater Bay, and thence to Gray Hai-bor. 
The fii'st of these is an extensive but shallow piece of water, about twenty- 
five miles in length, separated from the sea by a naiTOw strip of lowland. 

Several streams flow into it, of ^vhich the most noticeable is the Willo- 
pah, which has a rich alluvial valley of some extent. The southern end of 
this bay is Tsinuk territory, and it was formerly their principal vrinter 
quarters. The northern end belonged to the Tsihalis, and the Willopah 
occupied the mountain country lying behind it. It was a district admirably 

suited to Indian habits, furnishing great quantities of fish and clams, and 

» 

the neighboring forest abounding in game. A few miles to the north lies 
Gray Harbor, the estuary of the Tsihalis. Its extent is considerable, 
being some twelve miles in length from east to west, and about the same in 
its greatest width. This also is in the country of the Tsihalis Indians who 
extended up the river to the Satsop, where they were met by bands to 
whom the name of Upper Tsihalis is collectively given. North of this 
there are no land-locked harbors, the streams entering the sea directly and 
without estuaries; of these there are several, the largest being the Kwi- 
naiutl, the Loh-whilse, and the Kwillchiut. What is known of this section 
is chiefly from the journey of Messrs. Simmons and Shaw, who foUow^ed the 
coast down from Cape Flattery, in the summer of 1855. The rivers take 
their rise in the Coast or Olympic Range, the Kwinaiutl in a lake of some 
size. South of Point Grenville, a sand-beach stretches along the coast, afford- 
ing easy land communication and enabling the Indians to maintain a few 
horses, but between that and Cape Flattery tlie ^hore is more rock}' and 



167 

•broken, spurs from the mountains putting down to the sea. There is, how- 
ever, some intermediate tableland. The whole is, with the exception of the 
intermediate beach, covered with forest. The interior of the peninsula is a 
pile of abrupt mountains, upon some of which snow lies perpetually. 

The coast north of the Tsihalis tribe is successively occupied by the 
Kwinaiutl, the Kwillehiut, and the Makah, the first speaking a dialect 
varying considerably from the Tsihalis, the second a distinct language, the 
root of which is probably also in the Selish, and the third the language of 
Nutka Sound. The Makah territory extends from the southern Cape 
Flattery, called by themselves Osett, around Cape Klasset, and up the 
Straits of Fuca, as far only as the Okeho River. These last, in accordance 
with the rude interior of their country, are confined almost entirely to the 
coast, and seek tlieir subsistence from the sea itself. 

The Kwinaiutl find their supplies in the streams, and to a certain extent 
in hunting, while the Tsihalis properly belong to the bays, from which they 
obtain winter salmon and shell-fish, and trade with the interior for kamas 
roots and berries. Trails are said to exist from the Chahlatt River to the 
Elwa on the straits, and from the Kwillehiut to the Pishtstand the Okieho. 

Pursuing the Straits of Fuca, the mountain barrier comes in like man- 
ner to the shore until reaching the neighborhood of False Dungeness, leaving 
only a few coves for habitation. 

From thence to Port Townshend a strip of more local character, some of 
it valuable for cultivation, borders the coast and bays. Only a few streams, 
and those of inconsiderable length, empty into the straits. Along this tract 
from the Okeho River to Point Wilson, the Klallam, or S'klallam are 
located, a tribe connected with those of the southeastern part of Van- 
couver Island. They are as may be supposed almost exclusively mari- 
time, depending mainly for support upon fish or the commodities which 
they -get in exchange ; but less venturous than the Makah, they do not 
pursue the whale, or voyage beyond the mouth of the straits. 

The interior basin, reaching from the forty-ninth parallel southward and 
embracing the islands, Bellingham Bay, and the waters of Admiralty Inlet, 
Hood Canal, and Puget Sound, forms the third section, whose remarkable 
feature is the series of bays and inlets which penetrate it in every direction. 



168 

The countiy included in this basin though considerably broken preserves 
near the water a very general level of about two hundred ifeet, rising higher 
and generally in tables toward the Cascade Mountains. Its eastern side is 
interaected by numerous rivers which have their origin in that range, inter- 
locking with others emptying into the Columbia, and running in an oblique 
com^e towai'd the sound. The principal of these, commencing at the north, 
are the Nuksahk, which at the mouth takes the name of Lummi; heading 
in Mt. Baker, which it partially encircles, and emptying by two mouths into 
Bellingham Bay and the Gulf of Georgia ; the Skagit and Stoluch-whamish, 
emptying into the shallow bays lying between Whidbey Island and the 
main ; the Snohomish, of which the Snokwalmu is the principal branch, 
emptying into Port Gardner; the Dwamish, the upper part of which is 
known generally as White River, heading in Mt. Rainier and falling into 
Elliott Bay ; the Puyallup, heading in the foot-hills of that mountain and 
emptying at Commencement Bay ; and the Niskwalli, rising on its sOuth side 
and discharging into Puget Sound. All these streams have low deltas of 
greater or less extent at their mouths, as well as alluvial bottoms, the more 
northern ones the most extensive. Farther up they run through narrow, 
timbered bottoms, bordered by high bluffs, the escarpments of the table- 
land, until at the foot of the mountains they are caiioned. It is by these 
streams, and the depnessions or passes occurring at their sources, that the 
Indians of the interior obtain access to the sound for the purposes of trade. 
They are none of them navigable except by canoes, nor even in that way 
for great distances. Their course is rapid, and they are subject to frequent 
overflow, being alike affected by the heavy rains and by the rapid melting 
of ite snow on the mountains. The principal freshets arise from the former 
cause, and occur in winter. The gi^eater part of the country is timbered, 
but there are open prairies on Whidbey Island, and from the Puyallup 
around the head of the sound. These last are of gravelly soil, and extend, 
with intermediate belts of trniber, to those on the upper waters of the Tsi- 
halis and the Kowlitz. A distinguishing feature in this district is the number 
of lakes, some of considerable size, which are scattered through it. The 
largest of these are those near Bellingham Bay and that emptying into the 
Dwamish. The western side of Hood Canal, like the Straits of Fuca, is 



169 

bordered by mountains, which form the western wall of this basin. No 
streams of any size fall into it except the Skokomish, which enters at the 
elbow. The mountain group thus included between the Tsihalis, the coast, 
the Straits of Fuca, and Hood Canal, and known as the Olympic Range, 
would seem to have been once an island forming part of a chain with Van- 
couver and Queen Charlotte Islands. The Indians occupying this basin have 
all sprung, unless an exception be allowed in the Tsemakum, from the great 
Selish root, and are usually mentioned as the Niskwalli nation. They are 
divided into a vast number of small bands, having little political connection, 
but gathered into families, allied by similarity of dialect and by relationship. 
These, with their constituents, will be hereafter specified. 

From these three principal divisions, an inferior or subdivision might 
perhaps be separated in the prairie country just mentioned. The facilities 
for grazing ofltered by this tract have induced in the occupants equestrian 
habits, which distinguish them from their neighbors. The number of their 
horses is, of course, inconsiderable, as compared with the tribes of the great 
plains, but has been sufficient to create an exception to the otherwise 
universal aquatic life of the coast region. The bands included are chiefly 
the Niskwallis proper and the Upper Tsihalis. 

In former times, before the diminution of the tribes and the diversion of 
trade to the posts, there were numerous trails across the Cascades by which 
the Indians of the interior obtained access to the western district Of late, 
many of these have fallen into disuse, becoming obstructed with timbey 
and underbrush which they have not industry enough to clear out In 
fact all their trails through the forest, though originally well selected, have 
become excessively tortuous, an Indian riding around the fallen trunks of 
tree after tree sooner than clear out a road which he seldom uses. The 
old Klikatat trail across the mountains to Vancouver had become impassable, 
and was cut out by Captain McClellan in 1853. Another led from one of 
the branches of the Yakama, south of Mt Rainier, to the Kowlitz River, 
which in like manner has been almost abandoned, and the noi'them trails 
from the Winatshapam and Tselann Lake to the Sto-luch-wha-mish and 
Skagit seem to be altogether so. The two most used at present are those by 
the Nahchess and the main Yakama or Snokwalmu passes, the formSr of 



170 

which is the route of the United States military road from Steilacoom to Walla- 
Walla. The trade between the two districts was once considerable. The 
western Indians sold slaves, haikwa, kamas, dried clams, &c., and received 
in return mountain-sheep's wool, porcupine's quills, and embroidery, the 
grass from which they manufacture thread, and even dried salmon, the 
product of the Yakama fisheries being preferred to that of the sound. It 
will be noticed that north of the country more immediately bordering upon 
the Columbia, the whole of the western distiict is inhabited by tribes 
derived from a single stock, with the exception of the northwest point of 
the peninsula occupied by the Makah. The extensive family to which Mr. 
Hale has given the name of Tsihali-Selish, from its extreme western and 
eastern members thus stretches from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific. 
On the south, its tenitories are bounded by those of the Sahaptin and Tsi- 
nuk families. On the north, it has in the interior the Tahkali, belonging 
to the Tinneh. The northern boundary upon the coast is not so definitely 
ascertained, but in my opinion will be found in the neighborhood of 
Johnston Straits, upon the Gulf of Georgia, thus including the Nanaimuk, 
Kowichin, Songhu, and Soke of Vancouver Island, and the Kwaitlen of 
Frazer River. The subject of their migrations will be noticed hereafter. 

NOTICES OF PARTICULAR TRIBES. 

Of the river Indians, and generally of those with whom no treaties 
have been made, very little is to be added to tjie observations contained in my 
former reix)rt. In that paper, the Klikatat were treated as belonging to the 
eastern division of this Territory, to which their original location and affinities 
attach them. As, however, they are here spoken of as connected with the 
western division, some explanation is necessary. After the depopulation of 
the Columbia tribes by congestive fever, which took place between 1820 and 
1830, many of that tribe made their way down the Kathlaputl (Lewis 
River), and a part of them settled along the course of that river, while others 
crossed the Columbia and overran the Willamette Valley, more lately 
establishing themselves on the Umkwa. Within the last year (1855), they 
have been ordered by the superintendent of Oregon to return to their 
former home, and arc now chiefly in this part of the Territory. The present 



171 

generation, for the most part, look upon {ho Kathlaputl as their proper 
country, more especiaUy as they are intermarried with the remnant of the 
original proprietors. No correct census has at any time been made of the 
KHkatat, but they are estimated at from 300 to 400, exclusive of the Taiti- 
napam. 

Of the Willopah (Kwalhiokwa,) or, as they call themselves, Owhillapsh, 
there are yet, it appears, three or four families living on the heads of the 
Tsihalis River above the forks. According to the account of an old man, 
from whom the vocabulary was obtained, the Klatskanai, a kindred band^ 
till lately inhabiting the mountains on the southern side of the Columbia, 
and now also nearly extinct, formerly owned the prairies on the Tsihalis at 
the mouth of the Skukumchuk, but, on the failure of game, left the 
country and crossed the river. Both these bands subsisted chiefly by hunt- 
ing. As before mentioned, they are of the Tahkali stock, though divided 
by nearly six degrees of latitude from the parent tribe. The fact of these 
migrations of the Klikatat and Klatskanai within a recent period is impor- 
tant, as indicating the direction in which population has flowed, and the 
causes inducing this separation of tribes. 

At the council held on the Tsihalis in February, 1855, an opportunity 
was offered of ascertaining, with sufficient correctness, the numbers of 
these Indians, as also the particulars of the tribes intervening between them 
and the Makah of Cape Flattery. The name Chihalis, or TsihaUs, strictly 
belongs to the village on the beach at the entrance of Gray Harbor. The 
word itself signifies sand. It has, however, now become applied to all the 
bands inhabiting the bay and river. The Lower Tsihalis, or those from the 
mouth of the Satsop down, including the villages on the Whishkah and 
Wanulchi, and the few on Shoal water Bay, numbered in all but 217. 
These differ very little in anything except language from their Tsinuk neigh- 
bors. There were formerly five principal villages of the tribe on the river, 
seven on the north, and eight on the south side of the bay, and even within 
the recollection of American settlers the population was very considerable. 
Ka-kow-an, belonging to the Tsihalis village, a very old man, seems to 
have been the principal chief, and his son, Tu-le'-uk, now claims, in his 
placo, to be tlK3 head of tlic tribe. 



172 

The Upper Tsihalis, who for the present purpose may be mentioned 
here, are a connecting link between the Kowlitz, the Lower Tsihalis, and 
the Niskwalli. By the Indians on the sound they are known as Stak-ta- 
mish, or inland people; by others, as Nu-so-lupsh, a name apparently 
referring to the rapids in their stream, as the same is applied to the Upper 
Kowlitz, and by the Willopah as Kwu-teh-ni. Their country included 
generally all that drained by the Tsihalis above the mouth of the Satsop, 
embracing some of the most fertile land in the Territory. This tribe also 
is verging on extinction ; the total number, as near as could be ascertained, 
being 216. Their principal chief, at the time of the settlement by Ameri- 
cans, was Tsin-nit-ieh, a man of rather extensive influence. Since his 
death they can scarcely be said to have had one, though Gowannus is recog- 
nized by the agency as the nominal head. No treaties have as yet been 
concluded with any of the preceding. 

The Kwinaiutl, of which tribe the Kwe'hts-hu form part, were present 
at the council. This tribe speak little more than a dialect of the Lower 
Tsihalis tongue. They are mostly on or at the mouth of the two streams 
which bear their respective names. The Kwinaiutl is celebrated for its 
salmon, which are considered to excel in quality even those of the Columbia. 
The Kwillehiut were not represented at the council, though two boys 
belonging to the tribe accompanied the Kwinaiutl, probably sent to ascer- 
tain its objects. It had been supposed previously that the diflFerent branches 
of the latter extended to the Makah territory, and that all of them were 
present by their delegation. Under this supposition, they would have been 
treated with as a single tribe had not the accidental discovery of the essen- 
tial diflference in language led to more particular inquiry. This circum- 
stance of itself shows the importance of ethnological investigation in the 
management of Indian aflFairs. In classifying the languages of the distinct, 
I have provisionally placed the Kwille'hiut, as well as the Tsema-kum, of 
whom mention will be made hereafter, among those of the Selish family, 
conceiving the analogy to be sufficient to authorize the conclusion. The 
very great dissimilarity between them and the other adjacent tongues is, 
however, recognized by their neighbors, who say that they "speak like birds," 
a phrase commonly used in regard to language absolutely foreign. There 



173 

are two bands of this tribe, tlie KwiUe'luut, or Kwe-dee'-tut, and the Huch, 
or Kwaaksat. They are good seamen, and more nearly approach the 
Makah in daring than any of the others. 

The Kwille'hiut,and Kwinaiutt were included in a treaty separately, 
made subsequent to the general council of the coast tribes on the Tsihalis. 
The places for reservations were by that instrument left to be fixed by the 
President No settlements whatever have as yet been made in thfeir country, 
nor is it probable that there soon will be. 

Of all the tribes west of the Cascades, the Makah exhibit the most 
marked and characteristic traits, differing from the sound Indians in features 
and habits as much as language. Their intercourse with the whites has been 
very limited, and that not of a kind to make much change in their original 
customs. Physically, they have the type of the Nutka Indians. The 
expression indicates ferocity and treachery, for which indeed they have a 
wide reputation. The beard and moustache are well developed, and are not 
extirpated. The complexion, as is indeed the case with all these tribes, 
varies considerably, some being much darker than others, without reference 
to the intermixture of blood. Flattening the head though prevalent, is not 
carried to a great excess. In many respects, they are superior to their neigh- 
bors, being far more enterprising and exhibiting greater skill and industry 
in their manufactures ; and they are more moral, for they prostitute only 
slaves. This tribe had a considerable infusion of white blood, a Russian 
vessel having been cast away near here, as it is supposed, some thirty-five 
or forty years since, and the crew, being strong enough to protect them- 
selves, having lived among the Indians for some time before they were 
relieved. Several individuals were present at the council who in their feat- 
ures, complexion, and yellow hair bore the strongest proof of their Sclavonic 
origin. They have four principal or winter villages : Neeah, at the site of 
the old Spanish fort on Neeah Bay (Port Nufiez Gaona); Waatch, on the 
south side of Cape Flattery; Tsu-yess, in a cove or indentation a few miles 
south of it; and Osett, at the Flattery rocks. Another village on Neeah Bay 
has been abandoned since the prevalence of the small-pox in the fall of 1852, 
and the Klasset and Tatooche Island villages ai*e summer resorts. It is 
stated on the authority of Yallakilb, or Flattery Jack, that previous to the 



174 

sickness the tribe could muster 500 fighting men. The total of both sexes 
and all ages is now reduced to little more than that number. Both Yalla- 
kub and Kleh-sitt, or the white chief, died during that winter. The latter, 
a Russian half-breed, was the head of 'the tribe; Jack being however the 
best known, from his speaking a little English, and his greater familiarity 
with the traders. 

The Neeah village, at the time of our visit in January, 1855, consisted of 
two blocks of four or five houses each built close together. The largest single 
house was about seventy-five feet long by forty in width, and probably fifteen 
feet high in front, the whole constituting one room. The frame consisted of 
heavy posts set in the ground, supporting rafters, some of which were at least 
eighteen inches in thickness at the butt. The labor of raising them to their 
position, with no aid from machinery, may be imagined. The sides were formed 
of planks placed horizontally, and secured by upright poles, inside and out, 
at a few feet apart, to which they were tied through small apertures by 
withes. The roof, like those of the Sound Indians, was made of boards, 
guttered out and lapping one over another. Each house is occupied by 
several families, their respective portions being separated by a partition of two 
or three feet high. Chests of quite large size, and very neatly made consid- 
ering the tools employed, contained the personal chattels of the owners. A 
raised platform ran around the house, on which the inhabitants sat, slept, or 
worked; and overhead were shelves and poles on which their property was 
stowed. A more miscellaneous assortment could hardly be found at a pawn- 
broker's. Seal-skins full of oil, baskets of dried halibut and salmon, flitches 
of blubber, whaling apparatus, paddles, bundles of mats, articles of all sorts 
from wrecked vessels, boxes and bags of every description, hung, lay, or 
stood in endless variety and confusion. Some of the other houses were 
nearly as large. Into one, a canoe thirty-six feet in length had been introduced 
for the purpose of repairing, nor did it occupy any inconvenient room. 
Mr. Goldsborough, who visited the village in 1850, informed me that the 
houses generally were on an even larger scale at that time ; that Flatteiy 
Jack's house was no less than one hundred feet in length, and that about 
twenty women were busily engaged in it making bark mats and dogs'-hair 
blankets. One of the blocks is partly suiTounded with a stockade of 



175 

puncheons twelve or fifteen feet high, strengthened by very large posts, 
into which a tie-beam is mortised. 

The Makah are, as has been mentioned before, almost exclusively 
maritime in their habits; their countiy being very small, broken, and rocky. 
They pursue the whal6 in their canoes even out of sight of land, and attack 
him with a daring that would not disgrace New England fishermen. On 
one occasion, a canoe was gone five days. The men succeeded in killing 
the whale, and subsisted on the blubber, chewing some roots which they 
had with them for want of water. After all, they were compelled to abandon 
the fish. Their tackle consists of a hai-poon, the point formerly edged with 
shell, now usually with copper, veiy firmly secured to a line, and attached 
lightly to a shaft about fifteen feet long, to which also the line is made fast; a 
seal-skin float is attached by another line, and serves to buoy the whale when 
struck. The scene of the capture is described by eye-witnesses as very 
exciting, ten canoes being sometimes engaged, the crews yelling and dash- 
ing their paddles with frantic Eagerness. When taken, the whale, buoyed 
up with floats, is towed in triumph to the village and cut up. They for- 
merly tried out the oil by placing the blubber, after it had become softened, 
into boxes, and melting it outwith heated stones. The oil is kept in the paunch 
of the whale, or in seal-skins and bladders, and is used as an article of food 
as well as for trade. The season commences in MarcL The Makah were 
till lately in the habit of purchasing oil fi'om the Nittinat also, and have 
traded in a single season, it is said, as much as 30,000 gallons. Previous 
to becoming whalers, the young men go through a species of probation, 
probably similar to that of the Tamahno-us. A portion of them only attain 
the dignity of whalers, a second class devote themselves to halibut, and a 
third to salmon and inferior fish, the occupations being kept distinct, at least, 
in a great measure. The larger class of canoes generally belong to a single 
individual and he receives a proportionate share of the booty from the crew. 
The halibut season is from March to May, when the salmon fishery com- 
mences. This last is by trolling. Very few of the fall salmon are taken. 
Cod are obtained at the entrance of the straits, and other kinds of fish are 
abundant at all seasons, among which is the Riislikao, apparently a species 
of perch, of very good quality. Muscles and echini of large size are also 



176 

abundant. Sea-otter are not obtained at the cape, but the Indians pur- 
chased them of the Nittinat, and carried them to Victoria for sale. For- 
merly they raised a large quantity of potatoes; but since the sickness they 
have neglected this provision. 

The Makah bore the nose as well as ears^ and both men and women 
wear ornaments in them, generally; in the former, a small triangular bit of 
shell, in the latter, larger pieces. The men for the most part wear nothing 
but a blanket; the women, a breech-clout, and blanket of dogs* hair or 
down, or a cedar bark robe. A few of the men, at the time of the council, 
had bear skins tied around the throat with the fur out; and as they sat on the 
ground, the skins encircling them and covering the face to the nose, they 
made a very picturesque appearance. Their hats, when they wear any, are 
of the conical form common along the coast Their finest manufactiu-es 
are the blankets already mentioned. Those of dogs' hair and down are 
common to other parts of the sound, more particularly those which have 
least communication with the whites, as hbmespim articles here, as else- 
where, give place to "store goods" with advancing civilization. The cedar 
blankets and robes are known almost exclusively to be their own; they are 
very nicely made, and quite pliable. Their dishes resemble those of the 
northern Indians, of which many specimens have found their way to the 
States; long, shallow trays serving to hold the common mess, and smaller 
square ones for the individual portion. 

The Makah before they were broken by sickness carried their war- 
parties to some distance. They are still on ,bad terms with the Soke and 
Psong of Vancouver Inland, as well as with their inmiediate neighbors to 
the south, the Kwillehiut They chastised the Tsemakum of Port Town- 
send before the Klallam attacked them, and not long since threatened the 
Klallam also, but the difficulty was arranged by King George, the E^allam 
chief, giving his sister to the white chief in marriage; a regal settlement of 
difficulties worthy of European diplomacy. 

On occasion of the treaty made with them by Governor Stevens, in 
January last, the Makah were first brought into official intercourse with 
the whites. Previous to that time, they had declined to receive papers from 
the agent, Colonel ' Simmons, being under apprehensions that they would 



177 

bring back the small-pox. By llie governor's direction, they, on that occa- 
sion, named two subchiefs from each village, from whom he selected an 
Osett, named Tse-kau-utl, as head chief. This treaty secured to them the 
point of the peninsula, including the site of the old Spanish fort, on Neeah 
Bay, and the Waatch village on the coast. 

The Klallam I consider to be another branch of the Selish, though of 
a more remote origin than the Niskwalli. Their opposite neighbors of 
Vancouver Island, the Soke or Tsohke of Soke Inlet, and the Tsong or 
Songhu of Victoria belong to the same connection. The tribe is still a 
numerous one though like others of the district, considerably reduced. A 
few families have removed to, and are permanently settled on, the island. 
Their proper country lies on the straits between the Okeho River and Point 
Wilson; but, after the reduction of the Tsemakum, many of them estab- 
lished themselves at Port Townshend. The Klallam were embraced in the 
same treaty with the Tsemakum and the Skokomish, and a common i^eser* 
vation made for them at the head of Hood Canal. Since the death of 
S'Hai-ak, or King George, Tsitz-a-mah-han, or Duke of York, has been 
recognized as the head chief. Their total number is now 926. Their princi- 
pal villages are Okeho, at the mouth of that river; Pishtst, on Klallam Bay; 
Elwa, at the mouth of a stream so called; Yinnis, at False Dungeness; 
Stehtlum, at New Dungeness; Kahkwaitl, at Port Discovery; and a recent 
one at Kahtai, or Port Townshend. 

The Tsemakum are reduced to 90 souls. Their original country 

embraced Port Townshend, Port Ludlow, and Port Gamble. The tribe 

probably was never a very large one, but has been noted among all its 

neighbors for its pugnacity. It has been successively engaged in wars 

with the Makah, Klallam, Toan-huch, Snohomish, and D wamish, in all of 

which it suflFered severely. Their present chief is Elsakweoit These as 

before mentioned have, like the Kwillehiut, been classed with the Selish 

tribes. Singularly enough, while their languages exhibit greater resemblance 

to each other, notwithstanding their relative position, than do either to their 

immediate neighbors, the Tsemakum is literally an unknown tongue to 

the rest ; not an individual, it is said, out of the tribe being acquainted with 
12 



178 

it, a circumstance very unusual among Indians. In their modes of sub- 
sistence, habits, &c., they do not diflFer noticeably from their neighbors. 

There remains on these waters what may be termed the Niskwalli 
nation, which is thus divided, pursuing the geographical order : 

1st The Skokomish, of whom the Toanhuch seems to be another 
name only, said to mean in the Klallam tongue "a portage". Of these, there 
were formerly several bands, as the Kwulseet and others, whose names are 
preserved in those of diflFerent localities. They occupy both sides of Hood 
Canal above Port Gamble, and number 290 souls. Their chief is now 
Hol-hol-tin, better known as Jim. As already mentioned, the Skokomish 
were embraced in the same treaty with their neighbors, the Klallams and 
Tsemakums. Their language constitutes a distinct one, differing so far 
from that of the Niskwalli as not to be generally understood. The 
Skwawksin, or Skwawksnamish, who occupy the isthmus between Hood 
Canal and Case Inlet, in some respects more properly belong to this con- 
nection than to the Sound Indians. 

2d. The bands occupying Puget Sound and the inlets opening into 
it as far down as Point Pully. These all speak the same dialect, the Nis- 
kwalli proper, and were all included in treaties made at Shenah-nam, or 
Medicine Creek, December, 1854, since ratified by the Senate. They num- 
ber collectively 893. A division might be made of these into three sub- 
tribes, the first consisting of the S'Hotlemamish of Case Inlet, Saheh- 
wamish of Hamersly Inlet, Sawamish of Totten Inlet, Skwai-aitl of Eld 
Inlet, Stehtsasamish of Budd Inlet, and Nusehtsatl of South Bay or 
Henderson Inlet; the second consisting of the Skwalliahmish or Niskwal- 
li, including the Segwallitsu, Steilakumahmish, and other small bands; 
the third of the Puyallupahmish, T'Kawkwamish, and S'Homamish of the 
Puyallup River and Vashon Island. The first are properly salt water 
Indians ; the second are for the most part like the Staktamish, or Upper 
Tsihalis, equestrian in their habits, and the last are River and Sound Indians. 
Three reservations were assigned to these bands as permanent homes, each 
consisting of about two sections of land; one being the small island at the 
mouth of Hammersly Inlet or Skiikum Bay, another upon the sound near 
the Niskwalli, and a third upon Commencement Bay. These are all upon 



179 

the water, and are suitable for fishing stations. As, however, none of them 
afford pasture land, it will be desirable that when negotiations are concluded 
with the Upper Tsihalis some provisions be made of a tract suitable for 
animals, to which all those possessing them can resort in common. By the 
treaty Kwi-e-mihl and Sno-ho-dum-sit were designated as head chiefs of the 
bands embraced within its provisions. 

Below these is the division of which the Dwamish and Sflkwamish are 
. the principal bands, occupying Elliott Bay, Bainbridge Island, and a portion 
of the peninsula between Hood Canal and Admiralty Inlet. Their head 
chief is Se-aa-thl, or, as it is usually pronounced, Seattle, from whom the town 
on Elliott Bay has been named. In this connection are albo the Samamish, 
Skopahmish, Sk'tehlmish, St'kamish, and other small bands lying upon the 
lake sand the branches of Dwamish River, who are claimed by the others as 
part of their tribe, but have in reality very little connection with them. A 
very few of these last possess horses, but the majority are river Indians. The 
aggregate number of the whole was by census 807, which probably falls a 
little short of the truth. They differ but slightly from the Niskwalli in 
language. These tribes were included with all the others of the eastern 
shore and the islands in the treaty of Mukleteoh, or Point Elliott. A 
reserve of two sections was retained for them at Port Madison. 

3d. The Snohomish, with whom are included the Snokwalmu, Ski- 
whamish, Sk'tah-le-jum, Kwelitl-ma-mish, and Stolutswhamish, living on the 
Snohomish and Stolutswhamish Rivers. The Snohomish tribe itself occupies 
only the country at its mouth and the lower end of Whidbey Island ; the 
upper part of the river belonging to the Snokwalmu, &c. They number 
441 souls, and the other bands, collectively, 566. At the time of the treaty 
they were all placed under Patkanam, the chief of the latter. It is observ- 
able that though the connection between them is most intimate, the Snoho- 
mish assimilate in dialect to the next tribe, the Skagit, while the Snokwal- 
mu speak the Niskwalli in its purity. In the treaty of Point Elliott, the 
reservation for this division was fixed at two sections on a small creek 
emptying into the bay formed by the mouth of the Snohomish River. A 
central reservation of one township, to include the former, intended for the 
general agency of the Puget Sound district, and as an ultimate home for 



180 

all the tribes, was contemplated at the same place. The small bay known as 
Tulalip Bay, upon which is a saw mill, affords an excellent site for this pur- 
pose ; and the land in the neighborhood, being easily cleared and of good 
quality, would enable the Indians in a great measure to subsist themselves. 
The Snokwalmu and other upper bands of this division possess a few 
horses, and are much intermarried with the Yakama Indians, here indiscrim- 
inately called Klikatat. They hunt as well as fish; their neighborhood to 
the mountains and more active and energetic character giving them a supe- 
riority in this respect. One of the two principal trails across the Cascade 
Mountains, that by way of the main Yakama, passes through their country ; 
the Nahchess trail leading from White River. 

4th. The Skagits, including the Kikiallu, Nilkwatsamish, Tow-ah-ha, 
Smali-hu, Sakumehu, Miskaiwhu, Miseekwigweelis, Swinamish, and Skwo- 
namish, occupy the remaining country between the Snohomish and BelHng- 
ham Bay, with the northern part of Whidbey Island and PeiTy Island. 
With them a different dialect prevails, though not so distinct but what they 
can be understood by those already mentioned. They altogether amount 
to 1,475, and have been assigned Goliah as head chief This division have 
no horses, but are altogether canoe Indians. With the exception of the 
islands and the immediate shore of the main, their country is altogether 
unexplored They formerly had some communication with the Indians 
beyond the mountains; but it is supposed to have been discontinued in con- 
sequence of obstructions to their trails. The Skagit reservation, as agreed 
upon in the treaty, was the peninsula forming the southeastern extremity of 
Perry Island. 

5th. The Samish, Lummi, Nuksahk, living around Bellingham Bay 
and the Lummi River. The two former are salt water, the last exclusively 
river Indians, who as yet have had very little connection with the whites. 
Collectively, these might be called the Nuh-lum-mi. Tsow-its-hut was 
recognized as their common chief by the treaty, and a reservation made for 
them of an island at the forks of the river. Altogether they number 680. 
The languages of the Lummi, at the mouth of the river, and of the Nuk- 
sahk, a few miles higher up, differ so much as to be almost unintelligible to 
one another. The latter seems to approach more nearly to that of Frazer 



181 

River, and, in fact, their principal intercourse is with Fort Langly and the 
Indians hi that direction. The above tribes were also treated with at Point 
Elliott It is believed that there is no other permanently located on the 
main shore south of the boundary line; but some of the Vancouver Island 
Indians cross over in the fishing season. The names of tribes living to the 
north of the Niskwalli, cited by Mr. Hale on the authority of a Canadian, 
it may be mentioned are recognizable in those of Puyallup, Sukwamish, 
Skagit, and Kowitsin or Kawitshen. 

With these end the Niskwalli nation. The enumeration here given 
may be relied on as substantially correct. It was taken by Colonel Sim- 
mons while distributing presents, and when almost all the Indians were got 
in. The result is, for the Niskwalli connection, a total of 5,242; for the 
total population of the Sound and Straits of Fuca, 6,258. Adding to this 
the most recent enumeration, or estimate, of the coast and Columbia River 
tribes, the Indian population of the district may be assumed at 8,687. 

This total, as well as the details, differs considerably from the estimates 
made in January, 1854, and, indeed, from the census taken in the winter of 
1854-55, while the treaties were progressing. It seems t^ be pretty certain 
that the lower tribes, instead of diminishing, are on the increase. This is to 
be attributed in some measure to their being at peace among themselves and 
protected by the settlements from northern invasion, and to the fact that no 
epidemic diseases have recently attacked them. 

POPULATION. 

In my report to Captain McClellan, I made an attempt to compare all 
the estimates of the Indian population of the Territory which was within 
my reach. Since then, an actual count or census of most of the tribes in 
this part of the Territory has been twice attempted, once by myself and 
once by Colonel Simmons. In considering the different statements which 
have been made from time to time, I am well satisfied that none of 
them can be taken as the basis of any accurate calculations respecting the 
ratio of increase or diminution, and I am further inclined to the opinion that 
the aggiegate former population, taking one period with another, has never 
been very much greater than within our knowledge of it In arriving at 






182 

any conclusion, it is necessary to regard not merely the actual facta of 
increase or mortality known to us, but the capacity of the country to fur- 
nish subsistence, the modes of obtaining it followed by the Indians, their 
general character and habits, their fecundity, their wars, and various other 
circumstances directly or indirectly bearing upon life. That the estimates, 
even of residents, cannot be relied upon with confidence, has been made 
sufficiently evident by the discrepancies in our different attempts at an actual 
enumeration, and those of travelei*s, like Lewis and Clarke, are likely to 
have been still wider from the fact Still, as no other data exist upon 
which to found any opinion, we are driven to assume these for the purpose 
of discussion. 

The population of the Columbia, below the Cascades, was veiy probably 
at its height early in the present century. None of the early writers men- 
tion the indications of previous mortality as remarkable in extent; and this 
negative evidence is almost conclusive when taken in connection with their 
subsequent multiplication between 1820 and 1830. Lewis and Clarke, in 
1806, estimated the total number at about 8,600, which is within the bounds 
of probability. They in fact seem to have rather underrated the four 
lower bands of Tsinuk, whom they place at 1,100 souls, whereas Mr. 
Irving, on the authority of the fur-traders, but a few years later, gives their 
number of wamors alone at 554, a force requiring a much larger total. 
The same period may also be assumed as the date of greatest prosperity of 
the tribes on the coast and on the Kowlitz and the Tsihalis Rivers. The 
estimate of the former, founded on Indian authority and aided by the 
reported number of houses, gives a total of 4,300, not an excessive one, if 
the Makah are included, as seems to be the case. Of the Kowlitz and 
Upper Tsihalis, who are not mentioned by them, 4,000 may be admitted as 
the extreme. 

According to Vancouver, it would appear that the Sound tribes had 
suffered from some great calamity previous to his visit in the spring of 1792. 
In all those waters from Port Discovery to head of the sound, during a 
minute survey, he did not meet with over 1,200 Indians, and at least half of 
these must have belonged to the Skagit and Snohomish. The season of 
the year was too early for them to have left the water in search of roots and 



183 

berries; and those that he saw manifested no alarm at his presence, which 
would induce the idea that others had fled in consequence of his approach. 
Besides the quantity of bones which he met with in different places, and 
more particularly the neglect with which they were treated, indicated the 
recent presence of some pestilence. As nearly corresponding with the time 
when Lewis and Clarke supposed the small-pox to have visited the Dalles, 
it is not improbable that this disease had prevailed here also, though Van- 
couver does not speak of its marks upon the survivors as being very recent. 
War could not have been the cause of such widespread effects, as their hos- 
tilities never resulted in much bloodshed within a short time, though acting 
as a steady check on population. After Vancouver's visit, there must have 
been a very considerable increase, which according to Indian account, has 
. been since, at two or three different times, affected by epidemic diseases. 

In the district referred to, there are at this time over 5,000 Indians; 
and while the tribes lower down the sound are increasing, as appears by tlie 
number of children, others in more intimate connection with the whites have 
greatly fallen off, and some are nearly extinct It would seem, therefore, 
as if constant fluctuations from natural causes, not arising out of the settle- 
ment of the country, had existed among them from an early time, and the 
inference would be that their total number had never greatly exceeded that 
which they have reached since the discovery. Too great stress is not to be 
laid upon the assertion of the Indians themselves that they were once a great 
many, for their ideas of number are vague at the best, and the recollection 
of any former mortality would probably be exaggerated, while the after- 
increase would be disregarded. I should consider a population of 8,000 for 
the tribes within the Stiwts of Fuca as the utmost which they have ever 
reached. Mr. Finlayson, of the Hudson Bay Company, made a count of 
the Klallam in 1845, and ascertained their numbers to be 1,760. Taking 
this as their maximum at any one time, the total number of Indians in this 
Territory, west of the Cascade Mountains, during their most flourishing 
epoch, and on the supposition that the condition existed simultaneously to 
all of them, would amount to 26,800, or about three times their present 
number. This seems to me as great a bo'ly as the country could have 
supported according to their modes of life, and certainly is in itself formid- 



184 

able. It is most probable however, that the whole were never at once in 
the same condition of prosperity, but that fluctuations occurred among dif- 
ferent tribes at various times. Mr. Hale, to whose work I have only recently 
had access, does not touch upon the Sound tribes, with the exception of the 
Niskwalli (Skwale); and the estimates furnished by Captain Wilkes in the 
same year (1841), although covering a portion of the deficiency, are yet 
very incomplete, and do not coincide with the others in those mentioned by 
both. The census of a portion of the Sound tribes, made by Dr. Tolmie in 
1844, and published in the former report, is, though undoubtedly more ' 
accurate tlian the above so far as it goes, but a very partial one. I have 
endeavored to combine all these, on the assumption that no great changes 
had taken place in tliat interval, but without being able to arrive at any 
valuable result as regards details. It seems probable, however, that the. 
total population of the western district at that time reached 15,000, and that 
the tribes most exempt from diminution since have been those of the eastern 
shore of the sound below the Puyallup River. 

The more recent estimates of General Lane, in 1849, I have passed 
over as being mere estimates, and not entirely complete. They cannot aid 
in any way in drawing accurate conclusions. 

On one point connected with the subject of population, a fact of ethno- 
logical importance may be referred to, viz, the very small number of indig- 
enous half-breeds. Notwithstanding the length of time that the fur com- 
panies have occupied the country, and the almost universal connection of 
its employes with native women on permanent terms, the number of metifs 
is hardly appreciable. 

TRIBAL ORGANIZATION AND GOVERNMENT. 

No division of tribes into clans is observable, nor any organization 
similar to the eastern tribes, neither have the Indians of this Territory 
emblematical distinctions resembling the totem. Among some of the northern 
tribes, as I am assured by Mr. John Work, of the Hudson Bay Company's 
service, these exist. As regards the chiefdom, it is theoretically hereditary; 
but if on the death of a chief the eldest son is objectionable from stupidity 
or bad reputation, it is said that the tribe sometimes set him aside for the 



185 

next. If a chiers sons are too young to govern, his brother or next relative 
succeeds him and continues chief till his death, when the office reverts to 
the son of the elder. It is not unusual to find men living as chiefs over the 
mother's tribe instead of the father s. This is the case with Seahtl among the 
Dwamish. The reason seems to be that on the death of the father the 
children, if young, are often carried back by the mother to her own people 
and brought up among them. It does not appear that the title in such cases 
descends in the female line. With the exception of a very few men of whom 
reputation for courage or sagacity is considerable, and whose influence is 
in consequence extended over a tribe, their nominal chiefs have no control 
beyond their own petty bands, nor is it potent even there. Wealth gives a 
certain power among them, and influence is purchased by its lavish distri- 
bution. There is no class of braves, or warriors, and no distinction between 
war and peace chiefs. The decision of all questions of moment depends 
upon the will of the majority interested, but there is no compulsion upon 
the minority. To this fact, as will elsewhere be noticed, seems to be due in 
some degree, the splitting up and subdivision of tribes. In fact, society is 
perfectly democratic, because in the absence of government or authority, 
it cannot be otherwise. There is no priesthood aside from the tamahnous 
men, or doctors, who have by virtue of their office an important part to 
play as leading the ceremonial incantations which accompany proceedings 
of general interest. In their councils, every one has the right of speaking, 
and assent or dissent is ascertained by exclamation or silence. Some of 
them are effective orators, though in general their eloquence is of a very 
noisy and vociferous kind. The women are present at, and join in, these 
talks, speaking in a low tone, their words being repeated aloud by a 
reporter. On occasions of less ceremony, they sometimes address the audi- 
ence without any such intervention, and give their admonitions with a free- 
dom of tongue highly edifying. In a few instances, matrons of superior 
character, ^^ strong minded women", have obtained an influence similar to 
that of chiefs. Sally, the widow of Tsenahmus, a Tsinuk cliief, well 
known on the Lower Columbia, enjoys great authority among the Indians 
and general immunity from the whites. The queen, an old lady of the 
Tsihalis, who patronized Captain Wilkes's party in 1841, yet rules her neigh- 



186 

borhood with undisputed sway, and on occasion oCthe late council "put in 
her oar" with considerable eflFect against a removal. After the talks, time is 
generally taken by the assembly to consider the matter in hand before a 
final action is decided. The feasts at which their principal consultations 
generally take place will be mentioned hereafter. They are given by some 
leading chief or rich man, who takes the office upon himself with a view of 
bringing himself conspicuously before the public. 

Property. — ^As far as I can gather the views of tlie Sound tribes, they 
recognize no individual right to land except actual occupancy. This seems 
to be respected to this extent, that if a man has cleared a spot of land for 
cultivation, he can hold it on the return of the season for planting from year 
to year, as long as he sees fit. So in their villages, the site of a house per- 
tains to the individual as long as he leaves any vestige or evidence of a 
building on it. Among the Tsinuk and Lower Tsihalis, the right may 
have been carried somewhat further, but unsettled lands away from their 
usual haunts are but Kttle regarded. Tribes are, however, somewhat tena- 
cious of territorial right, and well understand their respective limits; but this 
seems to be merely as regards their title, and they never, it is believed, 
exclude from them other fi-iendly tribes. It would appear also that these 
lands are considered to survive to the last remnant of a tribe, after its exist- 
ence as such has in fact ceased. There seems to be, in some instances, a 
vague claim by chiefs to territorial sovereignty, as for example among the 
Makah, where any wrecked property floats ashore the proprietor claims 
from the finder a portion of it, and it is said payment is exacted for the use 
of particular pieces of ground. Cases have been mentioned of a claim by a 
chief to the ownership of the whole country occupied by his tribe ; but these 
do not seem to have any foundation in acknowledged right, or to be actually 
maintained. Sneetlum, the former chief of the Skagit, is said to have made 
such pretensions. As regai-ds the fisheries, they are held in common, and 
no tribe pretends to claim from another, or from individuals, seigniorage for 
the right of taking. In fact, such a claim would be inconvenient to all par- 
ties, as the Indians move about, on the sound particularly, from one to 
another locality, according to the season. Nor do they have disputes as to 



187 

their hunting grounds. Land and sea appear to be open to all with whom 
they are not at war. Their local attachments are very strong, as might be 
inferred with regard to a race having fixed abodes, and they part from their 
favorite grounds and burial-places with the utmost reluctance. 

As regards the right of property in houses or goods, their ideas are 
naturally clearer. The maker of anj^'thing is its necessary owner until he 
voluntarily parts with its possession. So also the captor of fish or game, 
the one who digs roots or raises vegetables ; but it is not probable that they 
have ever speculated upon the origin of this right, nor would their minds 
comprehend any abstract reasoning upon the subject They have customs, 
however, in some respects peculiar to themselves. Not only do the men own 
property distinct from their wives, but (which is a consequence following on 
polygamy) their wives own each her private eflFects, separate from her 
husband as well as from the others. He has his own blankets, she her 
mats and baskets and generally speaking her earnings belong to her, except 
those arising from prostitution, which are her husband's. On the decease of 
a man, his property is immediately taken possession of by his relatives, and 
what is not destroyed or displayed at his grave is divided among them, his 
sons if grown up taking a part ; his wives get nothing whatever, nor young 
children, but unless appropriated by the men, return to their own people, 
taking the latter with them. Another custom in respect to property is that 
the seller of a horse, slave, or woman guarantees life and safety for a time. 
If they escape or die within perhaps a month or two, the purchaser can 
demand back the price. As a general thing, they do not dispose of property 
before death. Instances happen of course when they express the wish that 
individuals should have particular articles, but is not always regarded. 
Judge Ford informed me that one day the Indians announced to him the 
death of a man near by. The next they told him that he was alive again, 
and that he said he had not disposed of his horses to suit him, and had 
come back for that purpose, that he had now done so and was going to die 
again, which he accordingly did during the day, and that time in earnest 
This sort of coma preceding death, it should be remarked in explanation, 
seems to be not uncommon. 



188 

Slavery. — Slavery is thoroughly interwoven with the social polity of 
the Indians of the coast section of Oregon and Washington Territory. 
East of the Cascades, though it exists, it is not so common; the equestrian 
habits of the tribes living there probably rendering it less profitable or 
convenient than among the more settled inhabitants of the coast. South- 
ward it ceases, so far as my observation has gone, with the Siskiou Mount- 
ains, which divide Oregon from California. Many of the slaves held here 
are, however, brought from California, where they were taken by the war- 
like and predatory Indians of the plains, and sold to the Kallapuia and 
Tsinuk. The system probably originated in wars, all prisoners becom- 
ing slaves as a matter of course, though as usual they have some fanciful 
modes of accounting for it. Thus some of the Sound Indians told Colonel 
Simmons that the first was made on the occasion of a great feast, when one 
of the guests criticised the cooking of the fish. The others, disgusted at 
his ill-breeding, debated upon his punishment. Some were for killing him; 
but it was finally decided to make him a slave, that he might always serve 
his insulted host, which accordingly was done. However this may be, the 
occasions of making them have since greatly Multiplied. Thus, if one 
Indian has wronged another, and failed to make compensation, or if a 
debtor is insolent, he may be taken as a slave. Their mode of procedure is 
characterized by their wonted deliberation. The plaintiff comes with a 
party to demand satisfaction, and holds out to the other the option of pay- 
ment or servitude. If no satisfaction is given he must submit unless he is 
strong enough to do battle. And this slavery is final degradation. The 
rule of once a slave always a slave extends so far that if the debtor should 
have given up some relative in his power, and subsequently redeems him, 
he becomes his slave in turn. If a man purchase his father or mother, 
they become his slaves, and are treated as such. The children of slaves 
by others are slaves likewise. And the children of a man by his own 
slaves are but half free ; they do not rank as seahb-viri. Even if one pur- 
chases his own freedom, he is yet looked upon as an inferior. A distinction 
is to be made as regards women, that whereas in one sense they are always 
slaves or property, yet when a man sells or pays away his sister or daughter, 
she, if bom of free parents, becomes the wife of the creditor or purchaser, 



189 

and as such does not follow the rule of distribution, but on the death of 
her husband returns to her tribe or family. The number of persons thus 
held upon the Sound is less than farther north, but probably amounts to 
one-tenth of the population. Many of them belong to distant tribes, and 
others belonging to these are held elsewhere. The system has been the 
cause of constant disturbance among themselves, as well as of wars with 
their neighbors ; for not only were the latter often made for the purpose of 
obtaining them, but the occasional escape or stealing of. slaves created 
difficulty and led to retaliation. For this reason, it was thought expedient 
in the treaties with the Sound tribes to stipulate its abolition. The life of a 
slave was entirely at the disposal of his master or mistress, and it was for- 
merly customary among most of the tribes to kill part at least on the death 
of the owners. At Tsinuk, as lately as 1850, an attempt was made to 
starve a little slave girl to death, who had been given to a child in the 
family, previously deceased, and her life was only saved by the intervention 
of the citizens, who offered to pay her price, representing that it would be as 
good to destroy the value in merchandise, and adding the weight of a threat 
in case of refusal. 

Dr. Tolmie informs me that the course of the slave trade has always 
been from south to north; the only exception in his knowledge being that 
the Kowlitz Indians, formerly a very strong tribe, used to make forays on 
the Sound and carry their prisoners to the Columbia River. 

Retaliation. — ^The law of life for life is fully recognized, subject, how- 
ever, to compromise on payment of damages. The procedure is about as 
follows: If one Indian has taken another's Kfe, the revenge is not immediate; 
it is talked over for some time, perhaps months, during which any overture 
for settlement can be made. If none is offered, the relatives of the deceased, 
with a sufficient party of their friends, proceed to the murderer and make a 
demand on him for satisfaction. If he or his friends can make up a sufficient 
amount of goods to appease the next of kin, the affair is settled, the other 
friends being paid something for their trouble in the matter, and some return 
18 then usually made by them in token that peace is restored. If the mur- 
derer cannot himself make a suitable recompense, or his friends will not 



190 

assist him, they then take his life, and the affair stops, no hostility being 
provoked anew by the act. The amount to be paid as blood-money depends 
upon the importance of the person killed; women being of less value than 
men. Ten blankets will generally pay for a common person. Occasionally, 
the individual sought for, instead of compromising, makes fight, especially if a 
chief or a man of influence, in which case a qiuxsi war arises between the two 
tribes or factions. It generally terminates without much bloodshed, and 
leads to an amicable arrangement. This system of retaliation, which is 
carried out in every matter, and takes the place of civil process for debt, as 
well as actions for torts or criminal prosecutions, has worked much mischief 
among the Indians, and been one source of slavery, as well as of the break- 
ing-up of the tribes. The principal cause arises in the event of death under 
the hands of the doctor, as he always receives his fee in advance, and on the 
understanding that he is to cure his patient So, if not successful in his 
conjurations, he is called upon to refund, perhaps with damages, or, in case 
of failure, is set upon and killed in turn. Should the patient, however, on 
his death-bed, attribute his fate to the malignant tamahno-us of the practi- 
tioner, his friends do not trouble themselves with any preliminaries, but dis- 
patch him at sight. 

Wars. — Until the influence of the whites came to be sensibly felt, and 
their numbers thinned by disease, a state of petty warfare prevailed between 
many of the different tribes. Even now among those who have been less inti- 

« 

mate in their new relations, some such condition of things exists, and jealousy 
of each other is universal. It has been a matter of great amusement among 
travelers to be told by every successive band that just beyond them the 
Indians were very bad; any worse than the last, however, never being 
reached, but, like an ignis fatuus^ keeping a little ahead. Their wars among 
themselves, it is probable, were never very bloody. • Ross Cox gives a very 
graphic account of the Tsinuk method, which was probably not far from 
correct. Having once determined on hostilities, they give notice to the 
enemy of the day on which they intend to make the attack, and having 
previously engaged as auxiliaries a number of young men whom they pay 
for that purpose, they embark in canoes for the scene of action. Several of 



191 

their women accompany them on their expeditions, and assist in working the 
canoes. On arriving at the enemy's village, they enter into a parley, and 
endeavor by negotiation to terminate the quarrel amicably. Sometimes a 
third party, who preserves a strict neutrality, undertakes the office of 
mediator; but should their joint eflForts fail in procuring redress, they imme- 
diately prepare for action. Should the day be far advanced, the combat is 
deferred by mutual consent till the following morning, and they pass the 
night intervening in frightful yells and making use of abusive and insulting 
language to each other. They generally fight from their canoes, which they 
take care to incline to one side presenting the higher flank to the enemy; 
and in this position with their bodies quite bent the battle commences. 
Owing to the curve of their canoes, and their impenetrable armor, it is seldom 
bloody; and as soon as one or two men fall, the party to whom they belong 
acknowledge themselves vanquished and the combat ceases. If the assail- 
ants be unsuccessful, they return without redress; but if conquerors, they 
receive various presents from the vanquished party in addition to their 
original demand. The women and children are always sent away before 
the engagement commences. 

The same description will apply to most of the battles on the Sound, 
except where northera tribes are concerned, who are more warlike and 
ferocious. Most of those which have been witnessed by early settlers con- 
sisted chiefly in howling at night and firing their guns, beyond bullet-range, 
in the day; their faces are painted in accordance. But there are some 
instances of more determined conduct The now almost extinct tribe of 
Tsemakum, living on Port Townshend, were, by the common report, very 
troublesome neighbors, and on bad terms with all. They were first broken 
by the Makah, who partake of the superior courage of their race. They 
are said also to have had a great fight with the Snohomish many years ago, 
and some seven years since were attacked and their fort destroyed by the 
Sukwamish, under Seahtl. In these affrays, as well as in a fight between 
the Klallam and Snohomish, a number of lives were lost. But the real 
method of warfare among them was by murder, overpowering individuals 
by numbers, or killing them by stealth and unawares. In this way, their 
wars, so to call them, were kept up. 



192 

The armor mentioned by Cox consisted of an elk skin shirt, remarkably- 
thick, doubled, and thrown over the shoulders, with holes for the arms. It 
descends to the ankles, and from the thickness of the leather is perfectly- 
arrow proof. The head is covered with a species of helmet made of cedar- 
bark, bear grass, and leather, and is also impenetrable by arrows. The 
neck, therefore, is the only vital part of the body exposed to danger in 
action. In addition to the above they have another kind of armor, which 
they occasionally wear in place of the leathern shirt It is a species of 
coraet formed of thin slips of hard wood, ingeniously laced together by bear 
grass and is much lighter and more pliable than the former; but it does not 
cover so much of the body. Neither is any longer used in this Territory.* 

The Sound Indians, but more paii;icularly those on the Straits of Fuca, 
sometimes fortify their dwellings by stockades made of heavy puncheons 
twelve or fifteen feet high, set in the ground, and strengthened by large 
posts and cross pieces. These were loop holed, and calculated very well 
to serve even against muskets. 

The bow and arrow, and a heavy club carved at the end, were their 
original weapons. They have gone almost entirely out of use, not being 
often employed even for game except among the Makah, who still adhere 
to them. The arrows are pointed with hard wood or bone, and resemble in 
every respect the figures in the third volume of Mr. Schoolcraft's work. 
Tliey are in no respect equal in workmanship to those of the interior or the 
coast of California. 

None of the western tribes within my observation have pursued the 
practice of scalping the slain, nor do they wear scalp-locks. The Indians 
on the Straits of Puca and thence northward decapitate their enemies, as 
was noticed by Vancouver. While surv^eying Port Townshend, he saw on 
one of the low points of Craven Peninsula, " two upright poles set in the 
ground, about fifteen feet high, and rudely carved. On the top of each was 
stuck a human head, recently planted there. The hair and flesh were nearly 
perfect, and the head appeared to carry the evidence of fury or revenge, as, 
in driving tlie stakes through the throat to the cranium, the sagitt^, with 

* The above was written before the breaking oat of the exist iu^ war, ia which it is UDDeces- 
sary to say that they have displayed a hardihood and pertinacity for which credit was never given 
them. 



193 

part of the scalp, were borne on their points some inches above the rest of 
the skull. Between the stakes a fire had been made, and near it some cal- 
cined bones were observed, but none of these appearances enabled us to 
satisfy om-selves concerning the manner in which the bodies had been dis- 
posed of" No suspicion of cannibalism exists against any of these tribes. 
It is most probable that the fire had been the usual cooking-fire of Indiana, 
and that the heads were those of enemies slain by the Tsemakum, and set 
up in this manner in defiance on leaving their camp. It is possible that 
they may have burned the bodies ; but such a practice has not been noticed, 
and certainly never was common among them. 

FOOD. 

The principal food of the Indians on the west side of the Cascades may 
bo briefly set down as fish, roots, and berries. Game furnishes to but few 
of them any considerable item. There are mountain-sheep or, more prop- 
erly goats, in the higher parts of the range ; but they probably never con- 
stituted an important article of food, their wool being the principal object 
of their capture. Elk and deer are hunted to a certain extent, chiefly by 
the bands nearest the mountains; and the Snokwalm, in fact, kill more of 
the latter on the islands than do the Sound Indians themselves. Lewis and 
Clarke speak of game as having rather furnished an article of luxury than 
of support to the Tsinuk, though abundant in their country. A hunter is, 
in fact, looked upon with respect by almost every tribe in the district. 

The roots used are numerous; but the wappatu, or sagittaria, and the 
kamas are the principal. These are found in great quantities, the former 
in ponds, the latter in the prairies, particularly such as are wet ; and they 
were formerly a great article of trade with the interior. Besides these, the 
roots of the sunflower and fern are hugely used, 'and a small white root of 
rather insipid taste. From the fern, they make a species of flour which is 
baked into bread. The kamas season is in the latter part of May and June, 
and then as well as in the fall when the sunflower is dug, the prairies are 
dotted over with squaws, each armed with a sharp stake and a basket, busily 
engaged in digging them. At these times, camps are generally found near 
tlie skirts of timber which border the open lauds for the convenience of 



194 

gathering and preserving. The kamas is baked in the ground, a hole being 
fii-st dug and heated with stones, and the root covered over with twigs and 
earth. There are numerous other roots and plants used in their fresh state. 
Of the berries, such as the struwbeny, salmon-beny, raspberry, and 
others which are not suitable for drying, are consumed at once ; but the 
huckleberry, of which there are several kinds, sallal, &c., are dried and 
stored for winter's use. The salmon-berry, a large and somewhat coarse 
species of raspberry, is abundant in the river bottoms, and grows to about 
an inch in length. There are two varieties, the yellow and purple. It 
obtains its name from its ripening about the same time with the height of 
the salmon season on the Columbia, and its association with that fish in 
Indian superstition. Acorns in those sections of the country where the oak 
is found are gathered and stored for winter. But the great staple of food 
through a vast portion of the country west of the Rocky Mountains, as well 
in the interior as on the coast, is the salmon, which frequents in extraordi- 
nary quantities almost every river from the Sacramento northward, and 
pursues his way to the very base of the Rocky Mountains. Of this there 
are several kinds, not less than six, it is supposed, entering the Columbia 
alone at the different periods of the year, and others being found in other 
localities. The salmon, which enter that river in the spring and are the 
only ones prized as food by the whites, do not seek either the small rivers 
of the coast or the lower tributaries ne<ar its mouth for the purpose of spawn- 
ing, but push directly up the principal branches, such as the Willamette, the 
Snake, &c., to the colder watora of the mountains In this they are assisted 
by the simultaneous occurrence of the freshets whiclj enable them to over- 
come the obstructions with greater ease. In some of the forks of the Co- 
lumbia they penetrate to the main chain of the Rocky Mountains; but in 
others, as the Snake, they are stopped by impassable barriers. Later in the 
season inferior kinds are abundant, and these also succeed in forcing their 
way up the larger branches, but in addition, leave detachments in every 
creek that enters the coast, every brook which unites with the rivers, and 
even in the sloughs formed by rain in the prairies. It is at this season that 
the coast Indians lay up their winter supplies ; for those later species pos- 
sessing little fat are the easiest dried for keeping. The Indians of the inte- 



195 

nor presei've the former kinds also, which after a stay in the fresh water 
have lost their superfluous oil, and these are often actually traded to those 
Indians at the mouth of the river or on the Sound. The Dalles was for- 
merly a great depot for this commerce. It seems that the spring salmon 
ascend only those rivers which take their rise in snow or which are subject 
to spring freshets. Thus they are found in the Sacramento, the Klamath, the 
Columbia, and in the Kwinkiutl, where there is a variety considered the finest 
on the coast. Into the bays however, they do not enter, at least in any 
numbers; and in Puget Sound, though taken in some of the streams rising 
in the Cascades, they are by no means abundant nor so large as in the 
Columbia. The other kinds are, however, found in great quantity. 

The spring salmon are taken on the rivers with the seine ; at the rapids 
and in the small streams either with the scoop-net or with a gig. The lat- 
ter is usually forked, the points or barbs attached loosely by a thong so as 
to give play to the fish. On some of the rivers where the depth permits, 
weirs are built to stop their ascent. 

The fish are split very thin, the backbone being taken out and then a 
slice on each side, and all parts even to the heads are preserved. No salt 
is used, nor are they properly smoked; but a small fire is kept beneath the 
poles on which they hang, to hasten their drying. The quantity put up at 
some of the principal fishing grounds was formerly immense, and even now 
is very considerable. 

Besides the salmon, sturgeon is taken in the Columbia, and a variety 
of other fish, though the two former only are staples of food. In the Straits 
of Fuca and part of the Sound, halibut is found ; rock-cod, and several 
other species are abundant everyivhere. The true cod is sometimes taken 
within the Sound, but mostly without the headlands. OS the Straits of 
Fuca, about fifteen miles are banks upon which the Makah are in the habit 
of fishing for these and halibut What salmon are taken by this tribe are 
chiefly got by trolling. Among the Klallam and some others, the flesh of 
the dog-fish is boiled, and when dried, pounded to the consistency of flour. 

Shell-fish in great variety exist in the bays and on the coast, and many 
of these are dried for winter stores. Seals are also occasionally captured 
and regarded as a great luxury ; but a yet greater prize is the whale. The 



196 

Makah alone of all these tribes venture to kill it in whaling style. The 
KwiUehiut take it by means of harpoons buoyed with seal-skins, which 
they leave to mark its course until it dies, and the more southern Indians 
content themselves with the animal when it drifts ashore dead, as occasion- 
ally happens. The blubber is cut up and preserved by partially smoking, or 
the oil tried out and saved in the paunches of animals. 

As the salmon form the most important staple of subsistence, so with them 
are connected the greatest number of superstitions. These have, with many 
tribes, in a measure died away, but till of late years were rigorously main- 
tained. Messrs. Lewis and Clarke, mentioning the capture of the first salmon 
at the Dalles, in 1807, an occasion of gi'eat rejoicing as a harbinger of the 
school, state that, "in order to hasten their arrival, the Indians, according 
to custom, dressed the fish and cut it into small pieces, one of which was 
given to each child in the village." At the mouth of the Columbia, the firet 
salmon taken could only be eaten by the medicine-men. The next was 
eaten by the inhabitants of the lodge. The taking of the ''first fish of the 
season" was, in fact, everywhere the occasion of a feast. The salmon dance 
was performed, and the anticipations of plenty lightened the hearts of all. 
The earlier fish could not be obtained at any price by a white man, unless 
they were first cooked, lest he should open them with a knife instead of a 
stone, or cut them crosswise. The heart was always roasted and eaten, for 
fear a dog should eat it, when no more salmon would be taken. The 
restrictions upon women during menstruation and pregnancy were stringent, 
and there were numerous other details observed, such as eating particular 
parts with the rising and falling tide, consuming the fish before sundown, 
&c. On the ripening of the salmon-berry however, these rules were abated, 
the incoming of the schools being by that time rendered certain. The feasts 
have of late been discontinued, and the salmon dance neglected. In all 
these respects, the Niskwalli had the same observances as the Tsinuk. 

To the above is to be added, as a limited resource, the potato, which 
is more or less cultivated by all. The estimate formed by Colonel Sim- 
mons, in 1854, of the quantity raised by all the Sound tribes was somewhat 
over 11,000 bushels of potatoes; no proportion, however, existing among 
the various tribes of the amount to the population. 



197 

With all these sources of subsistence, the greater part of which is 
afforded spontaneously by the land or water, nothing but indolence or want 
of thrift could lead to want among a population even greater than we have 
reason to believe ^t any time inhabited this district. But they were at par- 
ticular seasons, undoubtedly straitened for food, and much more formerly 
than now when they obtain assistance from settlers in compensation for 
services. No instance of cannibalism has ever occurred to the knowledge 
of the whites. 

To the necessity of seeking the diflfierent articles of food at different 
times is to be attributed chiefly the constant locomotion of these tribes. 
Not only do they at one time frequent the prairies or marshes for roots, at 
another the forests for berries, and again the sounds and rivers for fish, but 
they have particular points at which they seek the last at various seasons; 
and although they have their permanent villages where their winter resi- 
dence chiefly is, and their potato grounds, they are seldom to be found all 
gathered there together except on special occasions. 

The fur-trade. — This may be said to be extinct in the western part of the 
Territory. The Hudson Bay Company continue to purchase the few skins 
brought to them, but they make no account of the trade. Beaver are again 
abundant on all the streams because no longer sought for. Black bear, 
land-otter, muskrat, mink, and a few others exist, but are only occasionally 
brought in for sale. 

SOCIETY, MARRIAGE, AND THE DOMESTIC RELATIONS. 

It is not unusual to find on the small prairies human figures rudely 
carved upon trees. These I have understood to have been cut by young 
men who were in want of wives, as a sort of practical intimation that they 
were in the market as purchasers. Generally speaking, these Indians seek 
their wives among other tribes than their own — whether from motives of 
policy or an indistinct idea of physiological propriety, it is difficult to say ; 
more probably the former. It seems to be a matter of pride, in fact, to 
unite the blood of several different ones in their own persons. The expres- 
sion, "I am half Snokwalmu, half Klikatat," or some similar one, is of every- 
day utterance. With the chiefs, this is almost always the case. 



198 

Domestic aiFection cannot be considered strong among these races. 
The ties between parent and child, husband and wife, seem little closer than 
between more distant relatives, or even others of the same tribe. Indeed, 
the term ^^naika tilicum!\ my relation, or one of my pepple, is more often 
in their mouths than any denoting nearer kin. Mothers, it is true, show a 
certain degree of affection toward their children : but even this is subject to 
exceptions, or rather is itself an exception, as might be expected'in such a 
general state of profligacy. Men have a certain pride of offspring, but it is 
rather as an evidence of virihty on their own part than arising from parental 
care. As an evidence of this condition of things, the occurrence of infanti- 
cide, now less common than of old, is a sufficient proof. Grandparents seem 
to have a greater attachment to their descendants than do the immediate 
progenitors. On the part of the children, the affection is still less. Between 
husband and wife there is probably as little. A sti'ong sensual attachment 
undoubtedly often exists, which leads to marriage, as instances are not rare of 
young women destroying themselves on the death of a lover; but where the 
idea of chastity is so entirely wanting in both sexes, tliis cannot deserve the 
name of love, or it is at best of a temporary duration. A young man, 
desirous of obtaining a wife, usually cohabits with her for a time before 
purchasing her, during which he is gathering together the necessary amount 
of property to be paid, or perhaps the courtship commences in this way — the 
girl wishing a husband, and taking a straightforward mode of attracting one. 
The condition of the woman is that of slavery under any circumstances. 
She is the property of her father, of her nearest relative, or of her tribe, until 
she becomes that of her husband. She digs the roots and prepares them for 
winter, digs and dries clams, cui'es the fish which he catches, packs the 
horses, assists in paddling the canoe, and performs all the menial offices. 
The more wives a man possesses, therefore, the richer he is; and it is an object 
for him to purchase others as his means increase. The accession of a new 
wife in the lodge very naturally produces jealousy and discord, and the first 
often returns for a time in dudgeon to her friends, to be reclaimed by her 
husband when he chooses, perhaps after propitiating her by some presents. 
The first wife almost always retains a sort of predominance in the lodge; and 
the man, at least after his appetite for a subsequent one is satisfied, usually 



109 

lives with her. Wives, particularly the later ones, are often sold or traded 
off. Divorce is unknown, for the simple reason that the marriage-tie, if so it 
can be called, has no force, except in the will of the husband. A man sends 
his wife away, or sells her at his will. On the death of a brother, the survivor 
generally takes his wife; so also the father sometimes takes the wife of his son, 
and even the son his father's subsequent wives. They are, however, often 
sold or returned to their own people. Prostitution is almost universal. An 
Indian, perhaps, will not let his fiivorite wife, but he looks upon his others, 
his sisters, daughters, female relatives, and slaves, as a legitimate source of 
profit; and this seems to have been a trait of the coast tribes from their first 
intercourse with the whites. Occasionally, adultery fonns a cause of dif- 
ficulty; but it is then only because the woman is reserved for the time being 
to the husband's use, or because he fears to be cheated of his just emolu- 
ments. Cohabitation of unmarried females among their own people brings 
no disgrace if unaccompanied with childbirtli, which they take care to pre- 
vent. This commences at a very early age, perhaps ten or twelve years. 
The practice of .abortion is to be considered in its connection. This is 
almost universal, and is produced both by violence and by medicines. 
Certain plants are known to them which effect it, and it is generally believed 
by the whites, that they know of others which produce sterility at will. 

The ceremony of a wedding among the Tsinuk is thus described by 
Ross Cox, and is much more correct than most of his remarks upon Indian 
manners: "The negotiations preceding a marriage are short, and the cere- 
mony itself simple. When a young man has made his choice, he commis- 
sions his parents or other relatives to open the business to the girl's relatives. 
They are to receive a certain quantity of presents; and when these are 
agreed on, they all repair to the house intended for the future residence of 
the young couple, to which nearly all the inhabitants of the village are 
invited. The presents, which consist of slaves, axes, beads, kettles, haikwa, 
brass and copper bracelets, &c., are now distributed by the young man, 
who, in his turn, receives an equal or perhaps greater quantity from the 
girl's relatives. The bride, decorated with the various ornaments common 
among the tribe, is then led forth by a few old women and presented to the 



200 

bridegroom. He receives her as his wife; and the elders, after wishing 
them plenty of fish, fioiit, roots, and children, retire from the house, accom- 
panied by all the strangers." 

SEPULTURE. 

The common mode of disposing of the dead among the fishing tribes was 
in canoes. These are generally drawn into the woods at some prominent 
point a short distance from the village, and sometimes placed between the 
forks of trees or raised from the ground on posts. Upon the Columbia River, 
the Tsinuk had in particular two very noted cemeteries, a high, isolated 
bluff, about thi'ee miles below the mouth of the Kowlitz, called Mt. Coffin, and 
one some distance above, called Coffin Rock. The former would appear 
not to have been very ancient. Mr. Broughton, one of Vancouver's lieu- 
tenants, who explored the river, makes mention only of several canoes at 
this place. And Lewis and Clarke, who noticed the mount, do not speflk 
of them at all ; but at the time of Captain Wilkes's expedition, it is con- 
jectured that there were at least 3,000. A fire, caused by the carelessness of 
some of his party, destroyed the whole, to the great indignation of the 
Indians. Captain Belcher, of the British ship Sulphur, who visited the river 
in 1839, remarks, "In the year 1836 [1^26], the small-pox made gi'eat rav- 
ages, and it was followed a few yeara since by the ague ; consequently 
Corpse Island and Coffin Mount, as well as the adjacent shores, were stud- 
ded not only with canoes, but, at the period of our visit, the skulls and 
skeletons were strewed about in all directions." This method generally 
prevailed on the neighboring coasts, as at Shoalwater Bay, &c. Farther 
up the Columbia, as at the Cascades, a different form was adopted, which is 
thus described by Captain Clarke : "About half a mile below this house, in 
a very thick part of the woods, is an ancient Indian burial-place ; it consists 
of eight vaults, made of pine or cedar boards, closely connected, about 
eight feet square and six in height ; the top securely covered with wide 
boards, sloping a little so as to convey off the rain. The direction of 
all these is east and west, the door being on the eastern side, and partially 
stopped with wide boards decorated with rude pictures of men and other 
animals. On entering, we found in some of them four dead bodies care- 



\ 



201 

fully wrapped in skins, tied with cords of grass and bark, lying on a mat 
in a direction east and west ; the other vaults contained only bones, which, 
in some of them were piled to the height of four feet ; on the tops of the 
vaults, and on poles attached to them, hung brass kettles and frying-pans, 
with holes in their bottoms, baskets, bowls, sea-shells, skins, pieces of cloth, 
hair-bags of trinkets and small bones, the offerings of friendship or affection, 
which have been saved by a pious veneration from the ferocity of war or 
the more dangerous temptations of individual gain. The whole of the 
walls, as well as the door, were decorated with strange figures cut and 
painted on them; and besides these were several wooden images of men, 
some of them so old and decayed as to have almost lost their shape, which 
were all placed against the sides of the vaults. These images, as well as 
those in the houses we have lately seen, do not appear to be at all the 
objects of adoration in this place ; they were most probably intended as 
resemblances of those whose decease they indicate ; and when we observe 
them in houses, they occupy the most conspicuous part, but are treated 
more like ornaments than objects of worship. Near the vaults which are 
still standing, are the remains of others on the gi*ound, completely rotted 
and covered with moss ;- and, as they are formed of the most durable pine 
and cedar timber there is every appearance that for a very long series of 
years this retired spot has been the depository for the Indians near this 
place." Another depository of this kind, upon an island in the river a few 
miles above, gave it the name of Sepulcher Island. The Watlala, a tribe 
of the Upper Tsinuk, whose burial place is here described, are now 
nearly extinct ; but a number of the sepulchers still remain in different 
states of preservation. The position of the body, as noticed by Clarke, is 
I believe of universal observance, the head being always placed to the 
west. The reason assigned to me is that the road to the md-mel-us-illa- 
hee, the country of the dead, is toward the west, and if they place them 
otherwise they would be confused. East of the Cascade Mountains, the 
tribes whose habits are equestrian, and who use canoes only for ferriage or 
transportation purposes, bury their dead, usually heaping over them piles 
of stones, cither to mark the spot or to prevent the bodies from being exhumed 
by the prairie-wolf. Among the Yakamas we saw many of their graves 



202 

placed in conspicuous points of the basaltic walls which lino the lower 
valleys, and designated by a clump of poles planted over them, from which 
fluttered various articles of dress. Formerly these prairie tribes killed 
horses over the graves, a custom now falling into disuse in consequence of 
the teaching of the whites. 

Upon Puget Island, all the forms obtain in different localities. Among 
the Makah of Cape Flattery, the graves are covered with a sort of box 
rudely constructed of boards, and elsewhere on the Sound the same method 
is adopted in some cases, while in others the bodies are placed on elevated 
scaffolds. As a general thing, however, the Indians upon the water placed 
the dead in canoes, while those at a distance from it buried them. Most of 
the graves are suiTOunded with sti-ips of cloth, blankets, and other articles 
of property. Mr. Cameron, an English gentleman residing at Esquimalt 
Harbor, Vancouver Island, informed me that on his place there were graves 
having at each comer a large stone, the interior space filled with rubbish. 
The origin of these was unknown to the present Indians. 

The distinctions of rank or wealth in all cases were very marked; per- 
sons of no consideration, and slaves, being buried with very little care or 
respect Vancouver, whose attention was particularly attracted to their 
methods of disposing of the dead, mentions that at Port Discovery he saw 
baskets suspended to the trees containing the skeletons of young children, 
and, what is not easily explained, small square boxes containing apparently 
food I do not think that any of these tribes place articles of food with the 
dead, nor have I been able to learn from living Indians that they formerly 
followed that practice. What he took for such I do not understand. He 
also mentions seeing in the same place a cleared space recently burned over, 
in which the skulls and bones of a number of persons lay among the ashes. 
The practice of burning the dead exists in parts of California and among 
the Tshimsyan of Fort Simpson. It is also pursued by the Carriers of 
New California, but no intermediate tribes, to my knowledge, follow it. 
Certainly those of the Sound do not at present. It is clear, from Vancou- 
ver's narrative, that some great epidemic had recently passed through the 
country, as manifested by the quantity of human remains uncared for ond 
exposed at the time of his visit, and very probably the Indians, being afraid 



203 

of contagion, had bmned a house in which the inhabitants had perished, 
with the dead in it This is frequently done. They almost invariably 
remove from any place where sickness has prevailed, generally destroying 
the house also. At Penn Cove, Mr. Whidbey, one of Vancouver's officers, 
noticed " several sepulchers formed exactly like a sentry-box. Some of 
them were open, and contained the skeletons of many young children tied 
up in baskets. The smaller bones of adults were likewise noticed ; but not 
one of the limb bones was found, which gave rise to an opinion that these, 
by the living inhabitants of the neighborhood, were appropriated to useful 
purposes, such as pointing their arrows, spears, or other weapons." It is 
hardly necessary to say that such a practice is altogether foreign to Indian 
character. The bones of the adults had probably been removed and buried 
elsewhere. The corpses of children are variously disposed of, sometimes by 
suspending them, at others by placing in the hollows of trees. A cemetery 
devoted to infants is, however, an unusual occurrence. 

In case of chiefs or men of note, much pomp was used in the accompani- 
ments of the rite. Tlie canoes were of great size and value, the war or state 
canoes of the deceased. Frequently one was inverted over that holding the 
body, and in one instance, near Shoalwater Bay, the corpse was deposited 
in a small canoe, which again was placed in a larger one and covered with 
a third. Among the Tsinuk and Tsihalis, the tamahno-us board of the 
owner was placed near him. The Puget Sound Indians do not make these 
tamahano-us boards, but they sometimes constructed effigies of their chiefs, 
resembling the person as nearly as possible, dressed in his usual costume, 
and wearing the articles of which he was fond. One of these, representing 
the Skagit chief Sneestum, stood very conspicuously upon a high bank on 
the eastern side of Whidbey Island. The figures observed by Captain 
Clarke at the Cascades were either of this description or else the carved 
posts which had ornamented the interior of the houses of the deceased, and 
were connected with the superstitions of the tamahno-us. The most valua- 
ble articles of property were put into, or hung up around the grave, being 
first carefully rendered unserviceable, and the living family were literally 
stripped to do honor to the dead. No little self-denial must have been prac- 
ticed in parting with articles so precious, but tliose chiefly interested fre- 



204 

quently had the least to say on the subject. The graves of women were 
distinguished by a cup, a kamas stick, or other implement of their occupa- 
tions, and by articles of dress. Slaves were killed in proportion to the rank 
and wealth of the deceased. In some instances, they were starved to death, 
or even tied to the dead body and left to perish thus horribly. At present, 
this practice has been almost entirelj' given up, but till within a very few 
years it was not uncommon. A case which occmrred in 1850 has been 
already mentioned. Still later, in 1853, Toke, a Tsinuk chief living at 
Shoalwater Bay, undertook to kill a slave girl belonging to his daughter, 
who, in dying, had requested that this might be done. The woman fled, 
and was found by some citizens in the woods half starved. Her master 
attempted to reclaim her, but was soundly thrashed, and warned against 
another attempt. 

It was usual in the case of chiefs to renew or repair, for a considerable 
length of time, the materials and ornaments of the burial place. With the 
common class of persons, family pride or domestic affection was satisfied 
with the gathering together of the bones after the flesh had decayed, and 
wrapping them in a new mat. The violation of the gi'ave was always 
regarded as an offense of the first magnitude, and provoked severe revenge. 
Captain Belcher remarks: "Great secrecy is observed in all their burial 
ceremonies, partly from fear of Europeans ; and as among themselves, they 
will instantly punish by death any violation of the tomb, or wage war if 
perpetrated by another tribe, so they are inveterate and tenaciously bent 
on revenge should they discover that any act of the kind has been perpe- 
trated by a white man. It is on record that part of the crew of a vessel, on 
her return to this port [the Columbia], suffered, because a person who 
belonged to her [but not then in her] was known to have taken a skull, 
which, from the process of flattening, had become an object of curiosity." 
He adds, however, that, at the period of his visit to the river, "the skulls 
and skeletons were scattered about in all directions; and, as I was on most 
of their positions unnoticed by the natives, I suspect the feeling does not 
extend much beyond their relatives, and then only till decay has destroyed 
body, goods, and chattels. The chiefs no doubt are watched, as their 
canoes are repainted, decorated, and greater care taken by placing them in 
sequestered spots." 



205 

The motive for sacrificing or destroying property on occasion of death 
will be referred to in treating of their religious ideas. Wailing for the dead 
is continued for a long time, and seems to be rather a ceremonial perform- 
ance than an act of spontaneous gi-ief. The duty of course belongs to the 
women, and the early morning is usually chosen for the purpose. They go 
out alone to some place a little distant from the lodge or camp, and in a 
loud, sobbing voice, repeat a sort of stereotyped formula, as for instance, a 
mother on the loss of her child: 

Ah seahh! shed-da bud-dah ah ta hud! ad-de-dah! 
Ah' chief I my child dead! alas! 

When in dreams they see any of their deceased friends this lamentation is 
renewed. 

FEASTS. 

Various occasions are made the subject of festival, of which the arrival 
of the first salmon of the season was one; marriages, where the parties 
were of note; the ceremony of piercing the ears and nose of children; and 
others of like character. These were always accompanied by singing, 
dancing, gambling, and the distiibutiou of presents by the host. But the 
greatest of all was when some one, desirous of securing or extending his 
influence, gave a grand potlatch. This was generally some chief, or what 
was equivalent to it, a man of wealth. Some have been known to save all 
their means for years, accumulating property of value, haikwa, beads, blank- 
ets, and other articles, until they possessed sufficient to make an ostentatious 
display. Then all his friends from his own and adjacent tribes were 
invited, an immense house buiit for the express purpose, quantities of food 
prepared, and during the feast, which lasted for several days, the whole of 
his stores distributed to his guests; sometimes particular articles being 
given to individuals, and again others thrown indiscriminately to the crowd, 
who snatched at and tore or cut them in pieces, that each might secure a 
token. These great affairs have gradually fallen into disuse among those 
tribes most nearly associated with the whites, but still take place with the 
more remote, as the Klallam, Lummi, &c.; on a smaller scale, however, 
they are everywhere practiced. 



206 

GAMBLING. 

There are several games, the principle of which is the same. In one, 
a small piece of bone is passed rapidly from hand to hand, shifted behind the 
back, &c., the object of the contending party being to ascertain in which hand 
it is held. Each side is furnished with five or ten small sticks, which serve 
to mark the game, one stick being given by the guesser whenever he loses, 
and received whenever he wins. On guessing correctly, it is his turn to 
manipulate. When all the sticks are won, the game ceases, and the winner 
receives the stakes, consisting of clothing or any other articles, as the play 
may be either high or low, for simple amusement, or in eager rivalry. The 
backers of the party manipulating keep up a constant drumming with sticks 
on their paddles, which lie before them, singing an incantation to attract 
good fortune. This is usually known as the game of hand, or, in jargon, 
It-lvr-kam. Another, at which they exhibit still more interest, is played 
with ten disks of hard wood, about the diameter of a Mexican dollar, and 
somewhat thicker, called, in the jargon, tsil-tsil; in the Niskwalli language, 
la-halp. One of these is marked and called the chief A smooth mat is 
spread on the ground, at the ends of which the opposing players are 
seated, their friends on either side, who are provided with the requisites for 
a noise, as in the other case. The party holding the disks has a bundle of 
the fibers of the cedar bark, in which he envelops them, and, after rolling 
them about, tears the bundle into two parts, his opponent guessing in which 
bundle the chief lies. These disks are made of the yew, and must be cut 
into shape with beaver tooth chisels only. The marking of them is in itself 
an art, certain persons being able by their spells to indue them with luck, 
and their manufactures bring very high prices. The game is counted as in 
the first mentioned. Farther down the coast, ten highly polished sticks are 
used, instead of disks. 

The women have a game belonging properly to themselves. It is 
played with four beaver teeth, having particular marks on each side, meh- 
ta-la. They are thrown as dice, success depending on the arrangement in 
which they fall. 

Each species of gambling has its appropriate tamahno-us, or, as it is 
called upon the Sound, Skwolalitudj that is, its patron spirit, whose coun- 



207 

tenance is invoked by the chant and noise. The tamahno-Cs of the game of 
hand is called by the Niskwalli, Tsaik; of the disks, Knawkli. It would 
seem that this favor is not merely solicited during the game, but sometimes in 
advance of it, and perhaps for general or continued fortune. Colonel Sim- 
mons informed me that he saw an Indian at the Falls of the Fenalquet 
die from exhaustion and overexcitement while undergoing a perfomiance 
intended to secure this tamahno-us. He had lain for several days in a lodge 
without eating, while his friends shouted and drummed until death himself 
"jumped the game" on him. 

Of horse racing it is unnecessary to speak. 

MEDICINE AND DISEASES. 

Besides the regular practice of the tamahno-us men, who may be con- 
sidered the faculty, the Indians used a number of plants as medicines, some- 
what as herb doctors intrude their nostrums in the States. Among these 
is the root of the Oregon grape {Berberis aquifoliuin)^ a decoction of which 
serves as a tonic, and is also their remedy for venereal. A decoction 
of the white-flowering or poisonous Kamas furnishes an emetic, and that of 
the cucumber vine {Sicyos Oregontis) both an emetic and cathartic. The root 
of a species of fern growing among the moss which covers the limbs of the 
maple and other trees in damp situations is chewed as an expectorant, and 
is made into a tea as a remedy for gonorrhcea. The herbs used to produce 
abortion or effect sterility, I do not know. A powder made from the tail 
of the rattlesnake, as first noticed by Dr. George Suckley, United States 
Army, is employed by some tribes for the former purpose, as well as to 
expedite natural labor ; but violence is oftener resorted to by the women of 
the coast Small-pox the coast tribes do not pretend to treat with medicine ; 
but, as mentioned in my report to Captain McClellan, those of the interior 
claim to have remedies for it. The inside bark of the skunk-wood chewed 
up serves as a poultice, and the juice of the colt's-foot as a fomentation for 
bruises and sprains. Women during their periods ofc menstruation bind the 
twigs of the hemlock-spruce round their bodies, but this would seem to be 
a species of charm. These twigs are also used as a bed for the sick. For 
gonorrhoea, the females also smoke themselves over a fire made of certain 



208 

plants or wood. They have no styptics. Swellings produced by injuries 
they sometimes scarify. Sores that are slow in healing are cauterized, and 
they employ moxa by the application of coals of fire, and the powder left by 
worms under the bark of trees is also strewn over to dry them up. This, and 
also potter's clay dried and powdered, is used for chancres. Suction by the 
mouth is employed as a topical remedy to alleviate pain, and this too is 
part of the practice of the tamahno-us doctors. Their sweat-houses are par- 
tially excavated in the ground, just large enough to contain the body of one 
person, and covered with boards and earth, the heat being produced by hot 
stones ; after the operation they plunge into cold water. Fractured limbs 
are bandaged and splinted with strips of wood. 

Of diseases to which they are subject, venereal in its different forms 
and the small-pox are assumed to have been introduced by the whites ; the 
latter, it is time, indirectly, it having reached here through other and more 
distant tribes. According to Mr. Dunn,* "it commenced among tlie tribes 
residing between the sources of the Missouri and the Mississippi. Thence it 
spread its devastations northward as far as Athabasca and the three horns 
of the Great Slave Lake, and westward across the Rocky Mountains, through 
the whole region of the Oi*egon Territory, spreading to a vast distance along 
the shores of the North Pacific," The date of this visitation he does not 
mention. Lewis and Clarke supposed that it had swept the Columbia some 
thirty years before their arrival, or about the year 1780. There have been 
several returns of it since, the last in 1852-/)3, when the coast tribes par- 
ticularly were ravaged. To these imported diseases, the measles are probably 
to be added, which are scarcely less fatal than the others. The great mor- 
tality produced by congestive fever between 1820 and 1830 upon the 
Columbia has been mentioned by various writers. This the Indians, though 
doubtless erroneously, supposed to have originated from an American ves- 
sel. Among tindigenous diseases, consumption is one of the most de- 
structive; their carelessness in regard to dress, the slight shelter from 
rain and exposure peipmitted by their wandering habits, and the dampness 
of the climate for a large part of the year, rendering it exceedingly common. 
And it seems to have become more so, since the partial change in their habits 

* The Oregon Territory, Ac, by John Dunn, late of Hudson's Bay Company. 



203 

bj^ association with the whites A very commpn eruptive disorder attacking 
the throat, and commonly supposed to be from syphilis, has been recognized 
by Dr. C. M. Hitchcock, late snrgeon United States Army, as the "yaws", 
very common in the West Indies, and known among the Cherokees and 
others of the Atlantic States. Sore eyes and blindness occur, as also par- 
alysis. Diarrhoea is a common and often fatal disorder, particularly among 

children. 

DOMESTIC MANNERS. 

The head of the family and his principal wife occupy the first place 
near the fire, and it is an impoliteness to pass before them. They are also 
first served at meals. Where a man has several wives, each has her own 
fire in the lodge, and takes care of her own children. The one with whom 
the husband sleeps for the time being, though in the same house with the 
others, provides the articles of food, which it belongs to the women to fui*- 
nish, and cooks them herself. The man's business is to do the hunting 
(of which, however, west of the Cascades, there is but little, game not being 
abundant enough to form an item in the general Economy), to catch the fish, 
make canoes, split the planks of the lodges, and put them up or remove 
them, lasso the horses, and in fine to attend to such things as are deemed 
manly occupations among savage nations. That of the women is to gather 
roots and prepare them for winter and cure the fish ; on the salt-water, to 
dig and dry clams, load and assist in paddling the canoes; and, on the 
prairie, to pack and unpack the horses, make the camp, cultivate the potato- 
patch, and generally everywhere to do the drudgery. 

There does not seem to be any particular government of children, nor 
any difficulty growing out of their origin in different mothers. Children 
continue to suckle often three or four years, a practice which probably has 
its effect in lessening the fecundity of the women. 

Common conversation in the lodge is, as might be supposed, on trivial 
subjects, relating to their own concerns, dogs, horses, &c , the little occur- 
rences of the day, what each has been doing, every tiifle being thus known 
to all. The future is rarely a subject of attention. They are, on the other 
hand, fond of reciting their former actions, or speaking of persons deceased, 
relating what each knows of them, as one civilized would discuss the char- 




210 

acters of history. If an Indian has been on a journey, perhaps the night ensu- 
ing that, of his return the others come to his lodge. They ask no questions, 
but sit quietly, and when he sees fit he commences a history of what he 
saw and heard, even to the minutest details. The one who remembers the 
most, or is the best earner of news, has a corresponding importance. They 
are exceedingly lewd in their comnion talk, the most indecent subjects being 
coolly discussed or jested upon. When a couple of canoes meet, for instance, 
they always stop to talk, to exchange news, and generally to "chaff" one 
another, in a style that would electrify a Thames waterman. 

Their first meal when at home, is generally about ten or eleven o'clock; 
the previous night, till a late hour, having probably been spent in gambling, 
tamahno-us making, or some other amusement From that time forward, 
cooking goes on with very little inten-uption, on behalf of some member of 
the family, until bed time. 

Names, — ^Names are given to children when they begin to walk and 
talk, and are generally family appellations, though not in the first instance 
that of the father, but rather that of the grandfather on either side, or, if 
there are several, of the uncles. These are changed in after life; sometimes 
in honor of a deceased relative; sometimes in commemoration of an event. 
On the death of an Indian, his name is not mentioned for a long time. If 
spoken of, it is as "he that is dead"; but after some two or three years, 
when the grief of his family is supposed to be assuaged, his son, perhaps, 
summons his friends, gives a feast, and announces that he has taken his 
father's name. On occasion of the council at Neeah Bay, an Indian named 
Ko-bet-si, who received a commission as a sub-chief, changed his to Ko- 
bakh-sat. At the Tsihalis council, An-nan-m-ta, the son of Tsinnite'h, a 
former great chief of the Upper Tsihalis, announced that he had taken that 
of his grandfather, Wa-kwin-nam. They are unwilling to speak their own 
names ; a sentiment for which I was never able to obtain a reason. Nor do 
they use names in calling one another. They attract attention by the word 
" Do-teh I " look herel if hailing a stranger, or if a friend, " Kug- weh-oh ! " 
you there I Many, but not all their names, have signification, as Squu-shum, 
smoke or fog, the name of a sub-chief of the Snokwalmuh. The termina- 
tion kanan^ common to all the tribes on the Sound, but to which they attach 



211 

no meaning, I believe to be a derivative from the Selish word ^^keine^\ head, 

which pervades many proper names throughout the eastern district; as, Oki- 

nakeine^ Tsemakeine^ the latter signifying a spring-head or water source. As 

the names of the father's and mother's families are alike perpetuated in this 

way, and as diflferent tribes intermarry, similarity in the names of persons 

cannot be assumed as a proof of similar origin. They are all exceedingly 

fond of receiving " Boston names ", and particularly court such as are 

understood to belong to distinguished chiefs. In consequence, brevet titles 

of all the generals of the Army, living and dead, are worn by tyees of the , 

different tribes. A few of English origin, bestowed in former times, are 

also highly valued. The Sound Indians certainly, and I believe the others, 

give names to their dogs, but not to their horses, except the descriptive ones 

arising from color. The name of one dog was explained to me to mean 

dirt 

PECULIAR CUSTOMS. 

Flattening the head^ dc. — ^The process of flattening the head has been 
too often described to need repetition. It is continued for about a year 
when most excessive, and is confined to children of free parents ; slaves not 
enjoying the privileged distortion. For a different reason, it is not performed 
on the offspring of whites by Indian mothers, it being a matter of pride to 
assimilate them to their fathers. The only reason for this practice that I 
could ever obtain was from a Klallam Indian, to the effect that Dokwebudl 
ordered them to do it in the first place to make them handsome. The oper- 
ation does not appear to affect the intellect, judging from a comparison 
with adjacent tribes who do not use it. It is supposed to be the cause of 
squinting in some cases ; but its effect upon the general health is not observ- 
able. The custom is most universal, and carried to the greatest extent 
among the tribes upon the Lower Columbia and Puget Sound. Those 
immediately east of the Cascades, and near the river, practice it to a limited 
degree only. It extends, according to Dr. Tolmie, through the Haeltzuk 
connection as far north as Milbank Sound, in latitude 52^ N., where the 
custom of distending the lips commences in its stead. Southward it reaches 
.to the Coquille River, latitude 43° 10' N., upon the coast, and about thirty 
miles back. In departing from the center, it gradually diminishes in degree, 



212 

and is, on the outskirts, limited to the women. In comparative examinations, 
it should be remembered that as slaves are for the most part obtained from 
abroad, skulls, found among the tribes addicted to the practice, which are 
not compressed, may be assumed to be of different origin, and, on the other 
hand, those very much altered, which are met with among the northern 
tribes, are probably likewise so. The care bestowed on the disposition of 
the dead will, however, generally indicate his rank, and therefore his nation- 
ality. These observations are important where deductions are attempted to 
be drawn from differences in crania, but are likely to be overlooked by 
those unacquainted with the habits of these tribes. It will be seen that 
the custom is a local one ; that within a particular district it is common to 
tribes of the most different families ; and that beyond it other tribes of the 
same families do not practice it at all. 

Arrived at puberty. — ^The first prominent event in a woman's life, her 
becoming fit for marriage, as seems to be the case with most savage tribes, 
is a period of ceremonial observance among these Indians. With those of 
the district, the girl usually retreats to some secluded spot and fasts. The 
rigor of her abstinence is said to be a great merit; but that it may not be car- 
ried too far, some old squaw, who is acquainted with her hiding place, carries 
her when n3edful a little water and dried salmon. The time is, with some 
tribes, as the Kallapuia of the Willamette Valley, occupied in throwing 
up small piles of earth or stones, a practice having probably a mystical sig- 
nification akin to a tamahno-us. The subsequent recurrences of her periods 
are, in like manner, seasons of retreat from the tribe, although less formality 
attends them. The most peculiar, as well as universal, observances are 
those connected with their food. This, the first object of care and anxiety 
with people who depend upon natural productions for their subsistence, 
seems to have in their minds a relation to many events; and more especially 
those of a ser.ual character, or the privation of particular kinds of food, may 
have been shown by experience to be requisite to speedy recovery of health. 
Among the fishing Indians, the salmon, during the early season of its cap- 
ture, is, so to speak, tabooed to women undergoing menstruation. Among 
those who live by game, elk and deer meat are equally prohibited, and 
similar restrictions are, to a more limited extent, imposed on pregnant 



213 

women. I know, however, of nothing like peiiods of purificalion. Somo 
of the coast tribes, as those at Humboldt Bay in California, make a practice 
of bathing, the women accompanying the young girl on the occasion; but 
this is in consonance with their general habits. The observance has been 
absurdly considered as a Jewish rite, and cited in proof of the preposterous 
idea that they are descendants of the Israelitish tribes. It seems natural 
enough that such a custom should prevail among barbarians, however dis- 
connected. With their limited field for mental exercise, the speculative 
powers are likely to be most active upon points of this very nature; perio- 
dicity being a fact which attracts observation and suggests at once the idea 
of cause. The refined objects of a difference in sex being foreign to their 
minds, that event which announces fitness for sensual purposes is, of all others, 
the most important. Among the Wasko, at the Dalles of the Columbia, it 
is stated the event is celebrated more publicly. As the period approaches 
its close, the father of the girl makes great preparations, invites his friends, 
and has a general feast, which reaches its height on her re-appearance. The 
young men who wish to buy wives are then ready, with their horses, &c., 
to ti'eat for tlie purchase. 

MEASURES OF VALUE, TIME, ETC. 

Distances were only marked by days' journeys, or their fractions, as 
made on horseback or in canoes. Measures of length were probably all 
referred to parts of the body, the principal being the extent of the out- 
stretched arms, which was used in valuing their money, the haikwa, or 
wampum of the Pacific. This shell, a species of Dentalium, was procured 
on the northern coast by letting down long poles, to which was attached a 
piece of wood filled with spikes, or teeth, between which the shell became 
fixed. Its price depended entirely upon its length; forty to the fathom being 
tlie standard of value. When the shells were so short that it required more to 
make up the required length, they were of very inferior account, but rose 
proportionately With increased size. A fathom of forty was formerly worth 
a slave, and even now will bring five dollars in money. Single shells were 
shown me on the Tsihalis for which the owner refused a dollar apiece. 
This money is, however, becoming scarce, and is far less used than formerly, 



214 

at least by tlia tribes who have much intercourse with the whites. It was 
tlie universal currency through an extensive district On the Klamath River, 
it is valued even more highly than on the Sound and the Columbia; and 
those aboriginal peddlers, the Klikatat, frequently carry it to Southern 
Oregon for sale. The relative value of skins, I understand, to have been 
fixed by the fur-traders, who assumed the beaver as the unit of computation. 
The Indians are now all well acquainted with our coins, from the eagle to 
the dime, for which there are corresponding names in the jargon. There 
does not seem to have been any system of keeping accounts peculiar to 
them or extending beyond the simplest idea. Their computation was by 
visible objects, as the fingers, small pebbles, or bits of stick, and very prob- 
ably notched sticks, the most primitive of all records. In their dealings 
with the traders, however, they speedily comprehend the more ordinary 
weights and measures, to which, in the jargon, names were applied; as, 
ikht iUy one weight for our pound; ilM slikj or ethlon^ one yard or fathom; 
ikht tamaulikhj one tub or bushel; iJchtle sack, one sack, &c. I have never 
met with mnemonical signs or pictorial help to memory. 

Time was measured by moons, say from full to full and by warm and 
cold seasons; one warm and one cold constituting the year. Names 
for the intermediate seasons exist, though I am not certain that the same 
signification is attached to them as with us. Mr. Hale assigns appellations 
to the various months in the language of some of the Flathead tribes. The 
Indians on this side of the mountains also had a name for each moon, by 
which, as they say, they could know how long it would be before the salmon 
came, &c. Beyond a few days, they did not apply that period as a meas- 
ure, for instance, not as determining the length of the moon ; nor can I learn 
that they had any times corresponding to our week or to part of a moon. 
With thef tides and their periods of recurrence, those who live on the salt- 
water are of course familiar; I have not been able to ascertain whether 
they have speculated on their cause. 

HOUSES. 

The planks of their houses are split from the tree with a tool made of 
elk-horn, or with wooden wedges, driven by a stone mallet, and are then 



215 

adz^d down to the requisite thickness. Some of these boards are of great 
size. One that I measured was 24 feet long and 4 J in width. They are, in 
preference, split from the arbor vitie, or as it is usually called, cedar, but 
sometimes from* the fir. There is some variety in the form adopted ; the 
houses of the - Tsinuk usually sloping each way "from a ridge-pole in the 
center, while those of the Sound Indians have but one pitch. They are 
usually intended to accommodate several families, and frequently a whole 
village was under the same roof An excavation of a foot or more nn depth 
is made through the center of the house, in which the fires are built, and 
where the cooking is done ; the raised portion left on either side being 
covered with boards or mats to serve as a seat, and the bunks for sleeping 
placed against the sides, sometimes in two tiers. At one end of the house, 
there is frequently a platform for dances or the tamahno-us. The houses of 
the Makah have been already described, and the better class of houses on 
the Sound differ from them only in size. But the triumph of their archi- 
tecture is displayed in the buildings erected for festivals. These were of 
extraordinary size and strength, considering the means at their disposal. 
Mr. H. A. Goldsborough measured one at Port Madison, erected by the 
brother of Seat'hl, some forty years before, the frame of which was stand- 
ing in 1855. This was 520 feet long, 60 feet wide, 15 feet high in front, 
and 10 in the rear. It was supported on puncheons, or split timbers, 74 in 
number, from 2 to 3 feet wide, and 5 to 8 inches thick, carved with grotesque 
figures of men, naked and about half size. The cross-beams were round 
sticks, 37 in number, 60 feet in length, and from 12 to 22 inches in diameter. 
There was another similar house at Dungeness, built by King George, and 
one at Penn Cove, by Sneetlum, similar but somewhat smaller than this. 
They were erected for special occasions, and afterward dismantled. 

CANOES. 

Various descriptions of canoes are used by the different tribes, suited to 
the waters on which they dwell. Those generally used on the Columbia 
above the Dalles are mere dug-outs, of very rude shape and finish, and, 
though well enough adapted for carrying, have no particular merit. These 
are also used on the Kowlitz and Tsihalis, and generally those streams 



210 

•which are shallow and obsti'ucted by rapids, as being fitter for such waters 
than the sharper and more elegant varieties. Below the Dalles, several 
kinds were fonnerly common, one of which, nearly straight on the gunwale, 
and ornamented at the bow with a carved figure-head, roj^rescnting some 
bird or animal, seems to have been chiefly used round the Willamette and 
KowUtz. A small ?nd light canoe, of simple form, but very graceful, was 
used, principally among the marshy islands toward the mouth of the river, 
for hunting sea-fowl. Another kind, paiticularly mentioned by Lewis and 
Clai'ke, is now almost entirely confined to Puget Sound. It varies greatly 
in size, some of them being as much as thirty -five feet long, the stern being 
rounded and rising to a point, the bow terminating in a kind of billet- 
head. The one by far the most used at present, and the most elegant in 
shape, is, however, that which has popularly obtained the name of the 
Tsinuk canoe, the bow of which rises high and projects forward, tapering 
to a point, while the stern is sharp, cut off perpendicirlarly, and surmounted 
by a block. These canoes are usually painted black outside and red within, 
and ornamented along the gunwale with the opercula of a sea-shell,* set 
in rows. TJiis kind is by no means confined to the river, but is employed 
far to the northward also. These are admirable sea-boats, with the excep- 
tion -that they are exposed to be boarded by a stern sea. A modification of 
this is sometimes employed by the northern Indians for a war-canoe ; th© 
beak being very high, and flared out at each side, so that, when bow on, 
it presents a shield against arrows, and to a certain extent against balls. 
The management and appearance of a first-class canoe on the Columbia 
River is thus described by Messrs. Lewis and Clarke : 

"The fourth and largest species of canoe we did not meet with till we 
had reached tide- water, pear the grand rapids below, in which place they are 
found among all the nations, especially the Killamuks, and others residing 
on the sea-coast. They are upwai-d of fifty feet long, and will caiTy from 
eight to ten thousand pounds' weight, or from twenty to thirty persons. Like 
all the canoes we have mentioned, they are cut out of a single trunk of a tree, 
which is generally wliite cedar, though the fir is sometimes used. The sides 
are secured by cross-bars, or round sticks, two or three inches in thickness, 



217 

# 

which are inserted through holes made just below the gunwale, and made fast 
with cords. The upper edge of the gunwale itself is about five-eighths of an 
inch thick, and four or five in breadth, and folds outwai-d,so as to form a kind 
of rim, which prevents the water from beating into the boat. At each end, also, 
are pedestals, formed of the same solid piece, on which are placed strange, 
grotesque figures of men and animals, rising sometimes to the height of five 
feet, and composed of small pieces of wood, firmly united, with great inge- 
nuity, by inlaying and mortising, without a spike of any kind. The pad- 
dle is usually from four feet and a half to five feet in length, tlie handle 
being thick for one-third its length, when it widens and is hollowed and 
thinned on each side of the center^ which forms a sort of rib. When they 
embark, one Indian sits in the stern and steers with a paddle, the others 
kneel in pairs in the bottom of the canoe, and, sitting on their heels, paddle 
over the gunwale next to them. In this way, they ride with safety the 
highest waves, and venture, without the least concern, in seas where other 
boats could not live an instant They sit quietly and paddle with no other 
movement, except when any large wave throws the boat on her side, and 
to the eye of the spectator she seems lost ; the man to windward then 
steadies her by throwing his body toward the upper side, and sinking his 
paddle deep into the wave, appears to catch the water, and force it under 
the boat, which the same stroke pushes on with great velocity. In.the 
management of these canoes, the women are equally expert with the men; 
for, in the smaller boats, which contain four oarsmen, the helm^ is generally 
given to the female. As soon as they land, the canoe is generally hauled 
on shore, unless she be very heavily laden ; but, at night, the load is uni- 
versally discharged, and the canoe brought on shore. 

"Our admiration of their skill in these curious constructions was increased 
by observing the very inadequate implements with which tliey are made. 
These Indians possess very few axes, and the only tool employed in their 
building, from felling of the tree to the delicate workmanship of the images, 
is a chisel made of an old file, about an inch and a half in width. Even of 
tMs, too, they have not learned the management, for the chisel is sometimes 
fixed in a large block of wood, and, being held in the right hand, the block 
is pushed with the left without the aid of a mallet. But under all these dis- 



218 

advantages, these canoes, which one would suppose to be the work of years, 
are made in a few weeks. A canoe, however, is very highly prized. In 
tra£Bc, it is an article of the greatest value, except a wife, which is of equal 
consideration, so that a lover generally gives a canoe to the father in ex- 
change for his daughter." 

The canoes employed by the more northern Indians are sometimes 
even of greater size and more solid construction than this. They are also 
better adapted to sea-going, as they are free from the incumbrance. 
With them, the Indians venture from Queen Charlotte Islands, and even 
from Sitka, as far south as Puget Sound, bringing, besides their crew, 
their whole worldly property, by no . means an inconsiderable cargo. 
One which I saw at Victoria carried three masts, and was estimated at not 
less than seventy feet^in length. The usual method of constructing canoes 
is to cut or bum the tree down and into a suitable length, rough-hew the 
outside, cut out the inside with a hatchet and chisel or hand-adze, then turn 
it over and hew the outside to correspond with the inside. When in this state 
it is filled with water, which is boiled by means of hot stones, a fire being 
made all ai'ound the canoe on the outside. This is for the purpose of spread- 
ing the canoe, which is too narrow for its depth, and the thwarts are put 
and secured by cords passed through small holes in the side to keep it in 
shgpe. The prow of the Tsinuk canoe, and projecting parts of others, 
which are too large to be cut from a single tree, or would cross the grain, 
are mortised in and secured by cords in like manner. Should, unluckily, 
knots or other defects appeaf^lpthe sides, the piece is cut out and another 
set in in its place. This is done by boring small holes, through which the 
patch is firmly sewed with twine, and which are then plugged. The seam 
is caulked with pitch and cedar-bark, scraped to the consistence of tow. 
When finished, the outside is slightly charred, and painted with coal made 
from rushes and mixed with whale-oil. The inside is colored with a chrome, 
which, when burned, becomes red. In constructing their canoes, the Indians 
use no lines or artificial aid. The whole is modeled by the eye. Of course, 
there is a great difference in quality, according to the skill of the builders, 
and particular persons have a high reputation for their superiority in this 
respect. 



219 

CLOTHING, UTENSILS, ETC. 
The introduction of European or American articles has, in great mea- 
sure, done away with their own. Almost all the Indians of the district are 
now principally clothed like the whites, and avail themselves of many of 
their tools and utensils ; but theii* original manufactures possessed a great 
deal of merit The ordinary dress of the men, when they saw fit to use anj", 
was a deer-skin shirt, leggings, and moccasins, which, among the prairie 
Indians, was often embroidered with the quills of the porcupine. On tlie 
coast these quills were scarce, being obtained from a distance and by ex- 
change, and since the opening of trade with the whites they have used beads 
and various colored threads. The skins are well dressed, being worked over 
a frame and softened with the brains of the animal. Before being used, they 
are smoked over a fire of green twigs, which prevents them from permanently 
shrinking or becoming hard from wet. They also wore on occasion robes 
made of the skins of small animals, such as the rabbit, sewelell (Aphdontia 
leporina)y muskrat, &c., or of larger ones, as th^ cougar and beaver. Fur 
caps, of a form suited to the fancy of the wearer, were used occasionally ; 
but the most noticeable covering was a broad, conical hat, with an inner 
rim fitting the head, made of a tough grass resejnbling hemp, which came 
from the interior. This was made water-proof, and painted with figures. 
The women universally wore a breech-clout of strands gathered round the 
waist and falling usually to the knees, which served the purpose of conceal- 
ment With the men no idea of immodesty existed. Decency had not even 
its fig-leaf. The clout was sometimes made of twisted grass, at others of 
cedar-bark, hackled and split into a fringe. Of later years, they have adopted 
the dress of the whites, and it is only in remote districts, or among old 
people too poor or too obstinately attached to the habits of their youth to 
change them, that one now sees this pristine type of the petticoat, 

"A garment of mystical sublimity." 

The Indians of the Sound and the Straits of Fuca attained considerable 
skill in manufacturing a species of blanket from a mixture of the wool of the 
mountain-sheep and the hair of a particular kind of dog, though in this art 
they never equaled the more northern tribes, some of whose workmanship 
equaled the common kind of Mexican serape. Vancouver describes tlie 
dogs as "resembling those of Pomerania, though, in general, somewhat 



220 

larger". Their usual color is white. Thn wool is obtained from the hunt- 
ing tribes next to the Cascade Mountains, and is an article of trade. The 
two being mixed are twisted into yarns by rolling upon the thigh, and the 
warp is formed by stretching these singly over a frame, tying the ends 
together. The woof is then passed through with a long wooden needle. 
The Klallam and Sound Indians do not make much use of colors in orna- 
menting their blankets, but those farther north introduce quite complicated 
figures of several colors. Another kind of robe, usually square and worn 
over the shoulders, is made by twisting in with the hair or wool the down 
of sea-birds, the whole being hand- woven in the same way as the last This 
makes a very thick and warm stuff. The Makah alone manufacture the 
cedar-bark into texture suitable for weaving. For this purpose, the inner 
bark is selected, boiled or macerated, and then pounded and hatcheled out. 
The bark is made to form the warp; the woof being made of grass -thread. 
This stuff is pliable, and makes a convenient outer garment. Very pretty 
capes, edged with the sea-otter skin, are made of it. This tribe also are the 
principal manufacturers of the cedar mats, which are used on the Sound. 
These are entirely of bark, formed into narrow strips, and woven on the 
floor. They are thin and perfectly even in texture. The other tribes em- 
ploy for mats two kinds of rushes, the flat or common cat-tail, and the round or 
tuld. These are used for a great variety of purposes, as to line their canoes, 
for beds, covering for goods, temporary huts, &c. In fact, an Indian's roll 
of mats is his constant traveling companion. Of baskets, they make, or 
rather did make until lately, an almost endless variety, many of them of 
beautiful textm'e, tasteful shape, and ornamented with colored figures. 
Some were used as pails, and even to boil in, being filled with water, and 
heated stones thrown in. Onps, dishes, and platters were carved from wood 
by the Makah in a very neat manner. Large bowls, holding over a quart, 
were made from the horns of the big-horned sheep, and spoons from that 
material and those of the mountain-goat. These last articles probably came 
from the north, but found their way, in the course of trade, far down the 
coast, and even into California. The nets and seines, manufactured from 
the grass imported from beyond the Cascade Mountains, deserve mention 
as very well made, the twine being perfectly even and well twisted. The 



221 

bows and arrows and defensive aimor have been mentioned in another con- 
nection. * 

In all their native manufactures, the Indians of this Territory were not 
wanting in skill, although they were far behind the northern races, whose 
ingenuity is, in fact, extraordinary among savages. 

DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

The horse and dog constitute the only ones, except that a very few 
individuals may perhaps own a little stock. Umtuts, a Klikatat, living at 
the mouth of the Kathlaputl, until recently killed by his tribe, alone pos- 
sessed a good herd. Generally speaking, the Indians west of the mountains 
do not keep them. Their horses, also, are few, comparatively, and of mod- 
ern introduction. 

The date of the introduction of the horse among the tribes in the eastern 
district cannot be arrived at with any certainty. The Snake, Nez Percys, 
and Spokane had, according to Lewis and Clarke, immense numbers at the 
time of their visit Garry, chief of the latter tribe, informed me that they 
first got theirs from the Flatheads, who, he believed, procured them from 
the Snakes; and there can be but little doubt that they were first brought 
northward by the latter in their intercourse with the Comanches. The 
Cayuse added to their stock by theft from the Spaniards, as Franchfere men- 
tions seeing them with Spanish brands. 

Dr. Suckley considers the dogs to be of two breeds, one resembling 
the coyote, or prairie-wolf, and very probably crossed with that animal, 
which is the kind used for hunting; the other, a long-bodied, short-legged, 
turnspit-looking cur, which is the peculiar property and pet of the womea 
To these are probably to be added a third, the dog used by the Skagit, 
Klallam, and others of the lower part of the Sound and Gulf of Georgia, 
which is shorn for its fleece. Vancouver mentions these as resembling the 
Pomeranian dog. They are of pretty good size, and generally white, with 
much longer and softer hair than either of the others, but having the same 
sharp muzzle and curling tail as the hunting-dog. Among some of the tribes 
of Northern California, as on the Klamath River, there is a variety with a 
broad tail, not more than six or eight inches in length, which appears to be 



222 

natural, and not the result of docking. This I suppose 1o be a distinct one. 
The Indian dogs are much valued by their owners, particularly- those em- 
ployed in htmting. 

SYMBOLIC WRITING. 

I am not aware how far this may be carried among the Sound tribes. 
Probably there is no great essential difference between them and their 
neighbors of the plains in this art It may perhaps be best explained by 
an example given me by a veteran mountaineer, Dr. Robert Newell, of 
Champoeg. A party of Snakes are going to hunt strayed horses. A figure 
of a man, with a long queue, or scalp-lock, reaching to his heels, denoted 
Shoshonee; that tribe being in the habit of braiding horse- or other hair into 
their own in that manner. A number of marks follow, signifying the strength 
of the party. A foot-print, pointed in the direction they take,- shows their 
course, and a hoof-mark turned backward, that they expect to return with 
animals. If well armed, and expecting a possible attack, a little powder 
mixed with sand tells that they are ready, or a square dotted about the 
figures indicates that they have fortified. These pictographs are often an 

object of study to decipher the true meaning. The shrewder or more 
experienced old men consult over them. It is not every one that is suflB- 

ciently versed in the subject to decide correctly. 

There are, I believe, no permanent symbolic writings below the Cas- 
cades like those which occur upon some of the rocks on the Columbia River 
above them, and attributed by the present Indians to the Elip TUikuniy or 

primeval race. 

MOUNDS AND EARTHWORKS. 

Mention has been made in my former report of a circular work on the 
Yakama River, the construction of which those Indians disclaimed. That 
was the first of the kind which had ever fallen under my observation, or which 
I had been informed of within this Territory or Oregon. Since then, Dr. 
Newell has informed me that, in some parts of the Willamette Valley, as on 
the Twallatti plains, for instance, there are indubitable earthworks, some 
of them of various forms, of which he mentioned the letter L- None of 
them, to his knowledge, presented the figures of animals. I am aware of 
none on the Lower Columbia or Puget Sound which deserve the name. 



223 

Inclosures for garden-patches were sometimes made by banking up around 
them with refuse thi'own out in cleaning the ground, which, after a long 
while, came to resemble a low wall, and, in some cases, as at the old Sno- 
homish fort on Kwultsehda Creek, they made external ditches, which were 
filled with pointed stakes and covered over; but these do not belong to the 
class spoken off. Near the house of Mr. Cameron, at Esquimalt, Vancouver 
Island, I noticed a trench, cutting off a small point of rock near the shore, 
which seemed to have been about six feet deep and eight wide. Governor 
Douglass informed me that these were not unfrequent on the island ; that 
they generally surrounded some defensible place; and that often an escarp- 
ment was constructed facing the sea, but that the earth was thrown indis- 
criminately on either side of the ditch. The present Indians have no tradi- 
tion of their origin. He supposes them to have been made by their ancestors, 
and the authors forgotten by their descendants. There are also, near Vic- 
toria, a number of small mounds, which I was unfortunately unable to visit. 
Governor Douglass mentioned that one had been dug into without finding 
anything. Some of the gentlemen of the company supposed them to be 
kamas ovens. Until an examination has been made, both of these and the 
works in the Willamette Valley, the question may be considered as still 
open, whether any works analogous to those of the Ohio Valley and others 
of the States exist on the Pacific coast* 

MIGRATIONS. 

The various tribes, as a general thing, claim for themselves to have sprung 
from the identical country which they now occupy, and their legends, so far 
as I have been able to collect them, give no account of remote changes of 
place. A Tsinuk story, related elsewhere, points to a northern origin for the 
ancestors of the tribe, but not for the people themselves. In reply to direct 
interrogatories upon the subject, they invariably state that they have always 
lived where they now do; but this is far less satisfactory than indirect evi- 
dence, as they are quick at suspecting some object in regard to their lands. 

" In coDnection with the sobject, reference may be made hero to the monnds noticed by Sir Edward 
Belcher in parts of the Sacramento Valley, which, he states, were raised by the existing race of Indians, 
for the porpose of elevating their houses beyond the reach of inundation. Whether sach a motive gov- 
erned the moond'bailders of Ohio, under any circumstances, I am uninformed. 



224 

Mention has already been made of the movement of part of the Klika- 
tat southward at a very recent period, and of the statement, by the Willo- 
pah, that the Klatskanai had likewise changed their location. In addition, 
I have been informed that the Tsemakum and Toanhuch once lived on the 
upper waters of the Niskwalli and Kowlitz Rivers, and the Satsop and the 
Satsall upon the south fork of the latter; but the Indians who made this 
statement declared that their own people, the Staklamish, had never moved. 
Their country, they said, was fhe "navel of the world". On the other side 
of the mountains, it is well known that the Snakes have, in modem times, 
been driven southward ; and Dr. Suckley was positively assured by aged 
Indians that the Klikatat and Yakama, branches of the Sahaptin family,* 
had pushed their way into the country formerly occupied by members 
of the Selish. This latter extension, being to the northward as well as west- 
ward, is out of the usual line of travel. Sufficient investigation has not 
been made yet to determine with certainty the routes followed in many 
cases; still less to ascertain the relative periods at which the various oflfeets 
from the great families have moved. Some have, in all probability, after a 
temporary stay in one place, passed over others of an earlier date, and 
located themselves beyond. The subject is capable of much curious 'specu- 
lation, and possibly of a near approach to a correct conclusion. 

If I may hazard a conjecture at present, it is that the Tah-kali and 
Selish families, with, perhaps, the Shoshonee and some others, originated 
east of the Rocky Mountains; that the country between that chain and the 
great lakes has been a center from which population has diverged ; that 
these two tribes crossed by the northern passes of the mountains; and that 
their branches have since been pushing westward and southward. Whether 
the southern branches of the Tahkali have been separated and driven on by 
the subsequent irruption of the Selish, or whether they have passed over 
their heads, can, perhaps, be ascertained on a severe comparison of the dif- 
ferent dialects into which each has become divided; it being reasonable 
to infer that those which diflfer most from the present are oldest in date and 
emigration. 

The route of the Selish has obviously been along the courses of the 
two great rivers, the Frazer and the Columbia. By the former, they seem to 

• The Yakama are elsewhere referred to the Selish. — [Bd.1 



225 

have penetrated to the sea, while, on the latter, they were stopped by the 
Sahaptin and the Tsiniik. Some branches undoubtedly crossed the Cas- 
cade Range, at diflFerent points, to the Sound, and the country intermediate 
between that and the Columbia. And the Tilamuk have overstepped that 
boundary and fixed themselves on the coast of Oregon. The southern limit 
of the Tahkali is not yet ascertained. Mr. Hale identified the Umkwa as 
an offshoot. Lieutenant Kautz has lately shown the Tti-tu-ten to be 
another, and it is possible that some of the California languages may also 
be assimilated. Dr. Newell stato^s that, since he was first in the Indian 
country, all the great tribes have been gradually breaking up into bands. 
Whenever two chiefs attain about an equality of power and influence, jeal- 
ousies arise, which lead to a separation of the tribe. These are fomented by 
many causes, the chattering of the women, of course, among others. Before 
the introduction of firearms, the range of the different tribes was more lim- 
ited than now. They did not travel so far from their own country. This 
last is less applicable to the coast tribes than to those of the interior. The 
former are, however, even more split up, and those of the Sound country, 
perhaps, most of all. The influence possessed even by those claiming to 
be head-chiefs has become almost nothing; and, in case of any disdgree- 
ment in a band, the dissatisfied party move off to a little distance and take 
the name of the ground they occupy, or any one desirous of establishing a 
band on his own account induces a party of his immediate followers to 
accompany him, and start, as it were, a new colony. It is to this separa- 
tion, and to the petty hostilities, which often grew out of it, that we must 
mainly attribute the diversity of dialects prevailing. 

NOTICES OF EARLY TRAVELERS. 

The first notices of the Indians of Oregon and Washington Territories 
that we have are by Vancouver, whose voyage was performed in 1792. I 
have quoted them much at length, because they present a view of the con- 
dition of these tribes before they had been affected by intercourse with the 
whites, and as suggesting a number of points which require explanation or 
suggest inquiry. So far as the coast is concerned, his observations are very 

meager ; for that navigator, though seeking the great river of Oregon and 
15 



226 

the Straits of Juan de Fuca, seems to Lave had a holy horror of land, and 
sedulously kept at such a distance that he made no discoveries whatever. 
Passing Destruction Island, he noticed a canoe or two paddling near the 
shore, and remarks : '* It was a fact not less singular than worthy of obser- 
vation, that on the whole extensive coast of New Albion, and more particu- 
larly in the vicinity of those fertile and delightful shores we had lately 
passed, we had not, excepting to the soufliward of Capo Orford and at this 
place, seen any inhabitants, pr met with any circumstances that, in the most 
distant manner, indicated a probability of the country being inhabited." 
Of the Klasset, or Makah, he says: *^The few natives who came off 
resembled, in most respects, the people of Nootka. Their persons, gar- 
ments, and behavior, are very similar; some difference was observed in 
their ornaments, particularly in those worn at the nose ; for, instead of the 
crescent, generally adopted by the inhabitants of Nootka, these wore straight 
pieces of bone. Their canoes, arms, and implements, were exactly the 
same. They spoke the same language, but did not approach us with the 
familiarity observed by those people on visiting the Resolution and Dis- 
covery, which may probably be owing to their having become more familiar 
with strangers." The village, he observes, which is situated about two 
miles within the cape, had the appearance of being extensive and populous. 
The manner of the Indians was very civil, orderly, and friendly. They 
requested permission before entering his ship, and, when receiving some 
presents, " politely and earnestly solicited " him to stop at their village. 

His notices of the Klallam are not much more extended, for he had 
but little intercourse with them. Of those at New Dungeness, he says : 
" The appearance of the huts we now saw indicated the residence of the 
natives in them to be of a temporary nature only, as we could perceive 
with our glasses that they differed very materially from the habitations of any 
of the American Indians we had before seen, being composed of nothing 
more than a few mats thrown over cross-sticks ; whereas those we had passed 
the preceding day in two or three small villages to the eastward of Classet 
were built exactly after the fashion of the houses erected at Nootka. The 
inhabitants seemed to view us with the utmost indifference and unconcern ; 
they continued to fish before their huts as regardless of our being present 



227 

a« if such vessels had been familiar to them, and unworthy of their atten- 
tion. On the lowland of New Dungeness were erected, perpendicularly and 
seemingly with much regularity, a number of verj^ tall straight poles like 
flag-staves or beacons, supported from the ground by spars. Their fii'st 
appearance induced an opinion of their being intended as the uprights for 
stages on which they might dry their fish ; but this, on a nearer view, seemed 
improbable, as their heights and distances fi-om each other would have 
required spars of a greater size to reach from one to the other than the 
substance of the poles was capable of sustaining. They were undoubtedly 
intended to answer some particular purpose ; but whether of a religious, 
civil, or military nature, must be left to some future investigation." 

A liberty pole or a gallows, probably, would have filled the aUemative 
suggested. The object of these erections is mentioned by Captain Wilkes 
as serving to suspend the nets with which the Indians catch wild fowl. 
Vancouver was greatly disgusted at the small importance attached to his 
visit. He says further that on Mr. Whidbey's landing to seek for water, the 
Indians continued to fish, "without paying any more regard to the. cutter 
than if she had been one of their own canoes." The circumstance was 
certainly remarkable, and can only be explained by the fact that the nov- 
elty had worn off, as there is no doubt, although Vancouver supposed him- 
self to be the first who had penetrated thus far up the straits, that Kendrick 
and others had preceded him. At Port Discovery, he says, "a few of the 
natives in two or three canoes favored us with their company, and brought 
with them some fish and venison for sale." "These people, in their persons, 
canoes, arms, implements, &c., seemed to resemble chiefly the inhabitants of 
Nootka, though less bedaubed with paint and less filthy in their external 
appearance. They wore ornaments in their ears, but none were observed 
in their noses ; some of them understood a few words of the Nootka lan- 
guage ; they were clothed in the skins of deer, bear, and some other ani- 
mals, but principally in a woolen garment of their own manufacture, 
extremely well wrought. They did not appear to possess any furs. Their 
bows and implements they freely bartered for knives, trinkets, copper, &c., 
and, what was very extraordinary, they offered for sale two children, each 



228 

about six or seven yeara of age, and being shown some copper were very 
anxious that the bargain should be closed." 

At Port Townshend he saw no Indians, but a deserted village at the site of 
the Tsemakum town, apparently in a state of decay. 

A few Indians were met with at Oak Cove (Port Lawrence), and near 
the head of Hood Canal about sixty, including women and children, undoubt- 
edly of the Skokomish tribe, which were all that he met with on that 
extensive line. " The region we had lately passed," he says, "seemed nearly 
destitute of human beings. Nowhere did the appearance of the party create 
any alarm or much astonishment, the Indians always treating them in a 
friendly manner, and bartering their arms and other articles for iron, copper, 
and trinkets." The following general observations are extracted entire, as 
they bear upon the apparent population of the country at the time. They 
refer more particularly to the Klallam, Tsemakum, and Skokomish. Van- 
couver, it may be mentioned in passing, does not seem to have sought for 
the names of any of the tribes, and none are mentioned in his book. Other 
points are omitted which appear singular. In speaking of the fish taken in 
the Sound, he never refers to the salmon ; and, what is most extraordinary, 
he says nothing of the custom of flattening the head. 

" Having considered with impartiality the excellencies and defects of 
this country, as far as came under our observation, it now remains to add 
a few words on the character of its inhabitants. None being resident in 
Port Discovery, and our intercourse with them having been very much con- 
fined, the knowledge we may have acquired of them, their manners and 
customs, must necessarily be very limited, and our conclusions drawn chiefly 
from comparison. From New Dungeness we ti'aversed nearly one hundred 
and fifty miles of their shores without seeing that number of inhabitants. 
Those who came within our notice nearly resembled the people of 
Nootka, their hair, as before mentioned, being in general neatly combed 
and tied behind. 

* ' In their weapons, implements, canoes, and dress, they vary little. Their 
native woolen garment was most in fashion, next to it, the skins of deer, 
bear, &c. ; a few wore dresses manufactured from bark, which, like their 
woolen ones, were very neatly wrought. Their spears, arrows, fish-gigs, 



229 

and other weapons were shaped exactly Hke those of Nootka, but none were 
pointed with copper or with muscleshells. The three former were generally 
barbed, and those pointed with common flint, agate, and bone seemed of 
their original workmanship. Yet more of their arrows were observed to be 
pointed with thin*, flat iron than with bone or flint, and it was very singular 
that they should prefer exchanging those pointed with iron to any of the 
othere. Their bows were of a superior construction ; these, in general, were 
from two and a half to three feet in length ; the broadest part in the middle 
was about an inch and a half and about three-quarters of an inch thick, 
neatly made, gradually tapering to each end, which terminated in a shoulder 
and hook for the security of the bow-string. They were all made of yew, 
and chosen with a naturally-inverted curve suited to the method of using 
them. From end to end of the concave side, which when strung became 
the convex part, a very strong strip of an elastic hide is attached to some, 
and the skins of serpents to others, exactly the shape and length of the bow, 
neatly and firmly affixed to the wood by means of a cement, the adhesive 
property of which I never saw or heard of being equaled. It is not to be 
affected by either dry or damp weather, and forms so strong a connection 
with the wood as to prevent a separation without destroying the component 
parts of both. The bow-string is made of the sinew of some marine animal, 
laid loose, in order to be twisted at pleasure, as the temperature of the atmo- 
sphere may require to preserve it at a proper length. Thus is this very 
neat little weapon rendered portable, elastic, and effective in the highest 
degree, if we may be allowed to judge by the dexterity with which it was 
used by one of the natives at Port Discovery. 

" We had little opportunity of acquu-ing any satisfactory information 
with regard to the public regulations or private economy of these people. 
The situation and appearance of the places we found them generally inhab- 
iting indicating their being much accustomed to change of residence ; the 
deserted villages tend to strengthen the conjecture of their being wanderers. 
Territorial property appeared to be of little importance ; there was plenty 
of room for their fixed habitations, and those of a temporary nature, which 
we now found them mostly to occupy, being principally composed of 
crossed sticks covered with a few mats, as easily found a spot for their erec- 



230 

ft 

tion, as they wore removed from one station to another, either as incHnation 
might lead or necessity compel ; and, having a very extensive range of 
domain, they were not liable to interniption or opposition from their few 
surrounding neighbors. 

" From these circumstances alone, it may be somewhat premature to 
conclude that this delightful country has always been thus thinly inhabited; 
on the contrary, there are reasons to believe it has been infinitely more 
populous. Each of the deserted villages was nearly, if not quite, equal to 
contain all the scattered inhabitants we saw, according to the custom of the 
Nootka people, to whom these have great affinity in their fixed habitations 
and in their general character. It is also possible that most of the clear 
spaces may have been indebted for the removal of their timber and under- 
wood to manual labor. Their general appearance furnished this opinion, 
and their situation on the most pleasant and commanding eminences, pro- 
tected by the forest op every side except that which would have precluded 
a view of them, seemed to encourage the idea. Not many years since, each 
of these vacant spaces might have been allotted to the habitations of dififer- 
ent societies, and the variation observed in their extent might have been 
conformable to the size of each village, on the site of Avhich, since their 
abdication or extermination, nothing but the smaller shrubs and plants had 
yet been able to rear their heads. 

"In our difierent excursions, particularly those in the neighborhood of 
Port Discovery, the skull, limbs, ribs, and back-bones, or some other vestiges 
of the human body, were found in many places promiscuously scattered 
about the beach in great numbers. Similar relics were also frequently met 
with during our survey in the boats; and I was infgrmed by the officers 
that, in their several perambulations, the like appearances had presented 
themselves so repeatedly and in such abundance as to produce an idea that 
the environs of Port Discovery were a general cemetery for the whole sur- 
rounding country. Notwithstanding these circumstances do not amount 
to a direct proof .of the extensive population they indicate, yet, when 
combined with other appearances, they warranted an opinion that, at no 
very remote period, this country had been far more populous than at present 
Some of the human bodies were found disposed of in a very singular man- 



231 

ner. Canoes were suspended between two or more trees, about twelve feet 
from the ground, in which were the skeletons of two or three persons. 
Others of a larger size were hauled up into the outskirts of the woods, which 
contained from four to seven skeletons, covered over with a broad plank. 
In some of these, broken bows and arrows were found, which at first gave rise 
to a conjecture that these might have been wamors, who, after being mor- 
tally wounded, had, whilst their strength remained, hauled up their canoes 
for the purpose of expiring quietly in them. But, on a further examination, 
this became improbable, as it would hardly have been possible to have pre- 
served the regularity of position in the agonies of death, or to have defended 
their sepulchers with the broad plank with which each was covered. The 
few skeletons we saw so carefully deposited in the canoes were probably 
the chiefs, priests, or leaders of particular tribes, whose followers most likely 
continue to possess the highest respect for their memory and remains; and 
the general knowledge I had obtained from experience of the regard which 
all savage nations pay to their funeral solemnities made me particularly 
solicitous to prevent any indignity from being wantonly oflFered to their 
departed friends. Baskets were also found suspended on high trees, each 
containing the skeleton of a young child; in some of which were also small 
square boxes filled with a kind of white paste, resembling such as I had 
seen the natives eat, supposed to be made of the saranna root. Some 
of these boxes were quite full ; others were nearly empty, eaten probably by 
the mice, squirrels, or birds. On the next low point south of our present 
encampment, where the gunners were airing the powder, they met with several 
holes, in which human bodies were interred, slightly covered over, and in 
diflferent states of decay, some appearing to have been very recently 
deposited. About half a mile to the northward of our tents, where the land 
is nearly level with high-water mark, a few paces within the skirting of the 
wood, a canoe was found suspended between two trees, in which were three 
human skeletons ; and a few paces to the right was a cleared space of nearly 
forty yards round, where, from the fresh appearance of burned stumps, most 
of its vegetable productions had very lately been consumed by fire. Amongst 
the ashes we found the skulls and other bones of near twenty persons in 
difierent stages of calcination; the fire, however, had not reached the sus- 



232 

pended canoe, nor did it appear to Imve been intended that it should. The 
skeletons, found thus disposed in canoes or in baskets, bore a veiy small 
proportion to the number of skulls and other human bones indiscriminately 
scattered about the shores. Such are the effects; but of the cause or Ccauses 
that have operated to produce them, we remained totally unacquainted, 
whether occasioned by epidemic disease or recent wars. The character and 
general deportment of the few inhabitants we occasionally saw by no means 
countenanced the latter opinion; they were unifonnly civil and friendly, 
without manifesting the least sign of fear or suspicion at our approach, nor 
did their appearance indicate their having been much inured to hostilities. 
Several of their stoutest men had been seen perfectly naked, and, contrary to 
what might have been expected of rude natives habituated to warfare, their 
skins were mostly unblemished by scars, excepting such as the small-pox 
seemed to have occasioned, a disease which there is great reason to believe 
is very fatal amongst them. It is not, however, very easy to draw any just 
conclusions on the true cause from which this havoc of the human race pro- 
ceeded: this must remain for the investigation of others who may have more 
leisure and a better opportunity to direct such an inquiry; yet it may not 
be unreasonable to conjecture that the present apparent depopulation may 
have arisen,in some measure, from the inhabitants of this interior part hav- 
ing been induced to quit- their former abode, and to have moved nearer the 
exterior coast for the convenience of obtaining, in the immediate mart, with 
more ease and at a .cheaper rate, those valuable articles of commerce that 
within these last years have been brought to the sea-coasts of this continent 
by Europeans and the citizens of America, and which are in great estima- 
tion amongst these people, being possessed by all in a greater or less degree." 
While surveying Admhalty Inlet, Vancouver met with further parties 
of Indians. Of the Skokomish, he says: "Towards noon, I went ashore at 
the village point (southern end of Bainbridge Island) for the purpose of 
observing the latitude; on which occasion I visited the village, if it may be 
dignified, as it appeared the most lowly and meanest of its kind. The best 
of the huts were poor and miserable, constructed something after the fashion 
of a soldier's tent, by two cross-sticks, about five feet high, connected at 
each end by a ridge-pole from one to the other, over some of which was 



233 

thrown a coarse kind of mat; over others, a few loose branches of trees, 
shrubs, and grass. None, however, appeared to be constructed for protect- 
ing them, either against the heat of summer or the inclemency of winter. 
In them were hung up, to be cured by the smoke of the fire they kept con- 
stantly burning, clams, muscles, and a few other kinds of fish, seemingly 
intended for then' winter's subsistence. The clams perhaps were not all 
reserved for that purpose, as we frequently saw them strung and worn about 
the neck, which, as inclination directed, were eaten, two, three, or half a 
dozen at a time. This station did not appear to have been preferred for the 
purpose of fishing, as we saw few of the people so employed; nearly the 
whole of the inhabitants belonging to the village, which consisted of about 
eighty or a hundred men, women, and children, were busily engaged, like 
swine, rooting up this beautiful verdant meadow, in quest of a species of 
wild onion, and two other roots, which, in appearance and taste, greatly 
resembled the saranna, particularly the largest. The collecting of these 
roots was most likely the object which attracted them to this spot; they all 
seemed to gather them with much avidity, and to preserve them with great 
care, most probably for the purpose of making the paste I have already 
mentioned." 

'* These people varied in no essential point from the natives we had seen 
since our entering the straits. Their persons were equally ill made, and as 
much besmeared with oil and difierent colored paints, particularly with red 
ocher and a sort of shining chaflFy mica, very ponderous, and in color much 
resembling bla ck lead. They likewise possessed more ornaments, especially 
such as were made of copper, the article most valued and esteemed among 
them." Subsequently, about eighty of the Dwamish visited the ship, whose 
appearance he mentions as more cleanly than that of the people on the 
island. The latter were undoubtedly there merely temporarily, and for the 
purpose of digging the roots refen-ed to. 

A party of Indians, it seems, turned the tables on Vancouver, so far as 
the suspicion of cannibalism is concerned, and, after subjecting some of a 
venison pastry to a very severe examination, rejected it with great disgust, 
pointing to their own bodies to indicate their idea of its origin. He satis- 
fied them of its character with some difficulty, and drew the inference, cer- 



234 

tainly correct, that the character ascribed to the northwest Indians of 
America in his day was, at least so far as these were concerned, unjust. 

The number of Indians encountered by Mr. Puget in exploring the 
^ various inlets leading to the sound which now bears his name does not 
seem to have been greater in proportion than those met with in Admiralty 
Inlet and Hood Canal, as, though Vancouver speaks of his meeting several 
tribes, he does not refer to their numbers. The only diflBculty had with any 
of the natives was met with by this gentleman in what is now called Hale 
Passage, which, however, owing to his prudence, did not proceed to 
extremities. It is remarkable that on this occasion they showed no surprise 
at the fii*e of small-arms, but merely imitated the sound of the muskets by 
exclaiming poo! poo! and on the discharge of the swivel shotted, instead of 
flying, merely unstrung their bows, and came forward with demonstrations 
of friendship. 

In surveying Whidbey Island and the passages lying east of it, Mr. 
Whidbey met with the Snohomish and Skagit. Of this district, Vancouver 
says, " The number of its inhabitants is about six hundred, which I should 
suppose would exceed the total of all the natives before seen." 

Already the productions of European art had begun to find their way 
here. Not only were the Indians tolerably well supplied with iron and cop- 
per arrow-points, but weapons also had been imported. **The chief," says 
Vancouver, "for so we must distinguish him, had two hangers, one of Span- 
ish and the other of English maijufacture, on which he seemed to set a very 

high value." From their curiosity to know if he was all white, Mr. Whidbey 

* 

concluded they had not before seen any Europeans, though from the diflFer- 

ent articles they possessed it was evident a communication had taken place ; 
probably by means of inteiiiibal trade. 

Mr. Broughton's account of the Columbia River Indians is far less 
minute. He makes no estimate of their apparent numbers, which do not 
appear to have struck him as very great, merely remarking that the farther 
he proceeded the more the country was inhabited. It is to be noticed that 
the deserted villages referred to by Vancouver and his diflFerent parties 
were probably left for the time being. The period of Mr. Broughton's visit, 
the month of December, was one at which most of the bands living near 



235 

the mouth of the river were on Shoalwater Bay, engaged in taking winter 
salmon. The following extract embodies his principal observations : 

"The natives diflFered in nothing very materially from those we had 
visited during the summer, but in the decoration of their persons ; in this 
respect they surpassed all the other tribes, with paints of diflFerent colors, 
feathers, and other ornaments. Their houses seemed to be more comfortiible 
than those at Nootka; the roof having a greater inclination, and the planking 
being thatched over with the bark of trees. The entrance is through a hole 
in a broad plank, carved in such a manner as to resemble the face of a 
man, the mouth serving for the purpose of a door-way. The fire-place is 
sunk in the earth, and confined from spreading above by a wooden frame. 
The inhabitants are universally addicted to smoking. Their pipe is similar 
to ours in shape. The bowl is made of very hard wood, and is externally orna- 
mented with carvings ; the tube, about two feet long, is made of a small 
branch of the elder. In this they smoke an herb which the country pro- 
duces, of a very mild nature, and by no means unpleasant ; they, however, 
took great pleasure in smoking tobacco ; hence it is natural to conclude it 
might become a valuable article of traffic amongst them. In most other 
respects, they resemble their neighbors as to their manners and mode of 
living, being equally filthy and uncleanly." 

Mr. Whidbey's account of the examination of Gray Harbor contains 
even less information. The total number of inhabitants seen by him was 
estimated at one hundred ; most of the remainder being, in all probability, 
at Shoalwater Bay, which, as before mentioned, was the winter ground of 
the Tsihalis equally with the Cfliinuk. 

The next, and a far more valuable account of the Columbia River 
Indians, is that of Lewis and Clarke, thirteen years later. Their descrip- 
tions of Indian manners, dwellings, and life are accurate, and they have 
not, like manj other writers, indulged in speculation, or attempted to draw 
inferences and assign motives for action on insufficient basis. The nomen- 
clature assigned by them to many of the bands, with which they met or of 
which they obtained information, is not recognizable at the present day. 
There are, in fact, no generic names used by the Indians among their own 
tribes, but each band is distinguished by its appropriate appellation, that of 



236 

the ground which it occupies. Generic or tribal names for others are some- 
times used; but, as before mentioned, the cohesion among the bands of the 
same family is so small, that it is more usual to hear them separately men- 
tioned, even by their neighbors. As these appellations differ with the 
different tribes, and moreover die out with the abandonment of a particular 
locality, it is next to impossible, after such a lapse of time, to identify all 
of them, exoept by their locality or order of succession. 

Subsequent to Lewis and Clarke is Franch^re, whose simplicity of 
narration and air of truth induce a regret that his work is not more in detail. 
Upon this much of Mr. Irving's description is based. 

Ross Cox's adventures, though highly amusing and sufficiently accurate 
where description alone is concerned, are liable to give very false impres- 
sions of motive and idea. 

Of the externals of savage life on the Oregon coast, there are many 
graphic and full accounts ; but an insight into their minds is not so easy to 
reach, and those who have most carefully sought it are likely to be most 
doubtful of their success. 

EARLY VISITS OF WHITE MEN. 

The Indians at the mouth of the Columbia preserv^e several traditions 
of the early visits of white men, the first of which must have been many 
years anterior to the arrival of Gray. The wife of Mr. Solomon H. Smith, 
who belonged to the Klatsop, and was bom about the year 1810, informed 
me that the first white men seen by her tribe were three who came ashore 
in a boat from a wrecked vessel. "They landed on Klatsop Point (Point 
Adams), where one soon afterward died. They were first descried by a 
woman who had lost her child, and, after the Indian fashion, had gone out 
in the morning to mourn for it. She saw a large object lying on the beach, 
and, while looking at it in wonder, the seamen came ashore and approached, 
holding a bright kettle and motioning her to bring water. She was afraid; 
but they put it down and retired, when she took it and ran to the village. 
The Indians then came down in a body. The new-comers looked like men, 
except that they had long beards like beai's. They had already put the sick 
man into a box to be buried, as he was nearly dead. The Klatsop Indians sent 



237 

* 

for the others on the river, who came in great numbers. Astonished at the 
value of their prize and, hoping to get the whole of the metals which it con- 
tained, they set fire to the wreck, by which means they lost all. There 
were copper kettles on the vessels and pieces of money, having a square 
hole through the center. 

The two surviving seamen remained as slaves to the Klatsop until it 
was found that one was a worker in iron, of which the Indians began to see 
the value, when they made him a chief. Afterward the two started for their 
own country, which, they said, was toward the rising sun. They went as 
far as the Dalles, where one stopped and married. The other returned to 
Multnomah Island and married there. He had a daughter, who was an 
old gray-haired woman when Mrs. Smith was a child. Her own father 
remembered the arrival of the seamen. The man who lived on Multnomah 
Island was undoubtedly the one mentioned by Franchfere in his narrative, 
whose son, Soto, was alive, and a very old man, at the time of his visit. 

After this, a vessel anchored off Mahcarnie Head [False Tilamuk], in 
the bight at the mouth of the Nehalen River. About twenty armed men, 
with cutlasses, came on shore, bringing an iron chest, which they carried 
about two miles back into the country, to a spot where an Indian trail 
crosses a brook on the south side of the promontory. The place was east 
of the trail and south of the brook. There they buried it between two rocks, 
letting down another on top, and cut an inscription on the rock. They then 
killed a man and went away. Some years ago, a party of Oregonians went 
to search for this box, under the impression that it was hidden treasure, but 
were unsuccessful, for, although the place is ascertained within a short dis- 
tance, their Indian guides would not approach it." The incident of a man 
being killed on the spot is probably an Indian addition, drawn from their 
own usages. 

Another vessel, having on board a large quantity of bees^^ax, was cast 
away on the spit of land to the north of the same river, the Nehalen. The 
crew came ashore, built a house, and lived peaceably for some time, till 
they began to take away the Indians' wives. This created an excitement, 
and finally, when they had seduced off the wife of a chief, he assembled the 
tribe, and asked if they would let their wives go or fight. They decided to 



238 

fight, and attacked the seamen with bows and arrows and spears. The 
latter resisted, throwing stones behind them and under their arms with great force, 
as the Indians s<ay, but were finally all killed. This beeswax has often been 
mentioned by travelers, and pieces of it continue to be found after westerly 
storms. This vessel was probably a Japanese junk, several of which have 
from time to time been cast away on the coast. It is noticeable that many 
of the Tilamuk diflFer in personal appearance from their neighbors at this 
day, so as easily to be recognized by those acquainted with the peculiarity. 
Their complexion is yellower than ordinary, and their eyes more oblique 
and elongated. 

The spot on which Lewis and Clarke's winter encampment was fixed is 
still discernible, and the foundation logs remained till within a year or two. 
It was on the west bank of a little river, called by the Indians Netul, but 
generally known as Lewis and Clarke's River, about two miles from its 
mouth. The trail by which they used to reach the coast can also be traced. 
Their visit produced a stronger impression than any event before the arrival 
of the Astoria party, and they are still remembered by the older Indians. 
One of these Indians told a settler that the captains were real chiefs, and 
that the Americans who had come since were but tilikum, or common peo- 
ple. Ske-mah-kwe-up, the chief, and almost the last survivor of the Wah- 
kiakum band of Tsinuk, preserved with great pride the medal given him 
by Lewis and Clarke, until within a year or two, when it was accidentally 
lost, to his great grief 

The Tsihalis Indians retain a recollection of Gray. Kau-kau-an, the 
old chief at Tsihalis Point, informed me that he had seen him. Gray gave 
them a musket and some cartridges, first, however, cutting ofi" the balls. 
They did not know its use, but supposed it was intended merely to make a 
noise, and fired it off* until their powder was gone, when they broke it up. 
Afterward they found out Gray's object. He also gave them axes and 
knives, the first they had seen. A few years after him came Captain Tom- 
linson, with whom also they traded. Gray and he used to give them a 
"small blanket", probably a piece of coarse cloth, for a dressed deer-skin. 

Quite a number of Sound Indians remember the visits of the early 
ships to their waters, although, as might be expected, they liave confused 



239 

their accounts. Lakh-kanani, father of the Duke of York, the S'khiUam 
chief, and apparently a very old man, informed me that he was about the 
age of a boy whom he pointed out, or some ten years when they first 
aiTived. This he said had only one stick, mast, and was probably the 
Washington, Captain Kendrick, which entered in 1789, or the Princess Royal 
(Spanish), Lieutenant Quimper, in 1 790. The Indians thought it was Do- 
kwe-butl, for they knew nothing of the kwa-neh-tum, or white man, and 
they feared lest some great sickness should follow. The vessel came up to 
New Dungeness and anchored. The old men and women went out and 
called Dokwebutl ! Dokwebutl ! The chiefs said to one another that they 
ought not to be afraid, and they accordingly washed, oiled, and painted 
their faces as when making tamahn-ous, thinking to please Dokwebutl. 
They all went out in their canoes to the ship, when one man, a sailor, 
motioned to them not to come near till they had washed the paint from their 
faces. They went astern and did so, and then all were admitted to the 
ship ; but Lakh-kanam, who was small and afraid, did not go. The sailors 
got into his canoe, and wanted to try and paddle it, and he cried till Hai- 
ya-watst, General Pierce's father, who is still living, and older than himself, 
came down into the canoe and told him not to cry. Some one, he supposes 
the captain, then made them all presents of buttons and knives. The cap- 
tain wanted afterward to buy one of the dog's-hair blankets and one of 
cedar bark. He had nothing at this time to trade with except buttons, 
knives, and sheathing-copper, and the shell called sea-ear {Haliotis), He 
traded these things for curiosities. About a year or a )"ear and a half after, 
a three-masted and a two-masted vessel came in. Neither of them went 
farther up than Port Discovery. The two-masted vessel traded them iron 
hoops and broken iron ; they bought deer- and elk-skins, and gave from 
eight to twelve small blankets ! or a musket for one skin ! They also sold 
shot and powder. When the captain had done trading, he gave away knives, 
looking-glasses, and other small articles as presents. 

Lakh-kanam's remembrance of prices is probably very much exagger- 
ated by distance, the good old times being a golden age with the Indians 
also; but the narative is probably substantially accurate. When he had 
gi'own up and got a wife, two more ships came. Several had touched at 



240 

Cape Flattery before the first came to New Dungeness. They came ashore 
at once, and put up a tent, and many of the Klallam came to see her. The 
name of one captain was Lelis and the other Paput. Tliat of another still 
was Kelalimuk. They always wanted skins from the Indians. The Indians 
had no beaver, but elk, deer, and sea-otter. For a large sea-otter they gave 
twenty blankets. They also bought haikwa for blankets, five fathoms for 
a blanket. These blankets were different from the first, being heavier. 
The last two vessels only came up to Port Discovery. He thought they 
then went to Klyokwot. It was afterward that ships came up the Sound. 
For some time, a good many came, and then they stopped. The name of 
the captains given by him cannot be recognized, and very possibly were of 
Indian bestowal. It would seem to indicate that several trading- vessels had 
passed up the straits before Vancouver; but there is some confusion as to 
times, if the sloop^was Gray's, as he could not have come up in the interim. 
Ijakh-kanam also recollects when the white people (the Russians) lived in 
a house at Neeah Bay. He was then grown up. A vessel was lost there, 
and the Makah plundered her and behaved badly. The house was only a 
tent. He knew nothing of a stone house, such as the adobe building erected 
by the Spaniards. 

Winapat, or, as he is called by the whites, Bonaparte, one of the old 
Snokomish chiefs, informed me that the first ship came up only as far as 
Whidbey Island. Until then a piece of iron, as long as one's finger, was 
worth two slaves. That ship brought it to them directly. When he was a 
very small boy, two ships came, one of which stopped in the Klallam country, 
and the other went up to the Puyallup. They carried off a chief, Tsee- 
shishten. In this, also, there is probably some error, if the ships were 
Vancouver's, as he makes no mention of taking away any Indians. 



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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

U. S. GEOGRAPHICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGION. 

J. W. POWELL, Geologist in Chargic. 



APPENDIX TO 



PART II. 



LINGUISTICS 



243 



f 



C O N T 3i N T 8 . 



P»go. 
Comparative Yocabalai 168 Oibbs, Tolmik, akd Menoarini 247 

Niskwalli-English Dictiouary Gkorob Qibbs 285 

EugHsh-Niskwalli Diotiooary Qborgb Qibbs 909 



845 



VOCABULARIES. 



I. 

1 . — Vocahalary of tJie Shihwapmukh. 

A tribe of the Selisli family, obtained from a woman of the tribe with the 
assistance of a man also of the tribe, by George Gibbs. 

Note. — I did not learn the locality from which the woman came, 
and imagine there may be dialectic differences in the language. It is 
also possible that she may have forgotten some words. — G. G. 

2. — Vocabulary of the Shoosivaap. 

A tribe of the Selish family, obtained from Dr. William F. Tolmie, of the 
Hudson Bay Company, by George Gibbs. 

Note. — Concerning the habitat of these Indians, the following re- 
mark is taken from "Indian Languages of the Pacific States and Ter- 
ritories" by Albert S. Gatschet (Magazine of American History, March, 
1877): "The Shushvvap, Suwapamuck, or Southern Atnah, belongs to 
the Selish stock, but does not extend from middle course of Fraser 
River and its affluents so far south as to reach American territory. It 
closely resembles Selish proper." 

247 



248 
3. — Vocabulary of the Nikutemukh. 

A tribe of the Selish family, inhabiting the Fraser River from the falls above 
Fort Yale to the moutli of the Thompson River, by George Gibbs. 

Note. — This vocabulary was obtained at Fort Hope March 24, 
1870, from Ilwee-tah'-lich-kaw, son of the chief of Klcch-ah'-mcch (a 
village at the forks) tluough the medimn of Skah-uhl, a Sumas chief, 
at one interview; subsequently revised, and presumed to be substan- 
tially correct — G. G. 

4 — Vocabtdary of the Okindken. 

A tribe of the Selish family, obtained from an Indian of the Shemel-a-ko- 
much band, living near the forks of the river [Okindkane?], below the 
lakes, by George Gibbs. ^ 

Note. — I have no doubt of the general accuracy of this vocabu- 
lary. The language probably varies considerably toward the head of 
the great lake. — G. G. 

5. — Vocabulary of the Wd-ky-nd-kaine. 

A tribe of the Selish family ; obtained from Dr. Wm. F. Tolmie, of the Hud- 
son Bay Company, by George Gibbs. 

6. — Vocabulary of the Shwoyelpi. 

A tribe of the Selish family; obtained by George Gibbs. 

Note. — Mr. Gatschet speaks of the Soaiatlpi (probably the same 
tribe) as residing west of Olympia City. 

7. — Vocabulary of the Skoylpeli. 

A tribe of the Selish family, obtained from the Rev. G. Mengarini, by George 
Gibbs. 



249 

8. — Vocabulary of the Spokan. 

A tribe of the Selish family, obtained from Spokan, a chief of the tribe, by 
George Gibbs. 

9. — Vocabulary of the Piskwaus, or Winatsha. 

A tribe of the Selish family (living on the Columbia River from the Winat- 
sha up to the Okindkane), collected in 1853, and subsequently revised 
at Fort Colville in 1860, by George Gibbs. 

Note. — It is possible there may be dialectic differences between 
the Indians from whom it was obtained. — G. G. 

NOTE. 

The following extract, from "Instructions for Research relative to the 
Ethnology and Philology of America", by George Gibbs (Smithsonian Mis- 
cellaneous Collections, No. 160), is inserted as a guide to the spelling of the 
within vocabularies by Dr. Gibbs, Those by Dr. Tolmie do not follow the 
same plan, but those by Father Mengarini seem to have been altered by Dr. 
Gibbs to conform to his system of spelling : 

VOWELS. 

A as long in father^ and short, in German liat (nearly as in English what). 

E as long in they (*Mong a" in face), short in met. 

I as long in marine, short in pin. 

o as long in go, short in home, whole (as generally pronounced in the North- 
ern States). 

u as long in rule (oo in fool), short in full (oo in good). U as in union^ 
pure, &c., to be written yu. 

k as in all {aw, au in bawl, taught). 

A as in fat. 

y as in but (o in love, oo in blood). 

Ai as in aisle ("long i" in pine). 

AU as ow in now, ou in loud. 

The distinction of long and short vowels to be noted, as far as possible, 

by the division into syllables, joining a following consonant to a short vowel. 



250 

and leaving the vowel open if long. Where this is insnfficient, or where 
greater distinctness is desirable, a horizontal niark above, to indicate a long 
vowel, a curved mark a short one, thus: a, a, r, c, &c A nasal syllable, 
like those found so commonly in French, to be marked by an index, n, at 
the upper right-hand corner of the vowel; tlms, o**, a", a", w", will represent 
the sounds of the French on, an or en, in, and wn, respectively. 

CONSONANTS. 

B as in English blab. 

c not to be used excepting in the compound cA; write k for the hard 

sound, s for the soft 

D as in English did. 

F as in English ffe. 

G as in English r/2//, never for the soft sound, as m ginycr; lor this use 

always j. 

u as in English how^ hocj handle. 

J as in English judge. 

K as in English kick. 

L as in English lull. 

M as in English mimic. 

N as in English noon, 

p as in English pipe. 

Q not to be used; for qa write kw. 

K iis in English rear, 

s as in English sauce, 

T as in English tight 

V as in English vow. 

w as in English wayward, 

X not to be used; write ks or gZy according to the sound, in wax^ example. 

Y as in English yoUj year. 
z as in English zeal^ buzz, 
S as ng in English singing, 
sn as in English shall^ shoe. 
ZH as z in azurCy s in fusion. 



251 

CH as in English church. 

TH as in English thirij truth. 

DH as th in the^ with. 

KU a surd guttural aspirate, the German ch in ach^ loch^ buchj and sometimes 

approaching tliat in ichy rechty bucher. 
GU a sonant guttural aspirate (Arabic ghain) ; other compounds, like the 

clucks occurring in T'sinuk, &c., to be represented by My tidy tlky &c., 

according to their analysis. 



252 



COMPAEATIVE 

Selifth 



Language, 
Authority, 


1. Shihwapmiikh. 
George Oihba. 


2. Shooswaap. 
Dr, JFrn. F. Tolm*e, 


3. Nikntemickh. 
George. Gihhn, 


4. OkiniSkeu. 
George Gibhg. 


Man ...... ...... 


skaMukh 


skallam, simameiin 

(plural), 
kilmeilook ......... 


skai'-hu 


sktfl-ta-mekhw' 

t'kntl-mekhw' 

te-tu-it' 


Woman .... .... . 


nokh-ho-nokh 

tu-we'-witt .... .... 


smOt-lats 


Boy 

Girl 




tu-we'-ut 

tum-rho'-milkh 

ko-k«m-mam'-mat . 
skatb'-za 


hiikb-b'ho'-tiim .... 
sk wi-ma^-milt ...... 


...... ...... ••.... .. 


hish'-hotum 

wakh'-tUt 

in-li-i'-u 

is-ku'-i 

is-heMu-i 

in-nakh'-ho-no 

shat-c-mi-hilt; 

(younger) is-kau'-i- 

shilp ; stau'-Or-tilt. 
8 h a t-e-m i'-h i 1 1 ; 

(younger) stan'-a- 

tilt. 

is-ka'-tcha 

in-shish'-in-sha .... 

il-kik-ha 


Infant 


Father 


ka' -chics ........... 


le-io. 


Mother 


ke'-hifs ............ 


u s k i (by male); 
toam (by female). 


• 

ske'-hil-la 

hai'-we ...... ..... 


Husband 

Wife 

Son 


s'haMn-MS 

nokh-ho-ndhh ..... 


sim-nni'- ...... ..... 


skn-itt' ............ . 


iscoos-sei .... ...... 


n's-ko'-la 


Daughter 

„ ^^ S ©Wer . . . 
Brother < 

i younger 

^ younger.. 

Indians, people .. 
Head 


sklum-kalts' 

si-shin'-shtfs ■ ...... 


hee-hoatum 


sins-ko'-la 

ne-katsk ...... .... 


o-kwais' 




ne-shent'-shi 

n'kekh 

shno'-kwa ......... 


va-kuk-kakh' ...... 




eii-chit-chas' ....... 




il-chikhM-dps 

ske-Iukh .......... 


kttl-mukh' 




u'ke-shait'-kan .... 


skaph'-kans* 

kau'-t'ns ...... ..... 


tzasiakun 


in-tsa-si'-a-kan (my 

head), 
in-ka^-ken'-tin .... 

is-kwut-klos 

in-kl-ke-mer-shin . . 

in-te'-na 

is'n-kwilt-kw' klos- 

tin. 

is-ptca-saks' 

is-pil-lim'-tsin 

in-ti wtsk ...... .... 


Hair 

Face 


kup-kein-tun 


skap-kan 

n's-kut-klosh 

Bues 


skut-lost^ ...--. .... 


Forehead 

Ear 


1 ktim'-nitis hun 




kW-uiis 


teim-nah ...^ 

shin-koo-tloask-tin . 

spissaks 

spleimchin 

tewhchik 

a-eitimin 


klan-ne ...... ...... 


Eye 

Nose 

Mouth 


sk'wt-k'wt-los'-tan . 
piis-suks ...... ..... 


n'kut-klosh-tan 

pi-saks ...... ...... 


spil-lot'-sins 

ti-hwal-s'ks 

hai-takhws 

Hou-tsins 


spi-lot'-Ban 

tat'-la 

hai-va'-hu 


Toncue . - 


Teeth 

• 

Beard 


in-ai'-tiini-in 

is-op-ttt-sin' 




shwop^-chin 


1 







253 



VOCABULARIES. 
Family. 



5. Wa-ky-ua- 
kaine. 


G. Sbwuyelpi. 


7. Skoyelpi. 


8. Spokau.' 


9. PiskwauB or 
WinaUba. 


Dr. Wm. F. Tolmie. 


Oeorge Gihhs. 


Rev. G. Mengarini, 


George Gibht. 


George Oihbs. 


kullnmkallamoob 


8kttl-te-mokbw 


skal-ttt-niikb 


skuMa-mi'-bu 


skul-ta-mekbw'. 


n t i-Tif>an aaYi 


tek-le^mel-hn . - * 


tek-bltt-melkb - . - - . 


Bem-a-em' ......... 


sma-am'. 




to-to'-wit 


te-toMt 

Bte'-ktt-mikb 

wokb-tilt 


tet-o-it' 

BboBb-u-tuni 

okb-telt' 


tet'-o-wit. 
ke-a-au'-na. 
stdm. 

in-la-a'-o (by boy) ; 
in-ma-as'-tum 




sta'-ko-mikb- a 

wdkb-tilt 




ka-it-i^bifi .... .*.. 


l^e'-bn ...... ...... 


le-e'-u (of a bod); 


le-e'-u (by boy); 
meB'-tniu (by girl). 






mis'-tnin (of a 






daugbter). 




(by girl). 


kei-i-biB 


eu-tom 


Bko'-i (of a Bou) ; torn 


eB-ku'-i (by boy); 


isb-kuM (by boy); 






(of a daugbter). 


in- turn (by girl). 


in-tom' (by girl). 




ea-beMii-e ......... 


B'kbe'-ln-e 


iB-baV-u-i 

en-okV-o-no 

iB-kwuB-ae' (eldest); 
B k o k' - B e e 3 1' 


is-ba'-lo-e. 

on-okb-be-nokb. 

en-asb-kwu-Bba'. 




nakb-ho-Dokb ....^ 
es-ku-se' ........... 


Do-kbo'-nokb 

BkuHse' 


iBh-coofib-a-OBb .. 
















(younger). 




tlim-knib) 


ea-tem-ke'-elt 


Btem-ke'-elt 


bia-tMm-obe-olt' 
(eldest) ; bis-sbu'- 
tumelt (younger). 


iB-ta-tam'-ka. 




el-sbe'-abin-sba 

el-k^kb-tcba 


)Btt-D«-kol-Bi'-^ 

\ kbukb. I 


in-kat'-ki 

ia-siu'-Ba ; iB-sU'-in-Bi 


en-kakB-t'k. 
is-Biu'-cba; ifr«i-Bin- 
cba (very young). 








el-kek-ba 


)B«-DM-kol-Bi-^ 


in-kl-cbi'-dia 


in-cba'-ka. 




el-cbi-cbi-ope 

BkeMukb ...... .... 

tsa-sbe-a'-kau ...... 


\ kbukb. ) 


inl-cbi'-cbe-tlpB .... 

skai'-likbw 

spilb-kain 


en-beMa. 




Bkai-likb .......... 


Bb'kint'. 
en-kOm'-kan. 


isb-kap-kiD 

ka-oo-tin 


tBes^-B^keu ........ 


kap-kdn' 


kap-kain'-ten 

flku-tloB ........... 


kom'-kan 


eB-ske-au'-a-kan. 




akut-loB ........... 


skwit-los' .......... 


iBb-klds'-men. 
kat-ka-mftlab. 
in-tan'-na. 
iBb-ua-kloB-kloB'- 




kl-ke-mel-Bbin 

te'-Da 


kil-kM-melB'-byen . . 
ti'-ne 


Bkil-ti ne'-sbin 

ten-ne' 


klan-uis 


boo-koo-tloosb- 


Bt'kul.kut-ldB-kan.. 


Bttt-ku-tloB^-teu 


B^c b i k-k e V e-k 1 ob'- 


klDS. 






cbln. 


min. 


isb-pis-saktszkis . 
is-pilootcblDB 


Bpe-fiaks 


Bpu-BakB ........... 


BDi'Saka' 


en-miik'-Bin. 


Bpe-lim-tBen 


Bptt-lim-tBen 


spe-lim'-cbiu 


isb-kum-cbin. 


tee-wbaat-obis... 


tdkbw'tBk 


ti-kb&to-ktt 

ai-! N-men .......... 


ti-wb-est' 


en-mel'-lik. 

CD-bul-akbw^ 

eBb-wQp-cbiu. 


ai'-te-min ......... 


buli-e'-bwu 

BilD-cbin 




Bdp-tcbin 


Bup-tzin (beardy).. 









254 



COMPARATIVE 

Selish 



Lanouaob, 
Authority, 



Neck 



Arm 



Hand. . 
Fingers 



Nails 
BcKly 
Leg. 



Foot 

Toes 

iioDu 

Ilpart 

Bl<MMl 

Town, village, 

Chief 

Warrior 

Friend 

House , 



Kettle 
Bow .. 
Arrow 

<(VJL • b • a 

Kuife , 



Canoe (bark) 



Shoes .. 
Pipe ... 
Tobacco 
Sky 



Sun 



1. Sbihwapnitfkb. 
Gi'orge Gihb». 



2. Sbooswaap. 



Dr. Wm. F. Tolmic, 



3. Nikutemvkb. 



Georye Gibba. 



k'l-kttin'-ohius 



sko wakh-ban^ 



kaMIkbs'. 
el-le'b'kst 



kd-kc'-nvk-st'us. 

80-wa'-nu8 

skwa'-h'ts 



Iekb-b«DB 
lekh-bttns 
ku-kOltcb' 
pos-niins' . 
tcbop'-sis . 



heilligb .. 
sbcbo^ixt 



sbtco-tzo-ban 



kok-pekb' .. 
n'ke-salt'-sa. 



cbit'-bu; (skin lodge) 
s'hutl-man-alt-b n . 



kl-kap' 

tcb-kwiu^-nuk 

skwil 

kla-uiiu' 

hut-lakst' 



kle-a' ; (dug out) 
thlttk-a-autl. 

shilt-zu' 

sko-u'-t'u 

smau'h 

8kl6-ttkt 



10 i 1-key ah 



cheil-oogb 



bil-imein 
UL'ikumin 



magh'-han 



kagb-an 



isblikimaskit 



squnllal 



kaikh 



l^-b'kst... 
es-ke'-wus 



ko-ko'-u*kHt 
sho-wan'-ba 
skwOkbt ... 



lokb-b'yen 
lokb-b'yeu 
ko-ko'khtl. 
bw^-guk .. 
pa-telMa ., 



kok-pe' 

n'ko-sban'k 

i-n' 

cbei'-bn 



bai-a'-ka .. .. 

skwc' 

thb'kwiu'-nak. 
k'wos'-kan.. .. 
sbal-les 



ts-ka'wtl 



shilt-zu' 

tiitik-kots-tan 

smau'h 

kb'a 



kwa-kwus 



4. Okioiiken. 



Gearffe Gibba. 



iu-kis-pan' 



in-ke'-likb 



in-ke'-likb.. 
i»-cba-aikst' 



in-kokb-ke'-uik-stni 

is-kel'-t'k 

is-cbo-hau' 

is-kwakb' 

is-cba-a-ban' 

is-tsini' 

is-po-os' 

in-a-Diikbl-ki-a 



il-.vwe'-bum . 
in-ka-Hf-Usb 
i-si-lakbt' ... 
in-cbit'-bu... 



ilb-kap' 

Inch-kwin-nik ... 

ins-keMin 

iu-knu-iH'-lau .... 
iu-em'-i-kttui-min 



is-ta'-lum 



in-kukb-han 

is-na-man'-bu-ten 

smnu'-bn 

kul-la'-no-ist 

bai-}dtl''no 



255 



VOCABULArJBS. 
Family. 



5. Wii-ky-nil- 
kaiue. 

Dr, Wm. F, Tolmie. 



ka-illigb 

loghule^ghklsh 



.shqoa^bt 



cboapsia 



c-cheet-oogb, 



klim-mein , 

Roo-koo-iiioiii; 
hoot-laxt. 



Hhoiltzoh . 



isliniaskit ; isb- 

tleik (c]oad8). 

Hbow-aaasb 



G. Sbwoyelpi. 
George Gibhs. 



ktSspeu (back of 
neck); Bke-mal'- 
kult (tbroat). 



keMIkbw.. 
stcbo-aikRt. 



kukb-ke-nik-sten 

8kcl-tik 

al'so-ben 



si)o'-likb-ben 
8l'uh^a-ban . 

Bt'sini' 

8po-0s 

niil-k6-yikh.. 



il-i-nie'-bflm .. 
Dik-e-8bo'-li8h 

8e-]akbl' 

tcbit'-bu 



trkop 

t8e-kwiDk . 
t8'ke'-len .. 
be-lo-inin' . 
nin-ka-niuo 



kli>u'(of bark); Bta>^ 
luiii (dug out). 

&i* **« iwU •••• •••• ••«■ 

sin-hn-inan'-bu-ten . 

smau'-bu 

sU'-ki-nius'-kat 

bai-at]'-no 



7. Skoyelpi. 
Rev. O. Mengar'mi. 

kea-peu' 

8ka-wa'-kbeQ 

k^kb 

8t8e-oMkt8 

kokb-kain-ks-ten .. 
8ker-t«k 

8tlK>'-hAIl 

8iK>Mi-kbeo 

8t.'8a-a'-kboD 

Rl9-iiu' 

8pO-08' 

mcl-ki-yo' 

bwl-./-khu 

i-li-mi-kbanj 

li-k©-le-liit 

Kft-lakb*; 

fsit-nii 

rkep 

tAM-kwink 

tse-keMen 

kbe-le-DUD 

uin'-ka-ineD 

tli-o' 

ke-kben 

soD-monkb-ten 

8u-menkb 

8tif-kii-Dia8-ket 

kbc3-ye*hl'-no 



8. Spokan^ 
George Gihbs, 



B^cbi-maa'-kwilt. 



kil-i-keMisb , 



sin-cbim-kin-ctbk 
6cbo-cbo-«'ik8t 

ko-ko-kensk' 

Bkail-t'k 

8t«bo cbo-Bbin . . . 

8tr'bo-8b{n 

8tcbo-8biu 

st^^bop 

BiQ-a-bul 

8et-8kaiM8 

il-lUme'-bum 

8a-pil-8taV-bu .. 

8tttm-cl-li8 

cbit'-bu 

kl-cbep' 

skwiDtob 

ta^-pe-min 

sbil-i-miu' 

DtD-cbo-min 

Htot-lHm 

kai'-i-sbin 

8in-i-inan'-bn-tcn 

sman'-bii 

8cbi cbi-maa-k't.. 

8pc-kanV , 



9. Piskwana or 
WinatHba. 

Gt'orge Gibha, 



iu-kett'-piu. 



kdm-la'-ban (upper). 

C8-pi n-sbakHt' 

(lower). 
eu-ka'-Ukb. 
08-cbo-i akat' ; 8lo'- 

muka (tbumb). 
in-atfl-pa-akst. 
osb-kaltk 
o u - k o-ui o'-a b i n 

(tbigb). 
iHt-cbu'-ban. 
iub-lub-lub'-abin. 
8t-8am^ 
apuH. 
u:il-kai'-ya. 

yil-U-me'-bam. 
skJD. 
alakbt. 
abi-pi-aV-bu, nnk- 

abal'-ba ; iat-bul 

(homo), 
tle-kap^ 
ba-chi'-kan. 
ta-ka'-Ian. 
kau-i8^ kan. 
ni'-ka-min. 

atdt'-lara. 

8k.V-huii'. ' 
sbntl-kon. 
sman'-bn. 
at-ko-muH'-kut. 

koa-btfi). 



256 



COMPAKATIVE 

Seliah 



Language, 
Authority, 



Moon 



Star. 
Day. 



Nifrht 

Lif^ht 



Darkness 
Morning 



Evening. 
Spring .. 



Snmmer 



Autumn .. 
Winter... 



Wind 



Thunder . 
Lightning 



Rain 

Snow , 

Hail 

Fir© . 

Water 

Ice 

Earth, land 



Sea 



River 



1. Shibwapmukh. 
George Gihhe. 



magb'-han 



skn-«vnt. 
sit'-kMt.. 



h*chit8-o'-i . 
hoi aet'-kttt 



2. Shooswaap. 



Dr. Wm. F. TolmU, 



hy-al thlinoogh.. 



Hcoo-coosm .... 
schul-haal ...« 



sin-ko-katch 



cbi-lot-be-sit'-uat . 
bo'-ho-an'-a-wMQ . 



ko-ko'-kat 
tl-ttkaps'.. 



sL./ 



Btiim-tft-klek 

klo-als'-tttu .. 
se-is-t'k 



snant 



Bttk-nts-kam' 

pokh'-pOt-tsa-wai'- 
um. 

kluk'-stum 

Bwokht 

tses-lul-tsum 

te-e'kw' 

sa'-widt-kwa' 

s'hu-int' 

ttim-mokhw' 



wo-tiini'-tk 



sit-at'-hwa 



Bhkeit 

shimeikoot 



sbo-eisilp 
sei-oolk .. 



kloa-qnullaow 



choo-eigh , 



3. NikaUcnvkh. 



George Gi^bn. 



nia-h'yet'-an. 



ni-ko-ko'-shan 
Bhetr-kut 



sho'-tfist' 



no-a-na-wiin 



tso-ol 



s*/ 



ya-wet 



tse-lokb 



kea-to-wo' . . 
tcbtd-tchen' 



nant 



ke-kekh . 
niam-am 



ti*kl 

wokbt 

kla-boB 

^ho'-i-pam' .. 

ko 

n'pa-w 

tuni-niekhw' 



kwatl-kwa 



koh; 8'che-w<i-w. 



4. OkinlO&eu. 



George Gtbbe. 



hai-yatl-no; so-kai'- 
um. 

Bkn-kn'-sint 

B'hiil-halt' 



in-kn-kn-ats' 



chin-pak'-tsin (sun- 
rise). 

skuMe-hwe'-na (son- 
set). 

il-pls-kepta' 



il-pish-cha-4k 



il-pe-so-istk 

spakt (mid-winter) 



snewt 



Btfk-ttts-kam 



«fe w%« 



sk'hit 

sme-skwut'.... 
sit-sil-lo'-sint ., 
sbo-res'-ap..... 

si-titl-kw 

sin-sholt' 

in-tum-huMo .. 



kl-she'-le-hwa; sil'- 
bwa te'-kwat (big 
lake). 

an-sil-i -h wet' 



305 



Tc'S-lakh'-hi, today. 
Te-tai-up, a specien of coitus, 
Te-tets, the veins. 

Te-ti-la'-had-dub, to stretch on^s self . 
Tetsb, tidsh, the sinews of an animal. 
T'hu-ba'-bid, to turn on^s IhicJc. 
T'iiud-duk-sbid, to bend (a^ a bow). 
•Phup a-gwa'-8ud, Ikb bup'-agwa, to fold 

anything. 
•Phut-se'-uk-ud, a ramrod. 
T\y ti-el (meaning auknown). 
Tidsh, tetsb, tlie sinews of an animal. 
Tik-e-wd,by on horselmck. 
Til, qa. that. 

Tit^sb, thin {in dimension). 
Ti-.yutl-ma, the spirit who presides over good 

fortune. 
Tk-bad-de, the hemlock'Spruce. 
T'kobdltsb, a wooden spoon. 
T'kOt'sid dub, tuk-k5d^ to shut {a door^ 

(&C.). 

T^kwa'-bats, s't-kwa'-bats, high tide. 

T'kwa'bitsh, sparks. 

T'kwabsbid, leather shoes or boots. 

T'kwe'-kwus-sab, to wipe. 

T'kwuMe'-gwut, a warrior. 

Tla-balts^, to guess, to wonder. 

Tle-ukw-ta-gwul, to elope. 

Tlip, klip, under, beneath. 

Tl'kaakb', to lap {as dogs do water). 

Tlulelts, cooking loith hot stones. 

To (meaning unknown). 

Tob-sbe-dad', an incantation to procure fair 
weather. 

To-bet-sid (meaning unknown). 

T5b-sbedud, stnb-sbi-de', tu:»isted or braid- 
ed, knotted hair. 

To-btitl, us. 

To-buts, the sorrel. 

To-datldat, yesterday. 

To-^e-a'bats (meaning unknown). 

To^di, there. 

To'li gwut, stoMigwut, blood. 

To'-pel, the spider. 

To^-pi, the spunk of rotten wood. 

To^-pud, to pound in a mottar. 
20 



To-tlakb', last night. 

To-watl-bad', down stream. 

To'-witl, tau'-itl, a ware, bitch, female ani- 
mal. 

Tsa, the wane of the moon. 

Tsabt, tsabtats, red elderberry and bush ; 
sambucus. 

Tsa'-gwitsh, the tiger-lily. 

Tsa-gwut, tsakw-tsakw, to wash clothes. 

T^>x''\i^, father-in-law {\yy both sexes). 

Tsa'-ba-bed, ts^bub-b6d^ the yew. 

Tsa^-hwe, red fir or spruce. 

Tsaik, an incantation for success at play, &c. 

Tsa'-kab, tsa'-ka'-bats, red elderberry and 
bush, sambucus. 

Tsa^-kad, to spear, pierce, stab. 

Ts^kw-tsakw, tsa^-gwnt, to wash clothes. 

Ts&l, toad stools, fungi. 

Tsa'-lal, tsa^-lutl, a lake. 

Tsal-bid, a shadow. 

Tsa'-pa, grandfather or great-uncle. 

TsSp'h, twigs or roots for ba^sket-work. 

Tsa-pen^-ni-a, the spider-crab. 

Tsa'tsHts, st-saZ-sus, a bow. 

Ts^b^khw, tsub-bekhw, the throat of a sal- 
mon. 

Tse'-akw, to pound in a mortar. 

Tse-a*kwnts, a pronged spear for birds. 

Tse-ba'-led, the small sand equisetum. 

Tsdds'-ku, tsits'-ku, real, aetual, right. 

Tse'-hwat, the bearberry. 

Tse'-nk-ad, to shout. 

Ts-bub-b6d, tsa'-ha-bSd, the yew. 

Tsi-at'-ko, a race of spirits who haunt fish- 
ing-places. 

Tsil-ka'-de, the pectoral fins of a fish. 

TsitS'k'k-sub, to make faces by raising the 
nose. 

Tsits latsks^ a five^hooter pistol. 

Tsme'-a-ko-dOp, to scratch with the naib, 
claw. 

Psmul-ken, the mink. 

Tso'-bed, the larger bones of a fish. 

TsOb-tsOb, the barnacle. 

Tso'-bnd, the eye-brows. 

Tsub-a-ta'-de, the bail of a kettle. 



306 



Tsub-bed, kleb-bad, a ipoon. 

Tsad (meaning unknown). 

Tsadsh, the nettle, 

Tsukhw, ct-sukbw, extinguished {m a can- 
dle). 

Tsuk-bwal, trees (generic). 

Tsukkads, tsak-ho, true^ it is true. 

Tsukb-wud, the blue elderberry^ sambucus 
canadensis. 

Tsuk'hw, t8uk^-wi-dub,^^. 

Tsukw, the anus. 

Tsuk-w'sb, the elk or red deer^ cervus cana- 
densis. 

TsuMitcb, the back. 

Tsam-tsum-mus, the columbine. 

Tsns-tad, a nail (fqr boards). 

Tsat-tolsh, to rumble in the belly mth wind. 

Tsutl-dutl, to faintj swoon. 

TswSd, tswii'dats, the wild cherry and tree. 

Tu (meaning unknown). 

Tuchul-pud, to twistj bore as with a gimlet. 

Tud (meaning unknown). 

Tud'-de', roots of the brake fern. 

Tn-du-gwalts, tukb-dug-wuMh, to load a gun. 

Tud ze-kukbw, lie down (imp.). 

Tukhbod, luiul (imp.). 

Tukh-bukh-ba'-bats, to step over {as over a 
log). 

Tukb'sha'-bo, low tide. 

Tukb'-hwitsb, shu-tukh-hwitsh, a bow 
string. 

Tuk'-ke-te-kuts, the viTie maples acer circin- 
natum. 

Tuk-kod, t'k5t>8id-dnb, to shut {as a door^ 
i&c). 

Tuk-kub, to net tcildfowl. 

7ukwe'-lat,a«coop {/or bailing acanoe^dkc). 

Tu-kwet'-ltl8, red-faced. 

Tvljfrom. 

Tulak*, ba4:k^ behind. 

Tul-ka'-pad, to slap. 

Tul'-la, a fawn. 

Tu-push-k'sbid, straightened {as a bow). 

Tas, cold. 

Tus-a^-go, tu-sak, old {of things)^ of old. 

Tus-be'-budsb, one who tells fibs^ Utile lies. 



Tus-budsh, a liar. 
Tu-sba^-gweb, to string beards. 
Tu8-ka'-da, a thief. 
Tus-ko^-kwid, to count by fathoms. 
Tus-knd-dub, a strumpet. 
Tu-ste'-a-knl^-Ia-kwid, a horseman. 
Tu8-tb^-o-bi], tu-tewk-o-bil, muddy^ tomuddy. 
Tu-takt, ta-kudt, towards the shore {if on 

the trater)^ to the interior {if on land). 
Tu-tel-bi, tel-b'ye, presently. 
Tut-bluk-gwus, half fuU. 
Tnt-hw3t8ht, strung {as a bow). 
Tut-kot-sid-dub, Qu. to shut. 
Tnti, tnt'bl, tulMo, it is trucj it is the truth, 

certainly. 
Tut-la'-bel, an eclipse. 
Tutl-kap, a quarter fuU. 
Tuts-a'-gwo-litsb, to wash dishes. * 
Tnt-8a'-gwns-8ub, to^ash the face. 
Tut8-tab, stabdop, property^ goods, things. 
Tut-n-8n-we'-cbib, to lie down and warm 

omPs back. 
Twalsb'-tub, to pick feathers 
Twe'-kolt8b, to clean. 
Twul, to. 

Twtll-kot-8id8, to kiss. 
Twul'-te, hither, to this place, 
Twul-to'-di, thitJier, that way. 
Tzil, tzin-il, he, site. 
Tzub-k3t, the brain. 

U. 

U-cbab, o-ebab, to die. 

Ug-wu8-8e^akat, the aurora boralis. 

Uk, uks, ukkuk, kuk-ka^ some. See ^^Al", 

Uk-bo, lekb-bu, short {in dimension). 

nk-so^bu8, small baskets. 

Ul, al, at, to. 

Ul-beyukb, to leave a thing by mistake. 

U8-de'-ukb, in. 

U8ge-kwakbl', panting. 

U8guk, open, clear. 

U8-bl6t'-lil, to grow large. 

Us-kulkb, awake. 

Us-tlakbw, a8-tlakbw, to grow large. 



307 



Ut-la, atla, to come. 

UMaMi, come (imp.). 

Utl-k<y-8bids, hand iOy bring (imp.). 

Dt-likbl'-kwQy tojish toith a hook. 

Utl-ts'taci', to load {a gun). 

Ut-satsk', to spear or pierce 

Di'-sa, at^-sa, I. 

Ut-66l^-si8, to be asleep (a« the/oot^ iLt.). 

Utstukh'-hwOb, to strike with a sticJ:. 

\JtrSut''&a J fringe. 

W. 

Wa-ket>a-hab, exact meaning uncertain; 

It relates to tbe new moon. 
Wekb-push, a rattlesnake. 
Wa, rotten. 

Wfc'-us-80, a crowd of children. 
Wiat-la-lekw, to fish with a dip-net. 
Wi-yel'-sum, o-yel'-sam, to telly relate. 
Wo-ai'ib, a dressed skin. 
Wo-ha^-bab, to weepj to cry as an animaU 
Wokap', wuk-kub', a box^ chest, trunk. 
Wok'-sam, lightning. 
Wo-kud-dubukb, o-kaddub, to court, make 

love tOj lie with a woman. 
Wu'-che-ba-let'-kwu, to fry. 
Wuk-kub', wokap'y a box, chest, trunk. 
Wul loMil, a youth, young man. 
Wut-cho'-kOt-sid, to cut. 



Wat ta'-g wash-id, to barter. 
Wutlechal' e-kwu, to cut mth scissors. 
Wa-sakb'bam, to dance. 
Wa-te'-cbib, o-te'-cbib, to swim. 
Watl-ba-lc'-bu-bit, to taste. 

Y. 

Yai'-em, a tale or story. 

yai'-li-hab, to slander. 

Yai^'donts, the honeysuckle 

Yakb'-bwud, a gun-flint. 

Yal'-sbid, yel^-shid, a pair of moccasins, 
shoes, or stockings. 

Yatl^-shids, hand to, bring (imp.). 

Yb'-do, a sunjig. 

Ye-lab, yelam, uncle or aunt after death of 
the parent. 

Ye-la'-bit-shid, yelam'-tsen, pantaloons of 
skin or cloth. See *' Yal-shid ". 

Ye-latsks, a six- shooter pistol. 

Yes-sa'-wi, the alder. 

Yil-me'-ba, the salmon dance. 

Yokw, the salmon when exhausted by fawn- 
ing. 

YQkh| yQkh^ba, and. 

Ynkh-hwad, a stone arrow-head, a gun-flint. 



Z. 



Zng-wa, T-ug-'^A, frights, monsters. 



DICTIONARY OF THE NISKWALLI. 



II. 

ENGLISH— NISKWALLI, 



By Gborgk Gibbs, M. D. 



A. 

Above, shuk'h, shi-shuk ; an the top of^ sbi-ka'-bats. Debivatiyes, 9. v., sbuk-si-al/ 
(literally the ^^ Above Chief^), the adopted vume of Ood; sbakh, the sky, Jieaven; 
shukh-hum, wind ; shuk-ud (imp,), lift up; shukhos, ascending^ up hill ; o-sbukliw, 
to swell (as a bruise or boil); sbakb-sbabats, a name of the trillium; sliuk-sbid, the 
instep. 

Abuse, deride, ridicule, call names to, o-ka^-gwat, o-ka^-gwut-tub, 5k-be^-gwud. 

Across (as a stream), di-e1, di-elgwitl. 

Adze (of iron), kwa'li as, kwal'-jus; (of stone), sus'-ol-tud. 

Afraid, as-bats', as be'-kwub. 

Afternoon, kla-pok', sbit-lo-kwatl. 

Again, Ina-p^t^ 

Aged (of persons), lo^-lQtl, skle^-bot, skuMe'-bot ; an old man or woman, skul-le^-bdt stObsh 
or skla^-ne. 

Alike, like, as-is'-ta. See " 80^. 

m 

Alive, bale^, ba-likh^ 

All, every, q. v,, bo-kwi, bokw, beb-kwa ; all of them, b5kw d6tl. 

Almost (literally notfar)^ bwe' la-liF ; almost dead, b we'* lalil* gnP at-a-bud* (literally noV 

far^ to^ dead^) ; almost out (of a fire or light), bwe' la-lil gwul et-sukbw'. 
Along, along with, togetfier, klal-bas. 
Always, skos, ska-k^d ; always so, ska-ked as-is'-ta. P always^ kneufl [to^] you^, skOsb''- 

cbid* asaid' cbu^ twtil^ dug'•we^ You always go, ska'-ked ok-la. 
Amuse on^s self See " Play^\ 
Animals. See " Mammaht ^, " Birds ", " Fish ^ &c. 
And^ also^ yukb, yukb'-ba, is'-sbi. P and? you\ at'-sa* yakb*-ti' dug-we^ And I also, 

yOkb^-ba at-sa^ klaP as-is'-ta* (i. e., and^ P too\so% 
Angry, to be, o-bet-ail. [Are] you^ angry^ with^ me* t o-bet-siP-chubu* twuP at-sa^ P 

am angry* with^ you\ ohet'-siP-cbid' bwuP dug'-we* (from o-hed, why, what is the 

matter, aud si-lus, the forehead), Debiyatives, od-het-sil-us, to sulk, to blush, q, v. 



310 

Another^ other^ lale', Inl-le', dale'-te. To go^ to* anoVier^ place^y Okhhol' bwal-kuV-* la- 
le'^ 8wa-tekh w-t'n*. Another [meh^] language^j luMe'-kwns* so-bOt-het. See ^^Dfffer- 

Anus (ihe)^ tsakw. 

Ar^n {strictly the lower arm)y cha'-lesh. 

Arrive J to. See ^^Come^. 

Arrow^ shaft of an arrotc^ a bulletj te'-sad, te'-suu (from te'-Bid, the sting of an insect), 
A bone arrow-head^ shaaks; iron arrow-head^ iio-kwed' (from 8nok.w, tVon); sUnie 
arrow-head^ yakh-Lwad ; the feathering^ shut-sits a-lab. 

As. See**/8(>'^. 

Ascend^ tOy okwa^tatsh. 1 ascend^ o-kwa' tatsh-cbid. From skwa'-tatsh, a mountain. 

Ashamedj to be^ o-h@t*8il. 1 am ashamed of myself (in merriment), o-be-babet-shid (see 
diminatives). See ^^8hame^. It is distinguisbed from ob^t-sSI, to be angry^ q. t?., 
only by intonation. 

AsheSy skwal-lap. 

AsJcfor^ tOy te'-betab. 

Asleep^ sleepy^ as-e'-ttitsb. See " Sleep^. Asleep {as one^s foot)y tit-sSt'-sis. 

Assemble^ to {to bring together a crowd), o-gwe'-gwi ; {to do so for the purpose of a feast), 
kO'O-dOk^ 

Astern. See ^^Back^. 

At, 9}, nl. Where t at what place t al-cblUlf There, fil-to^-di. Where is it t al-cbad kwi- 
sasf At the house, al-shia^-lal. At night, ul-ki sit-slakb'-bel. Have you any sal- 
mon? ao'-kwi s'cbedad baaldagwef On rtc fAtrd day, al-sle'-hwatl-dat. Under 
the house, klip al a^-lal. 

Atmospheric phenomena : — Wind, sbukb-bum. Clouds, skwasb-am. Bain, skal, o-kalb 
Snow, ba'-ko, ma'-ko. Hail, klem-bwe'-la. A rainbow, ko-bat-sbid.. Meteors, fall- 
ing stars, klo'-bi-6tl, o-bwet-lil. An eclipse, tut-la'-bel. The aurora borealis, ug 
wns-se'-a-kat. See tbe above respectively. 

Awake, as-kalkb. To awaJccn, o-katl, o-knkbl. Wake or get up, it is daylight, knltsV- 
bu, o-lakb-bil-lnk. 

Awl, kwisb-kwisbks. 

Axe, ko-bat-it; pliir., kam-ko-batMt Axehandle, sknb-at-ud-ul-li. 

B. 

Baby-house, bwiu-bwil-mekbw'. See " Childish^. A doll, b$b-da. 

Back (the), se'-li-cbid, ts'iiMitsb ; ba^sk-sides, bwut-satcb. 

Ba4}k, backwards, behind, lak, ta-lak, litMak. Haul back, tukbbOd tu-lak. Oo behind 

(imp. adv.), lak. Back, come back, bel-kwu (imp. adv.), to give back, return, bul- 

kut sbed. 
Bad^ tcicked, kul-lab^ Tfmt [is a\ bad horse, kul lub ti 61 sti-a-ke'-ya. To be bad 

weather, o-dod-kab. It is bad weather today, odod-kub a-ti-sl&kb^-bel. To have a 

bad taste, o-tal-sub. 
Bag, swa'-bwad. (See Scrotum). 
Bait {for fishing), bal'bul-le. 
Bald, as-lo'-kwutsb. 
Bandage {compress for the head), swus'-buk-kos. 



311 

Banded (ucith hrodd stripes)^ as-hu1khhulk. 

Bank or bluffs a, Im-k'kos. 

Bargain. See " Barter ". 

Bark of trees (generic), s'cbub-bed, s'cbe'-bit; outside bark of tJivja^ so'-kwab; iwndo 
bark of thvja, sla-gwats, s'chub-b6d, wbich also means, and more particularly, the 
inner bark of the fir; it is by them likened to tsub-b^khw, the throat of the salmon^ 
esteemed the choicest part, from their similar color. 

Bark^ to (as a dog)^ o-gwo'-hub. 

Barter^ buy^ sell, trade, exchange, to, o-hwo'-yub, o-ho'-yub, at'-si-gwus, ai'-gwus, wut-ta'- 
gWQsh-id. I trade, ohwo'-yubchid ; he trades, o-ho'-yubt-bu. I come to buy, I will 
or wish to buy, la-bo'-yub-cbid. Where did you buy [it] f cbad^ kwi' tats^ sta'-gw'sb^l 
(t. e,, wliere^ that^ your^ bargain^) t How much you ask for that t (Iww much tJiat you 
trade t) ashed' kwi tats sta'-gw'sh. That is not dear, h we la heks 1 wo'-yub. A trade, 
swo'-yab, sta'-gwusb. For sale, sikb-bwo'-gum. There is no distinction between 
buying and selling, the idea being an exchange. 

Basket, kwe-lo'-litsb ; load-basket, tch' wa'wat; cedar-bark basket or sack, kwai-toltsh; 
twig-basket, te'-de-gwud-ddltsb ; basket-kettle, sialt; urine-basket, swai'-aH (fr. osa'- 
bwa, to urinate)] large baskets for storing, buMai^vut-sid; small baskets for odds 
and ends, uk-so'-bns. Tlie figures on a basket, kl-pat^ Ttcigs or roots for basket-work, 
tsap'b. 

Bathe, to, o te'-te-tob. See ** Wash^. 

Bay, harbor, e-bwalkSlb^ 

Be, to. The place of the verb to be is supplied by the adjectives aok and at-suts 
meaning present, which are conjugated to a certain extent as verbs, or it is under- 
stood from the connection, e. g., Is Ste'-hai here f a-o'-kwi Ste-bai. Re is in the 
house, at-suts al, shi aMal. Is there anything? a-o'kwi sahwas'f Is lie here? at- 
set-so f He is here, at'suts or nt-sud-sha^ Formerly^ my^ hair^ was* [long], to-bat, 
suds^ ti^ skud'-zo^ asb-toha'-go^ In this phrase, tohat-suds is the adjective pre- 
ceded by the sign of the past tense, '* to". 

Beach, e bSbb'-zi-chu. 

Beads, kwe'-a-kwe' (an adopted word), klo-a'-hil-luks klit-le'-a-buMuks. The larger kinds, 
cbuk-chuk-wels. To string beads, tn-sha'-gw6b, du•shakbw^ 

Bear. See " Mammals^. 

Beard, kw6d, kwedt. A razor, sukbhutl-kwed. To shave, o-sukb-butl-kwed. From 
Bukh, a particle signifying use or purpose, ohuti or obwntl, to separate, and 
kw3d. 

Beat. See " Strike ". 

Beaver. See " Mammals^. 

Because (by paraphrase only). I do so because I choose, o-bo'-yu'-chid' kits-its^ gwad^ 
hutch' (J* do^ what^ my^ hearfi or will). 

Become, to (in the sense of to be changed or transformed)^ bu'-ye-lo. Ho becaine a deer, 
hu'-yelo ske/gwuts. [You have] almost^ [<o*] become^ an Indian*, bwe' la-liP gwul* 
bo-viP Atsil-tel-mu*. 

Bed, couch, the bed-place in a lodge, lulwa'-sed, hul-loa'-sed. Pillow, bwatlt. The under 
mat or a sheet, sla'-gwid (fr. sla'-gwuts, the inner bark of the cedar-thuja). 

Before, dze'-bu, dzi'bu, litldze'-hu. 



312 

Behindj lak, tn-lak, litl-lak. 

Beliyy klatcb, smuk^-ha, kwi-yukh ; corpulent^ pregnant^ iV8-kwe-yukh, as-kwe-nkw. 

Belonging to. See '* Of^. 

Below^ under J beneath^ sunken^ klep, klip, tlep, tlip. B'tlup, klepa'-bato ; a cache^ klap ; a 
hilU klup. 

Belt, buckle, klat-snp-pnd. 

Bend^ to {cls a how), t'hud-dak-shid. 

Beneath. 8ee ^^ Below ". 

Berries, fruit (generic), skwo-lat-lad. 

Berry-hearing shruhs, berries, &c. IWuit, skwolat'-lad (geDeric). Cranberry-plant^ 
occycoccu^, klhol-suts ; the berry^ klbols, sklul-bolts. Bush-cranberry or red huckle- 
berry (qn. viburnum), stikh-bwe'-bats ; the berry^ stikh-bweb', stikb hw'im^ Ever- 
green huckleberry, kl-hwat-suts ; berry ^ kwaMats. Swamp huckleberry, ste-ak'tl. 
Snowberry, ses-kwad. Oooseberry-bttsh, tsa-ka^-bats 5 berry^ t8a•kSlb^ Red flowering 
currant {ribes sanguineum), po-k wnts ;, ftcrry, pok. Dewberry, gwnd-be'-bwuts; 
fruity gwud-bekbw. Raspberry, chW-ko'-h^i^] /ri/if, cbilko'ba. Sahnon-b^ry (Ruhus 
nutkanus), Bta^-gwa dats, stngwnd. Capberry {Rubus strigosus), sla-kats, Rlat-lakb. 
Strawberries (two species), bat-sad-shid, le-lakw. Rose-bushes, skap^ats. Crab-tree, 
kakb hwats; fruit, kakbw. Hawtlwm, cbeba'dats; fruit, cbe-b3d. Wild cherry^ 
tswa^-dats ; tlie fruit, tswad. Service-berry {amelanchia canadensis), ko-las tan. 
Elder (scarlet herry), sambucus pubens, tsab-tats ; fruity tsabt. Elder (blue berries), 
s, canadensis, tsnkb-wud. Bearberry (lonicera involucrata), tse-hwat. Oregon grape, 
holly-leaved barberry {Berberis aquifoUum), swe'-bats, sw^sbud-nts ; the berry, swe'; 
a smaller species, swi' sbubnts 5 berry^ swi'-sbnb. Sallal (Ts'inuk), gaultheria shal- 
7ou, ta'-kads ; the berry, tei'-ks^, ^r&ti/M» m^a ttm, skai'-wa-dnts : the berry, skeLi'-wsL 

Bet, to (also either to win or lose, to gamble), o-tsal^-tub, o-tsul'-tub (from tbe same root 
as o-su!p-tsul, to whirl, from tbe rotary motion of tbe gambling disks), o-tsla'-16kw 
(from tbe name of tbe game of " hand^\ la-baH), sla-bal. I bet, ot-snl chid. P Iiave 
won^ a befi ofyou\ o-tsul-tub^ wo-tlet*sbid' gwul-la'-po*. 

Beyond, de'-a-le'-chup, de-b6ds. 

Birds {water-fofcl, generic), 8kw&-kwe-lnsh ; (^* tree birds^), stle-kel'-kub ; eggs, o-os'; 
feathers, Btokw ; wings, tse^-tsal, tsitsSLl; the mallard, bat-hut; pf/eon, bnm-o'; 
screech-owl, s'klat-l6kw, slat-lakw; crow, ka^-ka; raven, skwaukh ; golden eagle, 
s'bu'-bi-cbal ; blue jay, skai-kai ; wren, s'che'-chul 5 red-headed woodpecker, kut- 
katsh ; sandpiper, witl-wilkh ; tattler, ke-o'-ya. 

Bite, to, o-butls ; bitten, butld. IHd he bite [you] t o-butlsid t to suck, to raise a blister 
by suction, qu. but-la'-lekw. 

Black, hi-tot-sa. 

Blankets, sa-lit-za; white blanket, hok-ko-W-zsk {ho-koV^h, white); hul-tobo-lit'za (qu. 
from bwul-tum, a tvhite man); red blanket, hi-kwet-so-lit'-za (he-kwetl, re(Z); blue 
blanket, hai-tiit-sa-lit'-za (hi-tot'-sa, black or dark blue)] green blanket, buk-kwas- 
so-lit'-za (ho-kwats, green) ; native blankets of dogs? hair, ko-matl-kad (ko-mai, a dog) ; 
of mountain-goats^ wool, swet-le-il-ked (swet-le, a goat). 

Blaze, to (as afire), o-hwe'-a-k wits-hut. 

Blind, astkla'-kos, asta'-kos. 

Blister (to raise a blister by suction), but-la'-lekw. See ^^Mediciiw^. 



313 

Bloody tu'li-gwut, 8to'-li-gwud. 

BlotCy to {with the breath)^ o-po'-od; {as the loind)^ o-po'-a-l6kw' ; to break windj opu'; 
to drifts o-pukw ; to blow down {as a tree)y od zS.khw. See ^^Lean^\ 

Blue (pale)^ ho-kwaikhw ; (dark), bi-tot-sa. 

Blushy to, othSt-silus. See *^ Angry ^. 

Body {human), stachi-gwat, daut-si; a dead bod^^ Rk^iilUi Parts of the body: — Heady 
s'baiyus; forehead, se-lelts, si-16ls; crown, bu-koked; ba<!k of the head, sal-kwa'- 
gwa-putsh; skull, sbau'-utsb; brain, tzabket; hair, skadzo ; /<!^C6, 6at-zus; eye- 
broxcs, tso'-bud ; eye, ka'-lus, ka lob; eyebrows, butfth-kla-luH; upper lid, s'bus-kwal- 
ol kwad, skal-ol-kwnd ; under lid, butlpa-lol'-kwud ; eyelashes, klip-pad ; nose, 
inuk-s'u ; nostrils, as-lo'-lo 5 car^^kwij-hi'di ; cheeks, sbu-tu-ba'-di, bwe'-lad-i} month, 
kad-bu ; ^ij9«, ats-le-paldutl ; U2)per lip, ^h^kiiVyutsid', ttn^er /ip, skle-pai\\ut-8id; 
tongue, kla^-lap, klaMup ; teeth, dza^-dis; chin (same as under lip) ; jawbone^ s'cbum- 
sba'-ya-cbid ; beard, kwedt, kwed ; throaty skap'-sub; 9t«cA', k^L-^)^l^''H^^VUS-jadsb'; 
cAc«f, 8C-led'-gwu8; breast of wo7nan, »kub-o' ; wt|3|p/€, skub-o'^al'li, selks; slu)ulder, 
taMakWj si-la' -lo-bid ; shoulder-blade, aka'-l^k-Bxid; bock, sc'-Ia-chid, tsul-litcb, stul- 
16dj' ; posteriors, bwat-sutcb; anus, tsukw; belly, klatcb, kwi .yo'k, kwi-yukb', smuk'- 
ka ; bkbdder, 8'bu-pa ; entrails, kadzakb' ; navel, blaFgwa ; lap, oo'-pil ; pudenda, 
80-wikbP, st-8o'-wikbi ; labia, sil-ai'-yu-sid ; womb, bub-da'-ad ; placenta, a' sbad- 
dikbl'; penis, sbel'la; peni^ with retracted foreskin, es pak ; liair of pubis, skwud- 
de; testes^ ba'-cb'd, tAa'-cbin ; scrotum, sus-bwa'ad ; hearty st'saltch, st-sa'-le; waist, 
sat'-le-gwus ; /ttp^r, bokk'hap'; arm (do general word) ; e/froir, kobukb'-wutsbid, 
kob-hwal-la'-bad; lower arm (wrist), cba'-lesb; hand (fingers), s'ba'-lat-cbi; right 
hand, dza-a'cbi; left hand^ ka'letcbi; |?a7m, hwut-so'-sat-cbi, s'tuku-la'-cbi; thumb, 
slu-klaltla'-cbi, slut-lalt-sat-cbi ; little finger, ste'-so-balk-sat-cbi; .^ni/enr (collect- 
ively), sukhhe-Vk'-ldt-chi', knuckles, hwe'-kwe-bukb-bwa chi; nails of either fingers 
or toes, ko-hwa'-tjbi, kobwai-cbi, k'sok-tab-k'aet cbi ; toe-nails, kwakbsbud; leg, 
(110 general word) ; thigh, ssl' -lap; inside of thigh, h^Ski'B^l-hB,; A:itee pan, bwai-yu-la- 
ka'-lot-sid ; calf of leg, au-teks; ankle, ko-bab sbid, ko-bokb-sbid ; foot, right foot, 
dza-sbid ; left foot, klal-sbid ; feet, dza-sb'd-sbid ; instep, sbuk-sbid ; sole, sl'kol-sbid ; 
^ee/, slaka'-but-sbid : toes, sa-al-sbid; big toe, sluMalk sbid, slo-tlalk-sbid; veins^ 
te-t6ts; blood, to'ligwut, sto'li-gwnd ; bones, s'blau'-yn; skin, bnd-zdd-mit; saliva, 
kwul-ot-sid; excranent, sputs; urine, sukbbwa. See the above respectively. 

Boil, to, o-kwalts, o-pal-ba-tsut (qu. from o-po-a-16kw, to blow). Boil^ some^ potatoes^, 
kwalts* uks' 'peokots^ 

Bone, s'blau'yu ; fish-bones, s'bakbs. 

Border, edge of anything, e'-la-bad, litl-e'-la-bd»d. See ^^Edge^. 

Bore, to, cbalp't-t'd, tu-cbul-pud (cbelp'-liu, a gimlet). See " Twist^. 

Borrow, lend, s'cba-lalts. I borrow, chu-lalts-cbid. 

Born. See " Bring forth ". 

Bosom (of woman), milk, skub-o ; the nipple, skab-o-al'-li ; to suck, suckle, q. v., o-kub'-o. 

Both, bo-kwi sa'-le (all two). 

Bow, tsa'-tsuts, s't-sasus; bowstring, tukh'-bwitsb, sbu-tukh'-hwitsh ; strung^ tut- 
hwetsht; straightened (as a bow that lias been bent), tu-pusb-k'sbid ; to bend a baw^ 
t'bud'duk-sbid. 

Bow of a canoe, sbudst ; the bowsmau, 1c1 sbudst. 



314 

Bowl {wooden), »au8, sa-sus; {of horn o/ovis inontana or ''6t^-&or«"), spul-kwns. 

Boxj vhestj trunlCy wuk-kub', wo-knp'; lid of box, te-kot-sits, ste-kOt-sid 5 ditty-box for 
trifles, hud-de-gweg'-sa-le. 

Boy, cha'-cbu8} cha^-chesh (literally small^ a small one). 

Braid, to (a« tfie hair), o-tnb-sid ; braided, Rtab-abid-de^, fdb-8he-dad. I braidy o-tab- 
she-dad. 

Brai^elet {of brass wire), swOp; {of beads), sokwa'-cbi. 

Branches of a tree, s'chast. See ^^Tree^\ 

Brass, ku-la-lat'-ha ; brass-nailed, covered with nails {€is a trunk or gun-stock), os-chitsb 
(see ^^Buttons^); brass kettle, kwads-a-lat-ha. 

Breads sa-po-lil (a borrowed word fr. Ts'iuak, tsa'-po-lil). 

Break, to {as a stick), also to separate, divide, o-hwuti j broken, bwut-l6tsht ^ to break the 
leg, ohwatl-sbud ; checkered, o-bwatl-bwntl ; a part of anything, ilbwutl; loose, 
hwut-bwalb ; to break wind, o-pa ; broken {as a horse), bai^-yil. 

Breathe, to, sPt-s'l-dab. See " To bring forth ". 

Bridge of logs, se-wuts^ 

Bring, to, atl'-ta (a transitive ibrm of tbe verb aMa, ut-la, to come; for sioiilar 
iDStances see under '*Go " and ^^Carry,^ "/See^ and '^8hoio^). I bring, la-atl-tut-sbid. 
Bring or hand me, atl-ta^-sbids, utl-ko^-sbids, yatl-sbids (see ^^Give^), Oo and bring, 
kloW-chu-hu* o-okbts^-chu^ atld-hu* (literally good^ you* g(fl you*, bring*). Bring 
fire-wood, ot-la chop, kla^-chub (stuk-wab, wood). Bring a light, lakhs lakh-shad. 
Bring a little fire {a brand), klelhi-gwub. 06^ fetch* [my\ thingtP, okht-shids^ as- 
shats' (atl-ta'-shids) stab-dop^ (see under " Oive^). As-chub-ba, to bring wood and 
water (f to wait on). 

Bring forth, to, o-be-dab, m-dab. Debiyatives, de-b&d-da, de-bad-da, an infant, a son; 
sud-di-be-ba-da, a daughter ; shed-di-bud-da, my child; mi-ioad, bi-bad, a little one; 
ba'-ba-ad, offspring; b6b'-da, a doll; b6b'-o-kw6d, to dandle; as also man, bad, 
father; de-b3>d, your father. See to breathe, sPt-o'l-dab. Still-born {i. e., dead), as- 
a^-ta-bnd, las-yo'-bil (the word used for animals). To produce abortion (by rolling 
over a log), od-hu-kwakw. 

Brittle, as-pe'-a-kail, ke'-ya'. 

Broad, as-p6P. 

Broom, sa-kn-kwalt/-ha, su-ga-gwalt-hu. 

Brother. See ^^Belationships^. 

Bucket, skod, skwe'-a-kwod (from spkh, use or purpose, hwe'-wi, to get, ko, water). 

Buffalo. See " Jlfaimnate ". 

Bullet, arrow, te'-sud. 

Burn, to, o-hod (hot, hod, jflrc). I shall burn, klo-ho'-chid (see ^^Fire^), o-kwash. 

Bury, to, o-pad-dad. See under **Oook^, pads. 

Busy, to be {to be at work), o-yai-us. See *' Work ". 

But. See'' Only ^. 

Buttons, s'chits-she-do' (a small bulbous root, from a fancied resemblance to which the 
nan>e was taken, and from which also as-chitsh, covered with brass nails). 

Buy, to. See ''Barter^. 

By and by. See under ''Preftently^. 



315 
c. 

Cache^ a, klap ; from kl6p, under ^ beneath^ iunken. 

Calnij smoothy to be, o-le^-a-wil. 

Canoe (generic), ke'-lo-bit; Tainuk or Makah pattern^ o-ot'-hns; nortiiem canoCj ste'-wfttl; 
shorcl-nosed or burden canoe^ klai. To go in a canoe^ oMutl. To get into a canoe, 
o-ke'-la-gwil. See ^^Oet on^. The bow of a canoe^ shadst, sliidst; stem^ c'-lak 
{the behind)] thwarts^ hw'1-hul-wild; mast, shi-pOt-al-li ; sail^ po-tnd; paddle^ bObt. 

Cape^ cloak (worn like a poncbo), lo^-gwas. 

Carpenter J worker in wood, o-pai'-»k. 

Carry J to, 5kh-tu (transitive form of verb, o-okh, to go). Carry (imp.), okb'-tu-shid. Take 
and carry, kwud-dnd okh-tu, o-cbo'-ba, as-cbub-ba. I carry, les-cbi-ba'-cbid. / 
carry on the shoulder^ muk-kwet'-sa cbid. Carry your letter^ ab'-ak kais 'b&l. 

Castrated y hwatl-ma'-cbiu ; from o-bwutl, to separate. 

Cat (adopted from Englisb), pish-pisb ; litter of kittens, pi'-o-pip8-pi«b. 

Catch, take, to, o-kwad'-dud. Catch on (as a liook or tJiom), kle-kwaP-litsb ; catch sea- 
fowl in a net, o-tuk-knb, o-tlot-Phob (from o-tlOts, a knot, knotted, and o-b5b, to go). 
See ''Fish^. 

Certainly, truly, tatl, tntl, tut'-lo. See ^'True^. 

Chair, seat, sakh-a-gwud-de (from sakh, use, and gwud-del, to sit, q. v.). 

Change, alter^ to, la-le'-it-ab (from la-1e^, different, q. v.). You liave altered in appearance, 
tu-la-le'-o-sil ebu (from sil-els, ftrehead). You have changed your mind, 1a-le^-il- 
ukbw^ tad* hutcb^ te* dug'-we* (literally, changed^ your* heart^ this^ yoti*). To be 
changed or transformed, bu-ye-lo. See '*To become^. 

Chase, seek, look for, q, v., n'gwut-cbid. 

Cluiste, as-paMil; unchaste, as-bwal-ku. See ^^Foolish^. 

Cheat, to, cbe-yadsb. 

Checkered, o-bwatl-bwntl ; from o-bwat1, to break or separate. 

Cheeks, bwe'-lad-i, sbn-to-ba'-di. See ^^Ear^. 

Chest, box. See ^^Box^. The breast, se-led-gwas. 

Chew, to, o-ka'-wa-16kw. 

CAt^, 8i-ab, si-am ; (plur.), si-i-Sbb. The i)ei7^, 8buk-si-n>b (the Above Chief). To scold^ 
to lord it, si-ab-o-ku. 

Child, mi-man, bi-bad ; {little one), de-bad^-da; a iitan-c7uZ(?, stoMo-misb (dim.o/stdbshy 
man); a first-born child, s'cbulkb; a crowd or gathering of children, i^re'-us-so. 
Childish, as-bwe^-bwi-luk (see ^^Foolish^); a baby-house, bwinbwil-mekbw. 

Chin, skle-pai-yut-sid. Longchinned, bad-zaiut-sid (bats, long). 

Choke, to (in swallowing), cbi-kwup-sub, kl-kwaps-ab tab. 

Chop, chip off, to, o-kluk'-wod, o-tlakw, cba'-bwut See "To cut^. 

Clean, to, o-bwuts, t'wo'-koltsb. To clean up, carry away dirt, sweep, o-e^-a-kwnd-dOp. 

Clear out, be off, off with you, lil-tsut, lel-tsut (imp. adv., from lil, lei, /ar). 

Clear up, to (as the weather), o-gak-knb (Trom o-gnk, to open, q. v.), o-e'-ka. It is clear- 
ing vp overhead, o-ek-bu ti sbak'b. 

Climb. See '^Ascend ". 

Cloth, flannel, red, be'-kwetl; black, dark-blue or green, dark-colored, battdts; light-blue, 
busb oks. 

Clothed, dressed, as-set'-sam. 



316 

Clotid8y skwasb-ab, skwnshum. Cloudy, s'huchabka; t'chlib-kukh (Niskw.); s'kat- 

lab (Snob.). 

Cluh, ka-ho^-sin ; a loaded stick or slung-shot, kup-lush. 

Coals offire^ pekbt. 

Cold^ tus. To he cold, o-tas-sib. Cold (adj.)i as-klokb-bwil. My hack is cold, as-klOkh^- 
wil ki se-la-cbid. Cold victtials, as-klokb-wil sutld ; lean, as-klo-il. 

Comh, tOj o-pi-klo'-8ub. J* comb^ myself^, te at-ea^ opklo'-sub'-cbid*. 

Colors, the: — white, bo-kokw; black, darkhlue, dark-green, and dark colors generally, 
bi-tot-sa; light-hluc, bo-kwaikbw; light-green and yellow, bo-kwats; red, bekwStl. 
Id tbis, as probably in most of the lodian tongues, tbere is very little pre- 
cision in tbe distinction of colors beyond white, black or dark, and red. 

Command, order, to, ot-hu-de^-kwid ; to give an order for anything, to give one anything to 
do, odab. 

Come, to, arrive, reach, aMa, ut-la, o-kliit-chil, otiut-chil. I come, la-atl-shid. I came 
from Port Townsend, tul ad KA'-TAi stits latl. By what road did you come f chad* 
shug-w'tl* ka-tsi^ hwotl* t (literally, where^ road^ you^ earned). I came by the Niskfcalli 
road, SKWA'-Li shag-w'tl tetsa hwutl. Come here, at-la twul te'. Come^ you^ [and] 
sit^ [here], at-la'-cbo'-ho* gwud-deP. Come quick, hai-et'-la, ai-utMa, at-latl. Come 
inside, nt-lat-li bad-dikbw. I cotne or arrive, ut-lat'-cbil-sbid. The chief has come, 
si-ab t5t-la'-chil. Ah! you^ve arrived, a-ha'l o-tlut-chil-chu. I hare just come, da'-hu- 
chid Ot-hlut-chi, Yesterday I rea^ched here, to-datl-dat-shids ot-hlet-chi twul-tt'. I 
arrived some time ago, es-ta-a'-go stut-klnt-cbil. Perhups he is coming here, bolus 
ku-da' o-tlatch-il-ukw. 

Come ashore. See " Shore^. To come up, rise in the water (cw after diving), shSkh (froni 
shuk^h, above). Come ha>ck, bel-kwu (imp. adv.). I came for nothing, pfit-latlchid 
la-haista (an idiomatic phrase, pat-latl meaning ^^for nothing ", q. v., la-bais-ta, to 
come or go without purpose). Come here, wliere are you t poi-chu ; gwuMe'-chid 
ta-gwes-taT (also idiomatic, but not explained). 

Conceive, become pregnant, to, 6d-zM'-zi ; pregnant, as-zed'-za-he. To produce abortion, 
od-hu-kwakw. 

Conjuring, she-na'-uam, sho-da'-dab. A conjurer, or ^^ medicine-man^, sbo-nam', sbo-dab'. 
The familiar of the conjurer, ske-lal-i-tud, skwo-lal-i-tud. This word is also applied 
to any particular gift, power, or acquirement possessed by an individual, and is 
equivalent to the ta-ma-no-us of tbe Jargon, the i'-ta-ma'-na-was of the T'siuuk. 
From o-e'-tut, to sleep, o-kulki-lal-i-tut, to dream, q. v., as it is in a dream or trance 
that the spirit reveals itself. 

There are various kinds of conjuring according to the object to be attained. 
Among them are, s'hi'-na; s'hin-hin, or 8'h@n^-ha-nim (the duk-wal-li of the Makahs). 
known on the Sound as the black ta-ma'-no:US, a species of Masonry; od-zSkhw, 
a |)erformance akin to table-tipping (see "Biotr"); steMim (from te'-lib, a song), 
that of success with women j tsaik, luck at the game of ^^hand^, which also brings 
kw&k'h, fair wind; tob-she-dad, the making of fair weather; yil-me'-hu, the sal- 
mon dance. See " Mytliology ^. 

Continue, go on (as with a story), he' -vfil, he'-wiMa. I will go on, klo-he'-wil-tii-chid. 
It is rarely used except as the imp. adv. away, atcay with you. See '* Oo ". 



317 

CooJcy to, Lu-i-da'-litldj to boily o^walts', o-pul-b(l^-l8at (qu. from o-po-a-16kw, to blow)] 
baked under ground^ pads (opaddud, to bury) ^ to roast on a sticky o-k walb, o-kwulb, 
o-kwalm; on hot stones and covered with nuUSj kal-sid; to fry^ wu-ch(/-lia-]^l-kwa ; 
cooked^ donCj kwal. 

Copulate, tOj o-e'-bel, e'-bib, e'-pep, e'-mim, o-eM-kwat. To steal upon a woman at nipht^ 
i-bash ; to ravish, o-hi-6tl. See " Court ^. 

Copulation, ko-kal-e'-kwu (from o-e'-li-kwut). 

Corpse, skai-ya. The word also signifies a grave or any place of deposit for the dead. 

Corpulent, pregnant, as-kwe^-akw, as-kwe-yakb (from kwi-yukh, the belly). 

Cough, as-hwe^-kus, as-to'-ko-bed-dub. 

Coun<, k wash-it, ha t-shid ; I count, bat-sid-shid. See "ITom? man^''aDd "JN'wmerate''. 

Court, make love to, lie with, o-kad-dab, o-kud-dob, wo-kud-ub-nkh (from skuds, a sioeet- 
heart) ; / court, at-skadchid. See " To steal^ and " T/w mouth^. 

Cover (of a box or kettle), stekot^-sid ; covered, with the lid on, knk-kot-sid; covered {as 
with a blanket), as hat-sitch. I cover myself, as-hat-sid-chid. 

Cradle, s'haFtans, s^haV-ted-itl, skuk-ke'-itl. The cradle-stick, to which it m hung, dznd 
dak-ted-^U (Nisk.) ; dzakw'-tedetl (Snoh.), literally rocker, from dza^-a-gwat, to rock. 
The compress for flattening the chiUPs head, eskh-kos-tum. 

Crazy, afidze-gwa^-tab. 

Cr'iep, crawl, to, o-takh'-ha-gwil. 

Crooked, kwal. 

Cross {sign of the), kla-bat-sab. 

Cross-wise, as-kwal-gwas (from kwdl, crooked), . 

Cry, weep, also toeryas an animal, o-hab, o-ha'-hab, wo-ha^-hab. Why do you cry f o-h^d' 
tat-sa^ wo-ha^-hab'f {why^ your^ cry^.) To cry out u:ith pain, tse'-nk-ad. To howl {as 
a wolf or dog), ka-wob. See '' Wail^, Why do you cry, chief? o-hed-chdkh si-ftb 
o-tat-sa wo-ha^-habf 

Cut, to, o-chokw, wat-cho'-k5t-sid, o-hw6t^-sko-tat, o-hw6ts-ko-kab| o-kle^>chid, o-kiets. 
To cut the hair J kle^-chil-ke-dnb. To cut the hands, o-h w^tsh-at-chi, from s'ha-lat-chi, 
hand, Once^ \r\ cut [my] hand^, tuts-hl6tsh-at-chi' asb-to-ha^-go^ To cut with scis- 
sors, wut-le-chal-e'-kwu. See " Scratch^. 

D. 
Dandle, to, b6b-o-kw6d. See ^^Child^. 

Dance, sS>kh^-hum; to dance, wu-slLkh-hum ; a place used for dancing, sakh-hum-alt-ha. 
To frisk as a dog, sakh-hwab. A mask used at dances, stet-kwa'-mas. The salmon 
dance {on its first arrival), yil-me'-ha. 

Dark, the, klSbkh', sklakh ; dark, as-bisftd, st's-a'-la-gOb ; dark colors, hi-tOt-sa (62acfc). 
See " Night ". 

Dawn, to, o-la^-hel. o-lakh^hiMukh. See ^^Light ". 

Day, sla'-hel, shla-hel (from lakh, light, q. v.) ; morning, klOp ; noon, ta^-gwut ; afternoon, 
kla-pOk, shit-lo-kwatl ; evening, slat-la^- he; sunset, naMa-hin; night, klakh, sklakh, 
sklakh-hel; midnight, is-dat, asdat. See under ^^ Future sign^, ^^Today^, ^^ Pres- 
ently^. 

Dead. See ^^ To die ^. 

Deaf, as-ti-kwa'-de (from kwiMa^-di, the ear). To be deaf, not to understand, as-tikwa^dit. 
DonH you understand f as-ti-kwa'-dit-chii T 1 donH understand, as-ti-kwa'-dit-chid. 



318 

Dear {inprice)^ ketsb, hekws'bo'-yub (large bargain). See " Barter^. 

Demon. See " Mythology ". 

Deep^ sunken^ st'lap, klip, tlip, &c. See ^^€nder^\ ^"^Belovo^. 

Depart, to. See " To go ". 

Descend, to {as from a hill, a horse^ &c.), o-ta'-gwil, bu-ta'-gwil ; I descend, o-hu-ta'-gwil- 
chld ; to get down, o-kwe'-ba-gwil. 

Die, to (in speaking of people), o-a'ta-bud, o-at-a-bud ; (of auimals), o-yo'-bil; stillborn, 
o-yo'-bil. 

Different, la-le', lul-le', da-le'-te. Idke^ a crovo^^ with^ this^ differenced, hutl'b* te ka'-ka^, 
gwuP te* tel-al-le* (speaking of a blackbird). See ^^ Another^, ^^Far^. To alter, 
la-leMt-ub; luMe'kwus, in a different way, (see " Thus^). 

Dig, to, n-cb&b, cba-ad ( from chn, a hole) ; to dig clams, o-akb^-bo ( from sftkh-bo, shell- 
fish); ah I many wonnen are digging (roots), at ebi-da'-chi-dn^ I ka^-kwi sla-de nch&b; 
dig out {as a canoe), si-sil-tin. 

Diminutives: — man, stobsh, stoMo-misb ; /afA^r, de-bSd; child, de-bad'-da; liar^ tus- 
badsh ; one who tells little lies, tHs-be^-bndab ; horse, stlarke^yn} foal, siit-kt'-y a] 
salmon roe, kulkb ; herring roe, ke'-a-kulkb ; suntmer, bad-dub ; spring, o-he-bnd- 
dab; /^6 poplar, kwu-de^-a-kwats^ fAeo^en, kwe-kwa-de-a-kwats; a stone, ahel'Aa; 
^areZ, cbi-chitshMla ; an island, sti'-cbi; an ihlet, sti-ta-cbi; a prairie, Im^-kwOb; 
a small one, bab-a-kom ; a river, stoMuk; stream, ste'-to-lak, sto-ti-lukw; to be 
asJiamed, o-bet-sil ; to pretend to be so, in jest, o-be,-ba-bet-sil ; also the interjection in 
merrimenj, as-be'-bi-he^ ; foolish, as-bwuMuk ; childish, as-bwe'-bwi-luk ; there, al- 
to-di ; a Ittle way off, al-to-di-di ; at hand, di-di, de^-a-<le ; ly and by, ha'-akw ; pres- 
ently, a-kwi-ha<kwi ; presently, kla^-lad (dim., kla-Iad-kli.) See also uud^T^^Dog^ 
and ^^Cat^, ^^Hog^, for plural diminutives. 

Dinted, notched, as-tutl-kwa'-bad. 

Dirty, skla'ka-dish, as-che'-uk-wil. . 

Diseases : — smallpox (also tbe female demon wbo represents it), sco-tam' ; syphilis (in a 
man), as-t'blai'-uts ; (in a woman), ast-san'-e; buboes^ as-butl-bal' ; gonorrhoea, 
o-chug^-hub; oon^i/mpftoff , as-to'-kwi-bnd'-dnb ; Atre^, aa-cbe-bwal/ ; a /atwf, tsatl'- 
dutl ; vertigo, sul-salp'-tub (see " To whirl^) ; boils^ spuk'b ; fever and ague, ais- 
cbid-ba'-d5b ; coi/^^, as-bwe'-kus, as-to-ka-ba'-ddb; to have the headache, o-but-latsb; 
to break the arm, o-bwnt-W-bad ; to break the leg, o-bwutl-shud (see " Break^^)] cut 
or scratched, q. v., as-hw^t'; to scratch the face, o-bwe'-cbus; to scratch the hands, 
o-hw6t^-sat-chi (see ^^^Hand^)] chapped hands, as-tak-hal; warts, as-e-ok. 

Most of tbe above words bave tbe adjective prefix a«, and probably signify 
having sacb a disease. See <^ Sick ". 

Dish, plate (of stone), iuk-wai; (of wood), lil-kwi; a large dish, bekb-pai-ynltsh (b^kw, 
large). 

Dive, to, o-o'-sil. See " Forehead^. 

Divide, to. See " Break ". 

Dog (the common kind), ko^-bai, ko'-mai, sko'-bai (plur. sko-ko-bai) ; the kind sheared 
for its fleece, ske'-ba (Nisk.), ska'-ha (Skagit); Utch, to'-witl; a litter of pupSy skwe- 
o-kwe'-o-ko-bai ; doglikCj shis'-ko-bai. 

DoW, bebda. 'See^CAiM" 

Double, to. See"-FbW» 



319 

J)ot€n-strcam^ alkhliad, to-watl-bad^ 

Dream, to, o-kul-ki-laM- tut; to tell on^s (7ream«, it-ftaMi-lut-tab-sbed, from o-e'-tut, /o 
Hleepy q, v. See ^^ Conjuring ". 

J)res8^ articles of (see ^^Cloth ", ^^Blavkets ") : — hat^ capj shivais above ; «Atrt, sbu-put, pat- 
snb-uts, spimpt; pantaloons of skin or clotkj yel-la^-bit-sbid, yel-am-tsen ; skin leg- 
gingsj b&ts-a-bi-dak ; a pair of leggings^ shoesj or stockings^ yel-sbid ; one leg or foot 
ofsame^ kluk-sbid; moccasins^ yal-sbid; leather «/u7(?«, t'kwab-sbid ; a vest^ Idb-bo- 
had ; a cape or blanket worn over the head like a poncho^ lo-gwas ; the cedar-hark cape 
made by the Makdhs, ket-blem^-tna ; a icoman'^s petticoat of fringe^ e'chad-zob^ a sleeve^ 
a^-cbi; apron, se'-y up; wiorfern drew, kl6tl-pikw ; beltorbucklejk\gLt'»v.p-px\d\ fringe^ 
QS-snl'-sa ; stitching or embroidery^ 8'bal ; needle^ pot^^-ded, pad'-sted ; mat needle^ 
klSbkbw-tid; /Aread, sukb-pats ; ^arn, suit, suld ; spool-thready bekh-ka^-bats sukb- 
pd>t8^; pinSy chits-cbid-esb-bud ; hooks and eyes^ kleP-kwidgwul ; buttonSj s'cbits- 
sb'-d(/; button hole, a%-W i ^ftim&Ie, bwe'hw-kwi-6kw; bracelets, 8\iop, so-kwat-chi ; 
finger-rings, B'k6t8-k'»e^-cbi, sbis-cbuk-sit-cbi; ear-rings or pendants^ Bklug-wa^-de, 
slet-lo-a^-de, a8t-lnk-wa^-di ; necklace^ jad-shib ; looking-glass, B'bu-lal-bus ; beads, g. 
v., kwe-a-kwe, klit-le^-a-bul-luks, cbuk-cbnk-els. See tbe above respectively. 

Drifty to (as with the wind only), o-puk w (see " To blow ^)] also with the tide or stream^ to 
float down. 

Drink {*any liquid or juice), sko'-kwa; to drink {as men and horses), o-ko^-kwa; {as dogs 
and other animals that lap), tl-kankh. I drink som€ water, o-ko'-kwad-cbid ak-ki 
a ko'. He donH drink, hwe-kwi sko^-kwa. We are thirsty, ko-kwai-litl-sbid. See ko, 
water, and derivatives. 

Drive, to {as a nail), ot-sus-sad (from tsus-tud, a nail); to drive animals, luk-kw&t-lad| 
lap-peld. 

Drop, let drop, lose, to, o-bo'-but-sut. I have lost [something], to-bo'-but-shid. 

Drown, to, otl-tab. 

Drum, to {as at dances, and in conjuring, gambling, &c,), si-u'-tid-sdltsb. 

Drunken, as-bwul-ku. See ^^Foolish ^. 

Dry, to, o-sba^-bad; dried {as fish), as-sbap; to leave dry {m by ebbing of the tide), 
o-sbutMukb ; a puddle or pool that dries up, as-tsnp. 

DuU {as an ax), as-klnds'-hn-bos. 

B. 

JE?ar, kwil-W-de; cheeks, hweMa-de; as-kla'-bot, to hear} as-ti-kwa-de, deaf, q*v.; 
as^-lo-bnl-de', the ear-holes for rings, dtc. (from as'-lo, a hqj^e) ; slit-lo-a'-di, ast-lug-wa'- 
di« sklug-wa'-di, ear-rings ; so-lukb-ti slug-wa^-di, pendants of dcntalium shells (so- 
lukb, dentalium) ; a mule, bekw-gwi^de^ 

Earth, the, 8wa-t6kbw'-ten (see "Piace^-); earth or soil, s'gwis-tulb, se-gwes'-tulb, 
skwes-talb (see '' Sand^), 

East, the, ka-bol-gwun^-bu, k'kol-gwun^-bu. It is .tbe country on tbe sun's road in tbe 
eiist See " Wind ". 

Eat, to, o-atld, o-utld, se'-tld. I eat, o-utld^-cbid, atl-do^-cbid. You (sing.) eat^ atl-do'-cbu. 
Did you^ (plur.) eafi last nighf f o-utld* 'shel'-a-pu» to-tlakb^ I I will eat, klo-ut-lut- 
cbid. Presently^ [we] unll eat^ somef^ crabs\ tel-betsb* klet-la'-bad* a-ke^ bes'-kwu^ 
Coiitc, eaf, at-la^hwatl. Full, satisfied, eis-bai\. i^ood,sutUl. 7/mre(7o)f6, as-b&tl-cbid. 



320 

There ia a close verbal affinity between this word and at-la, at-la, to come^ tbougli 
it is difficult to conceive of a connection of ideas between them. To tat with a 
spoouy klo-bOd (kleb-bnd, a spoon) ; to eat excrement {as the raven), Od-hnl-ka-datsh. 

Ehb^ to^ o-hwa^-datsh. 

JBcho, na'-gwa-bet. 

Uclipse^ an^ ttit-la'-hel (tu, the past sign^ sla'-hel, day). 

Edge, border of anything^ tJie horizo.n as the border of the earth, e'-la-bad ; the edge of a 
knife, se^-ia-huds. The root is obviously the same with eMuks, eMa-hus, the end, 
Si-la^-had, the side-fins of flatfish. 

Elbow, ko-bukh^-wnt-sbid, kOb-hwuMa-bad. 

Elope, tOy tle-ukw-ta-gwul. 

Embroider, to, mth thread, quills, &c., wb^ence to write, o-hal, o-ha'-lud ; I write, o-h&l- 
chid; have you been writing f have you written? to-haMad-o-<shu-hu T Embroidered, 
stitched, figured, as-hals ; a book or letter-writing, s'hals, s'hSkl ; writing materials, 
sukb-hals (sukh, particle denoting use or instrument). To etnbroider with beads, 
o-tu'-sha-sbukw. 

Empty, as-hwat-sab ; to empty (see ^^Pour^), 

Enclosed, within, as-dukw. 

End or point (as of a stick or knife), eMuks, seMuks, eMa-hus. See edge, Qu. selks, 
the nipples. 

Enough, klnl-dukhw (see ^^Stop% klo-hwul. You have enough, klo-hwul^-ko-chukb. 
When helped to food, hai (stop). 

Entirely, bol ; entirely white, hdl-ho-kw5kw. 

Entrails, kad-z&kh. 

Evening, slaMa'-he ; the evening star, kla-hai^-laMus. 

Every, bo^-kwi [all) ; everywhere, bo^-kwi-chad, beb-kwn chftd, bo-kwi I6l-<)had {every 
far where). See " Where ^. 

Eye, ka-lob', ka-lus; (plur.) tuts-6ds-gwa'-lus, stud-gwa^lus. Eyeballs, hutsh-kla'-ltis 
{mind or heart of the eye); eye4ids, q, v,, at-shus-kaMus; squint-eyed, as-kntch-a^- 
Itls, as-hnk-chaMus; one-eyed, tat\-ksL*An»', sunken»eyed, B^ikhwl-kn/Ans', unth protub- 
erant eyes, tush-kwa^-Ius, as-hu-shu-kwa^-lus ; the trillium, ta ka-lob a swa^t^khw- 
t'ti {the eartVs eye) ; to wink, q. v., shed-ka^-lus. The word for eye is often used 
for the whole face, as in English visage. 

Eye-lashes, klip-pud. 

Eye-lids, at-sbus-ka'-lus ; the upper lid, skai-ol-kwud hush-kwal-dl-kwSd ; under lid, 
hutl-pal-ol-kwud ; ot-se'-pa-lil, to shut the eyes, to wink; o-tse'-pul-shid, I shut my 
eyes; as-tse'-po-lil, as-tse'-pul, with closed eyes, Not a derivative, as-hut se'-kGs, 
with half-closed or languishing eyes. 

Exchange, to, ai'-gwus, at-si-gwus, wut-ta'-gwusb-id. See ^^Barter^. 

Excrement, sputs. 

Explain, teach, show how to do anything, o-gwal. 

Extinguish, put out, to (a« a candle), o-klatch ; to become extinguished, to go out, to fade 
{as colors), o-tsukhw, o-tsakhw. Es-tukb-a-hu, the dark of the moon (t. e,, gone out). 
It is almost out, hwe'la-lil gwul et-snkhw. 



321 



P. 



FacCj the^ satzus. To make faces (by putting the Up down)j as-bu-le'-a-kwatl-dutl ; {by 
raisiitg the no8e), tsits-k'k-sub. ^^Haichet-faced^j ask-ba-she'-a-gwus. Spotted-faced 
{aH a piebald horse)^ tu-kwOk-wtis (rrom ho-kok'h, white), Redfaced^ to-kwet-lus 
(from hfc'-kwetl, red). With the face painted^ s'hu-lfc'-uk-wus. ^'^Ealffaced^j the^ 
tu-t^hluk-a-wai-jua, the name of a fabulous beingj haJfdog^ half woman. 

FadCy to (as colors). See ^^Extinguish^\ 

FadCj wilt J to (as flowers) j o-kwai'-i; fadedy as-kwai^-i. 

Faint J swoouj tsatl-datl. 

Fall, to (as the tide)^ sbutl'h. 

Fallf drop dovmy o-bo'-but-sut, o-takh ; Ohtakb-ba-gwil, to creep; o-ta'-gwil, to get down; 
o-tag-ta-gwil, to get on to (probacy to crawl on). 

Far, lei, lil, la-lel', la-lil'; not far, hwe' la-lil'. [Move] farther off, lel'-tsut, lil-tsut (imp. 
adv.), la-le', other^ different; hwe' la-lelsb, «oo», q. v., lit-lel-gwitl (exact mean- 
ing unknown). See the particles la, le. 

Fast, quick, iBilkb (imp. adv.). 

Fat (ofanimah), sobw-tud. A fat man, mak'bw. 

Father. See ^^ Relationships^. 

Fatliom, a (used in measuring strings of wampum or beads), t'bu-ddd-cbu (dut-cho, on&j ; 
five fatlionis, n'cba^-Iak-bid (%. e., a hand) ; ten fathoms, sa-le-al^-ak-bid (saMe, two, 
i. e,, two hands), tus-po^-pa*dats (pa'-duts, ten) ; halfafatJiom tul-ka-la'-bad. From 
one shoulder to tip of opposite fingers, tu-di-gwe^-di-gwus (se-led-gwus, the chest). In 
practice, it is the measure from tip to tip of tbe fingers, tbe arms being extended. 

Feed, give to eat, kla'-dap. 

Feel, to, o-patl-tid. I feel, o-patl-tid-sbid. 

Female (of animals), taQ*>itl, sla-ne. 

Feminine prefix and sexual words :^s prefixed or interpolated is occasionally found 
clearly as a feminine sign ; but so large a portion of tbe words in tbe language 
commence with this letter that there is some difficulty in determining its occur- 
rence in that sense. The following may, however, be cited as examples of its use: 
I love my wife, batMu-chid, tsi-itl cbug-wush, where tsi-itl is the possessive pronoun, 
feminine, in place of te-itl. She is well disposed toward you, k'sits twul dugwe. 
Where is your wife t chM ki sad chug-wushf It is also recognizable in some of 
tbe words denoting relationship, &c.: d'be'-ba-da, «on; sud-de-be'-ba-da, daughter; 
tsaf'ha, father-in-law; suts^ba-ba, mother-in-law. So in speaking to male relations, 
tbe possessive pronoun is shed; to females, sed. See ^^My^. Other instances are, 
cha'-chas, a small boy; si-cba'-chas, a small girl; hekw, large; si-bekw, a large 
woman; o-luti, oZd; s\i\-lo-tu.t\, an old woman. There are also some words in which 
a distinction is made between tbe sexes, e. g., ^^frieodV. In speaking to a man, the I 
word used is asb-dais^; to a woman, a s-nals . Thanks to a man is expressed be'- 
a-shuds ; to a woman, h6s-ko. The caTl of " you there ^ is, to a man, do-te' ; to a 
woman, d6t-si. To urinate by a man is o-sa'-hwa; by a woman, o-sbe'-wa. 
Syphilis in a man is astlai-uks ; in a woman, ast-sau-e. Tbe stems of some plants 
are deemed male and called stoly-shal-li ; the under leaves female, kla'-dieMi, 
respectively from stohsh and skla-de. Inteijections are most commonly used by 
women, and in one case an absolutely different one is employed, according to the 

sex of the speaker: as-sasb-i-ma! for shame! by women; asasb-ib'bo-yoM by men. 
21 



L 



322 

« 

Feipj seldom^ kwo-kwnd. 

Figured^ spotted. See ^^Embroider "• 

File^ a, sijit8-ted. 

Find^ iOj o-ed'-hu, o-aid'-bu. I findj o-edba-cbid. I canH find tf, bwe'-kits-aid-ba- 
}Yhat did you find? stab k'aiset-bwat Where did you find the man f cbad kats. 
ait'-bwu ki stobsb I Look and presently you willfind^ gwut-cbid dai-cbu klo-ed-bwo. 
Tbis verb and o-as-aid^-bu, to know^ appear to bave some common root not now 
intelligible. 

FingerSy s'ba-lat-cbi. See " Hand^. 

Finishj tOy o-bo'-ynkh. I have done eating j o-bo'-yo tits-ntld. Have you done washing f 
bo^-yakb o-kSits-t^akbw-tsakw t Stop youy bo-ynkh klekb. Stop^ quit Uiaty bo-yukb w, 
(very imperatively) is-sa' ho-yukbw (is-sa^ an inteijection). See " To do^j o-boytit. 

^tre, bod, bdt; o-hOdy to bum; klo-bo'-cbid, J«Aa/Ibi£ni; ^'bo-da-le, a ^re-p2ac6; tlad- 
dnhj summer; o-he^-bad-dub (a little warm)^ spring. To become trarm, o-bnd-de'- 
ukbw. See" Warm ". 

First J foremost See " Before ". 

i^M (tbere i^ no generic name): — ood^ ko'-peMa; rock-cod^ (scbastosomns), tat-le'-de- 
gwnst; red-fishy tat-l^wks; flounder y po-ai'; sohy st-ba'-butsb; halibuty s'cbot'b; 
large coUuSy te-tai'-np ; toad-fish (boricbtbys), bo'-di, 8^ho'-di ; viviparous perch (an 
embryotocoid), skwekbw; sturgeony kwo-tait^-sit; dog fishy skwatcb; skatCj kwe'- 
kwi-il; calorrhynchvsy Bko'-ma; smeltyShed-zvL^'y ^^oulakan^ (tbaleicbtbys), (Gbinook) 
kwuMus-ti-o; white-fish (coregonus), bidotl; herring^ stol; sucker {fresh water)y 
Bkom ; mullet {fresh'Water)y se-ai-i-pid ; salmon^ scbe-dad-ba (generic for tbe finer 
species), sat^-sum (tbe t'kwin^-nat of tbe Columbia Biver, salmo quinnat), sko'- 
bwats (Sin-ukb, salmo quinnat), to-wat-lin, skwaul (Sbn-sba^ ins), kl-bwai, le-kai 
(dogy salmo canis), bud-do (hump-backed salmoHy salmo protens); the exhausted 
or ^^spent^ salnwuy ydkw, except tbe skwaul, wbicb is called stze-kops; scUmon- 
trouty cbi-wakb'; frroo^'-trouf, skwus-p'tl. 

Parts of a fisb: — the fleshy talts; bcuik of the heady st'-sb'-sbap; snouty skub- 
knp^ muscle under preoperculumy sbu-tn-ma'-de (cheeks) 'y gillsy s'bai-ai; scalesy 
spisb ; spotSy as-klul'b ; the shoulders and fore party B'cbii-lo8' ; middle sectioUy so-di- 
gwa^-bats; tail sectiony s^chit-md ; bones (rt&«), s'bakhs; /ar^er 6<me«, tso'-bed ; sal- 
mon ro€y kulkb ; herring roe, ke^-a-kulkb (dim.) ; roe of small fishy sb'da'; throaty 
t'sbSkbw tsub-bekbw' (see " Bark^) ; belly y sats-kotl ; pectoral finSy tsil-ka'-de; ven- 
tral and side finSy bo-bob-ti-kotl (from bobt, a paddle) ] adipose finy sns bwa^-bed ; 
dorsaU skp-betsb; taily skwukblt, s'cbit-s'sad ; side fins of flounder or halibuty 
si-la^-bad (from seMabuds, the edge of a knife) ; the lateral linCy knd-ziMe'-nks. 

Sbell-fisb: — shells (generic), chan-ai; clamsy musselsy &o.y sakb-ko; the large 
clam (lutearia), bads, ba^-buds; round claniy kokb^-bo-di, qua-bog; venus Spt« skwut 
(Nisk.), stVbob (Sky.); scallopy bap^-a-bed; cocklCy sup-bub sa^-ba-pul; razor-clam^ 
cbit-led ] mussel, s'cbits ; large sea-mussely hu-cbe'-a-kud (Nisk.), s'bu-cbelks (Sky.) ; 
oystery klokb-klokb ; unios (fresb-water mussels), alt'h-kbw ; chiton^ okb-kus ; sea- 
Sfuiily ka^-ma^-ni; land-snail (belix; also a demon of tbat name), sbwoi-nkw ; wJielky 
spHp-sil, spops ; ftamoole, tsob-tsob ; a lar^/a «pecte<,.dzal-gwa ; siphon of a shellfi^hy 
shop ; bellyy smuk-ba. 

Grustaceans : — edibU craby bSs'-kwu, bSsk' bn j stone-craby ba-w6t'-sa ; hermit- 



323 

crahj haa-wi-lo'; spider craby t8a-p6n'-ni-a ; prawn^ saikh, b</-lat8; sliell of crab ^ 
kal-Ia'-ka-bid ; c/atr, jfish'-id (thigh)] abdofninal cover^ se'-yuf^ (apfvn)} roeijfcrab^ 
Jia-kwuMetsb^ 

Ecbiuoderms : — echinus (8ea-egg), skwe'-kwitsh ; «cttteZ/a (eake-nrcliin), fawe- 
kwi-e'-uk; star-fish, kwuMa^-chi (fingers). 

Fish, catch fish, to (Kith a seine), sheb-edb' ; (with a dip net), wi-at-la-l6kw ; (ttith a spear), 
tsa'-ka-de (see " Spear ^)', (with a hook), uMikhl-kwa; (tdth a rake), le'-kud-ja, ko- 
latsh^ 

Fishing-gear, seinesy nets, sbnb-ed', Bhukh^-sbukh-bad, Bbe^-sba-bad (from sbak'b, irp); 
akb-b w&d-zad ; a landing-net, k waF-ba ; fioats to a net, pop-sa-ba'-bat ; fishing-line, kle- 
ddb, skai-kad-zn ; trolling-line^ ke-kai-joks ; bladder fioat to a line, sbiip-o' (from s'ba- 
pa^ a bladder) ] fish-hook (woodtn), s'cba^-de (Nisk.), bai-ukh' (SDob.)i iron fish-Ju)ok, 
kle^-kwud ; halibut-hook, kle-uk-wad, kla-dap ; fishing-pole, cbisb^-ai ; fish-gig, stet- 
kwab ; fish-spear, Bkw6t lab ; fish-weir, ste-ka'-l^kw, e-dad ; the lattices, a'-a-kwnl • 
fish-club, ka-bos ; bait, b&l-baMe^ 

Flat, tsok'bw, tsak'-wi-dab. 

Flatten the head, to, k'po-Bad ; the compress, Sskh-kos'-tam. 

Flower, se-kai-Bim. TbiB iB BometimeB given as a name to girls. 

Fly, to, o-sak^-bn, o-sak'-wa. 

Foan^ of the sea, sko'-sab. 

Fog, Bkwasb-um^ sie^-ak-wil. 

Fold, plait, plaited, as-bap^ } tofold^ kab-tled, t'bap-a-gwa'-Bad ; to double a blanket, ikh- 
bup-a-gwa' sa-lit^-za. 

Follow, pursue, to, o-dnk-cba-la-ak. 

Food, Bfttld, BQtld. See <<^f". 

Fool, sbwnl-luk; foolish, drunk, uneJtaste, as-bwnV-kn. Those^ common peopU? make 
fooh? [o/fAem«e{re8],,bwnl-bwul-kdk-Bbid^ kwi^ siMa-bad'. 1 know that you talk like 
a fool, aB-is-ta^ sb waMnk' bot-bot'-cba^ a-said-ta^-cbid^ (as^ fooV^ speaJ^ you^ know^ P). 
I did not know I was drunk, bwe^ a-kw6tB' as-ai'-alt-bu' kdts^ as-bwaV-ka^ (nofi 1* 
kneufl 1* [was] drunk^). 

JVH>f, dza^-sbid ; plar. dza'-sb'd-sbid ; dza'-sbid, the right foot; kaV-sbid, left foot; ko- 
bo'-sbid, ko-bab-sbid, ankle; sbak^-sbid, instep (sbok'b, oftov^) ; st-koF-sbid, «ofe; 
slak-a-bat^-sbid, Aeel; sa-aV-sbidy^oeg; slo-tlalk'-sbid, slilMalk-Bbid, ^ to«; kink'- 
sbid, one foot of a shoe or stocking, lame of one foot ; t'kwab'-sbid, leather shoes or 
boots (from stnk-wnb, wood) ; yaV-sbid, jel'-sbid, a pair of moccasins, leggings, shoes, 
or stockings ; yeMa'-bit-sbid, pantaloons of skin or cloth; o-bwntl-sbnd| to break the 
leg ; sti-daMn-sbid, with the foot asleep; ke-nk-nt-sbid, to hobble or fetter a horse; 
s^k-kol-sbid, hoofs ; on foot, e'-ba-sbab (from e'-basb, to walk). 

Foot-print, btlt-sba'-to-bid, s'bnd-sba'-bid. 

For (intended for), bnd-deld, twnl ; for my unfe, twnl sed cbng-wnsb. 

Forehead, silels, se-l^lts. Debiyatiyes, o-bet-sil, to be angry^ to be ashamed ; 0d-b6t- 
sil-us, to suUc, to blush ; bet-sil, for shame ; la-Ie'-o-sil, to alter in appearance ; and 
perbaps also o-o^-sil, to dive (go headforemost). 

Forest, wooded country, stnk-e-kOm, st'cb'trbwa'-lnp, stnk-ti-kOp (from stnk-hnm, a tree; 
stnk-wnb, sti-kOp, wood). 

Forget, to, msi'-W, o-ba'-li. I forget, o-ba-ii-cbid. 



L- 



324 

Fork€€ly branched {a$ a river or road)^ as-e^-uk'li ; with many channels or forks {as the delta 
of a river)^ as-e-uk-se^-ak. "^ 

Formerly^ once^ a'-go, La'-go, ba'-gwo, ash'-to-ba'-go, eb'-tu-ha'-go, &L'-c-a'-go. For- 
merly^ my (this)^ hair^ was* [long]^ to-bat-suds^ ti' skadzo^ asb-ta-ba-go\ Oncc^ I 
tcent\ estu-a-go* stuts-o-os*. A while ago^ Icamt^, es'-tu-a'-go* stut-klat-chil'. I once 
lieardj aBb-to a'-go tuts-as-kla^-bot. Very long agOj is-sbinle^ ha'-go {indeed long ago). 
Very late at nighty ba'-gwo lut-la-bel. See ^^Justnow^\ " OW. 

In tbese examples, the particle t\ to, ta, signifyiug past timei is foand with 
its various eapbonio modificationSi and in tuts, stut, and stuts, it is combined with 
atsa, J. See *^ Past^. The analogy between a^-go, ha^-go, and ha-akw' will be 
noticed under <' Presently ", q. v. As regards the confusion in the use of times past 
and future, see " Yesterday '^ and " To-morrow '\ also " Day ". 

Fortune^ luck. Ti-ytitl-ma is the genius of fortune. See ^' Mythology "• 

Frequently^ many times^ often, ka-hatlabu (from ka, the plural aign, many, and tia'hu, 
or at-la^-bu signifying repetition). See ^^Numeral adverbs^. 

Fresh (not smoked or dried), klant (the same as neic). 

Freshet or flood of a river. See "To rise^. 

Friend (speaking of him), a^-shid, a'-shnd ; my friend (addressing him), shi-da'-shld ; 
also speaking to a man, ash-dals; to a woman, as-nals. A-shud and ash-dals can- 
not be used to women without insult. The placenta^ a'-shuddikbl {the child's 
friend). 

Frightened, afraid, ho'-kwuts. 

Fringe, us-sut'-sa; fringed, as-gwi-ha^-bad. 

Frisk, to {as a dog), sakh-bwnb. See ^^Dance^. 

Frog, 8wuk-ke'-uk.(Nisk.); wak-wak'b (Sky.); by onomatopoeia, tsol-swa'-ya (Snoh.); 
also the name of the moon's wife (the spots on the moon). 

From, tul. From where, whence f tUl-cb&d 1 From that way, thence, till es-ta'. Fran 
Olympia, tul al cbis Ste^-ohas {from at that Olympia). I came from Port Toumsend, 
tul ad KA^-TAi stits-latl. From where did you [get it] f tul cbad-cbu t 

Fruit. See ^^Berries "• 

Fry, to, wu-che^-ha-tel-kwn. See ^^Cook^. 

Full, satisfied, as-b&tU I am done eating, as-J)§tl'Chid, as-mStl-chid. See ^^8oft^. - 

Full {as a kettle, dkc), as-lutsb,- half full, tul>hluk-gwns ; quarter full, tutl-kap. 

Fungus (a species used for red paint), hut-lat^ sid (Nisk. and Snob.), duk-do'-kw (Sky.). 

Furred, hairy, as-ta-bfid. 

Future sign, the, kl, kla, klo, and the convertibles tl, tla, tlo. 

This particle, as the prefix to a verb, indicates the future tense, and, like the 
past sign t, to, tu, is variously modified in combination with the verb and pronoun ; 
for example, o-bot-bot, to speak; klo-ho^-hOt, Jt(7{22«pea^; o-yai-us, to tror^; klai- 
aiyus-chid, kutlai-ai'-yus, he vHll work ; o-ta^-sud, to return ; tlo-ta'-sud-chid, 1 wUl 
return; o*dkb, to go. Da'-da-to^-chids' tlo^-okb*, or da'-da-to^ ke tluts* ^ okh-ho*, to- 
morrow^ P wilP go\ 

The letters k and t before I are not only convertible, but often transposed and 
sometimes dropped, while the vowels have no positive value. The letter I, there- 
fore, remains as the ultimate root of the particle. In combination, it seems to 
signify also recurrence and periodicity. Tbe obvious derivatives from this particle 
are numerous^ and there are other somewhat conjectural, but still probable ones. 



325 

Tbo most noticeable is the verb at'-la or ut'-la ; in its intransitive sense meaning 
to come; in the transitive, to bring ; and the modified form, o-thnt-chil, to arrive^ 
to reach. These are bat coujagations of the futare sign. From at-la is derived 
klo'-kwatl, the sun^ the coming or returning^ evidently a combination of that verb 
with the original prefix, and from that name shiMo-kwatl, afternoon^ and no-kwutl- 
da-to, to-morroxo. Again, from the same verb comes atMabu, signifying tim^s or 
repetition^ e. <;., ka-hat-la-hn, many timea^ kle^-hwat^-la-hn, three timeSy and other 
numeral adverbs; and what to us woald appear singular, to-dat1-d&t,iye8^^(fa^; 
to-di-atl-dat, the day be/ore yesterday ; tu-sle'-hwatl-da t, three days ; bos-atl-dat, four 
days; ts1^ts-atl-dat,^r0 days^ since or hence; all the words in the series referring 
alike to the past and future. The subject of this confusion of time will be noticed 
hereafter. See " Yesterday ^j ^^ To-morrow ", ^^Formcrly ^f ^^Fresently '^ 

Returning to the future sign, perhaps, through the verb, from it spring lakh, 
Ught, and its opposite, klakh, darkness; o-1a^-hel or o-la^-hiMukh, to dawn^ to become 
light; 8la-hel or shla-hel, day, and sklakh*hel, night, with their derivatives. Among 
other words are Ua/ Add, presently ; kla-kwu, by and by; klalats-a'-ta, wait, after 
a little; ka-lob^ or ka-lus^ the eye; and the verbs o-la^-bit, to see, and o-la^-had-hu, 
to recollect Not the least remarkable would seem to be the Skagit name of a 
mythological personage, Do^-kwe-batl or No'-kwe-matl. The meaning of the whole 
word is not ascertained, but the last syllable points with sufficient clearness to bis 
character. He was expected; the one who was to come; his mission being the 
destruction of the primeval demons who persecuted man at his first appearance on 
earth. 

G. 

Oallopj to, klo-wil-alps^ 

Oames : — the game of ^^ hand ^ and that played with disks W&, la-haV, sla-bal ; to play, 
o-la-haF, o-la-haMub ; of dice made of bearertf teeth, me' -UjAHj^mef-t^-W', the highest 
or four-point of the dice, kes ; tlic game of rings and arrows, smub-be'; of bandy or 
hockey, k6k-li elsk. See << To bet ". 

Oape, yawn, to, o-gwaMab. 

Gather, pick, to {as berries), o-kwil^, o-kwel; to gather nuts, beb-kod, o-kap'-o (kapb-po, 
hazelnuts)* Quick, let us go and pick berries, bai-uk^-Io, o-kwel^-shid. 

Geographical names: — the earth, country, &c., swa-tekhw-t'n (see ^^Vlacc^)', a motint- 
ain, skwa^'tutsh ; snow-peak, skels; hill, klup, spo^-kwab, sma^-del; slide of rocks 
from a mountain, shwukhw; point of land, skwStsks; point between the forks of a 

^ river, sko-al-ko'; itii^i^d, sti-ch i^j forest country, skuk-e-kom, stuk-te-kob; level 
country, suk-hw^-dop ; prairie^ meadow, ba^-kwob, ma'-kwom ; lafid above freshet, 
as-pu-kwub; tide lands, o-shut-lukh ; mar«A, s*che'-a-kwil ; sandy ground, se-gwus- 
tulb; beach, e-bab-zi-chu ; the sea, hwultcb; tide, dzo-kwush-dub ; bay or harbor, 
e-hwtLl-kwdb ; lake, tsaMal, tsaMutl; rirer, sto-lukw ; mouth of a rtrer, e'-lOt-sid ; 
waves, gwa-le^-ukw; surf, dzOl-cbu, o-te'-a-kus; the east, ka-bdl-gwnqbu ; the west, 
atF-had Ol-gwun-hu; thehorizon, e^-la-bad; theinterior, inland, t^kt, tu-takt, kaikhw, 
skaikhw. See the above respectively. 

Oetf to, ohwe'-wi, s'hwe'-wi. Where did you get [it] f chad kats hwe-wi ! tul chOdchu 1 
literally, from where you t (hwe^-wi being understood). Come and get, utls ki te' 
(idiomatic phrase, utla, cane, ki te, this here). 



326 

Get down, io^ o-kwe^-ba-gwil. 

Get on or into [cu a horse or a canoe)^ o-ke'-la-gwil } to get ttp on anything (as a table or 
lalleD tree, but not od a high place), (htag-ta-gwiL 

Get ^jp, sit tfjp, to (wben lying dowu), o gwad-del. 

Gimletj cbeiplin. -See *' To bore^, " To twUt^. 

Girl (a young child)^ cba'cbas sla'-ne ^ (little icoman)^ si-cba'-cbas (si, fern, prefix) } a girl 
too young to know a man^ ka'-bai ; one just arrived at puberty^ obais^-bnb, obais'bo- 
bil; one who dees not menstruate (perbaps wbo bas failed at tbe usual age), smo-kwul. 

Give^ to (ahsolutely^ as a present)j ab'-sbits, ab-bOlts'-t'st. Give me some powder j ab-sbits 
uks skweMitsb. lu tbe seuse of hand or help to, klelts. Hand me some potatoes^ 
klels uks spe'-o-k0t8. In tbe sense of bring^ at-la, ut-la. Give nte, please^ some water^ 
atl'tu^-sbids sko ak^-a ko. (Sko, an expression used in seeking tbe good will of a 
person.) Give me some water (a woman speaking to a woman ), yatl-sbids swa-ka ko 
Idem (addressed to a man), yatl-sbids do>te' ak^-a ko. Idem (a man to a woman), 
yatl-sbids dot'-si ak^-a ko. (Do-te^ and dot-si, equivalent to '* You there^^ must be 
addressed, the first to a man, tbe latter to a woman only.) To give to eaty to/eed^ 
kla'-dap; to give afeasty ko'-o-dak ; to give back^ see ^^Betum^. 

Glady pleasedj to be^ o-ju-il, batl. I am glad you have cotne (glad^ my^ iearfi you have 
come*), o-ju-iU tid^ butsb^ at-a-tat-sla'-cbil^ 

Glue (made of fish'Skins)^ mat. 

Gnawj to (as a rat or a beaver)^ cbo^-tid. 

Goy tOy o-okb, o-bob, o-bwob. P go^^ o-Ot^-sbidS o-tok'-sbid^ [AreJ you^ (sing.) goin^ f 
o-tokb^-kwokb'-cbu* 1 [You] always^ gd^^ ska'-k6d ot'-la*. Where^ are you^ going^t 
cbad^ kads' okb^T Row^ do you^ go^t st&b-ab^ kats'-okb^t [Do] you^ go^ [in a] 
canof?f ke-lab^ kats^ okb*! Are you going soont bweMalelsb* bo-to'-kw'! (not^ 
lat^ [you] go^). He goes^ to-okb. [Are] you^ (plur.) goin^ t gwul-la'-po* o-tokb'- 
kwM o-tokb'-kwokb* cbil-lup'-o' » o-kok'tok^cbil-lnp' f P went*j tu-o-ol'-sbid". 
Once^ I wenl\ es-tu-a'-go^ stats-o'ofc*. P shall g(^ to-morrow^y da-da-to^-cbids^ tlo- 
okb' da'-da-to' ki-tluts-okb-bo. Perhaps I will go^ bo-lnkbt klo-okb, bo'-o-la^-cbid 
klo-okb. To-morrow we will gOy no-kwutl-da'-da-lo ki tluts 6kb-bo. In a little while 
I tcill go^ da'-cbid klo-okb ba-akw. Presently 1 will ^o, kla-lud da-cbid klookh, te- 
lakb-bi- (in the course of the day) -cbit lo-okb. When will you gof (sing.), put-tab- 
cbu I'okb 1 put-tab^ okb*-cbu' klo-okb^ f (when' go^ you^ will go* f duplication of verb). 
Go^ [to^] oufiy o-bot^ tu* sbal-bekbw^ Go presently ^ dai-cbu klo-5kb tel-bV©- Go 
tliere (a little way only)^ o-bot bwnl to-di-di. Let us go presently (to-day^ t'CMakb- 
bi kit'lus-to^-ku-cbitl. Let them go before^ tOl*o-6kb sbi-itl dzekb-bu. In tbe last 
example, tu is tbe preposition to; lo-okb, tbo future imperative; sbiitl, the pro* 
noun ; dzekb-hu, tbe adverb. Tbe adverbs in some of tbe previous examples are 
compound and separated, as in go presently ; dai is an adverbial particle; cbu, tbe 
copulative pronoun, you (sing.) transferred to it from tbe following verb ; klo, tbe 
sign of tbe future tense ; okb, tbe verb ; tel-b^ye, a contraction of tbe adverb a-ti- 
lakb-be, to-day^ used in tbe sense of presently y in the course of the day. 

Go (imp. of o-bOb), o'-bwa, o-bwakbw. I gOy o-bwo'-but sbid. I want to gOy tus-o-hwab- 
cbid, tik-e-w&b, to go on horseba^ky ride. To go in a canoCy o'-lutl. Three [they] go in 
a canoCy la^-olutl. To go up hilly ascendy o-kwa^-tutsb (skwa'-tStsb, a hill or mount- 
ain). To go round (as round a house)y o-ke^-ta-latbu. To go toward the toatery 



327 

o-kwetl. To go inland^ o-cho'-ba. Oo away, away tcith yoit, go on (with a story)^ 
he^-wil, he'-wil-la. See ^^Continue^. Oo out, be^-wil-tu sbal-bekhw. To go outj 
o-sbed-ziil. I go outj o-sbed-zul-cbid. -• 

Oo out See ^^Extinguish^. 

Goodj klob, tlob, batl (pleasing j from o-batl, to likCj to Jove). Do you not liie it f (is it^ 

no<* goocP to* you^ t) hwe* la^ tlob^ twul* dug- we** f It is good as it is (good so), klob 

as-is-ta. Oood-naturedj kldb-ob-k1ob. My husband is good-natured, klobob-klob 

8bul-ta-d6d s'chest-ba. Used sometimes imperatively, as klOb kat-si labt, look out 

' (good you see) ; klob-cbid o-e^-tut, let me sleep. 

Ooodrhye, bo-i (probably from okh-bo, to go, and ased in sense of are you going f ). To 
a single person, if a man, bo-i a-sbid (a-sbid, /mnd). To several persons, boi kle- 
yut la-best, apparently you go without cause. 

OrcLsSj kwe'-kwuMi, bwe^-kwi, ka-gwulbw ; a coarse gratis used for mat-thread, gwos-sob. 

Grateful. See "T*anA» ". 

Orave, place of deposit for the dead, skai-yn. 

Orave, serious, ai-ai-asb, ai-yiyasb (nsed also as a nickname). 

Orease, gravy, swas; tallow, sOkbw-tnd. 

Chreen (pale or ligH), bo-kwats,.a8*kwad-zi]. It is tbe same as yellow. Dark-green, blue, 
or black, bi-tot-sa. 

Grind, to (as in a mill), o-bet-la-lSkw. 

Chroto up, to (as grass), sbi-a^-li. To grow large, klakbw us-tlakbw, lot-lil, ns-tlot-lil. Not 
to grow large, bwelad ns-tlakbw (tbe d probably interposed for eapbony). 

Ouess, to, tla-balts; also to wonder. 

Gun, bnl-to-mals, bwul-ti-maltsb (qu. from bwnltam, a white man) ; a double-barreled 
gun, sa'-le-uks (sa'-le, two) ; a five-shooter pistol, tsit^-latsks ; six-shooter, ye-latsks 
(from taaMats, ^t^e; dzaMa-cbi, six); gunpowder, skweMitsb (Nisk.), kwatl-cbnb 
(Snob.); a bullet, te^-sud (arrow)] «/io/, s'bo-kwalts ; gun-flint, yakh-bwud (arrow- 
head); gun-screw, ba-chil-pe'-gwad (see ^^Tu>ist^); gun-cliarger, also a charge or 
load, klo^-SQt; ramrod, t'bat-se^-nk-nd. Loaaed, ta-du-gwalts, tukb-dug-wusb (from 
o-dug-wns, to put into). Have you loaded? ota-do-|;:walts-cba t ntl-ts-tad bwul-ti- 
ma' litsb (literally, <' Has your gun eaten f " from o-utld, to eat). To shoot with a gun 

or bow, q. v., o-tot-sil. 

H. 
Hail, kl6m-bwe'-la. 

JIair, skad-zo, skadzo. Hair of pubis, skwudde ; beard, kwed. Od-bat'zo-sub, to pluck 
out the hair. Twisted or braided hair, tob-sbidud. See ^^To braid ". Bushy-haired, 
gwisb-e'-las. Red-haired, b*k-kw6t-lutsb (be'-kw6tl-ud). Curly-haired, as-be'-butsb. 
With the hair parted behind, as-kn-cba'-go-pats. With the liair parted before, kok- 
sbi-lns. The hair or fur of an animal, ta'-bid, ta-b6t8 ; furry, hairy, as-ta'-bud. 

Half (in quantity), il-cbukb ; (in length), il-takb. Half asleep, il'-cbakb as-e'-ttit. Half- 
way (on a road), o-dag-wa'-bats. Half full, tat-bluk'-gwus. 

Hammer, sakbwt-s'balt'-ba. To hammer, Ot-s'salt-bo, Ot-sus-snd (from tsns-ted, a nail). 

Hand, the, s'ba'-lat-cbi. This is more properly tbe name for tbe fingers, tbere being no 
special one for tbe wbole band. Cba'-lesb, signifying the lower arm or the lorist, is 
also nsed. Debiyatiyes and compounds : dza-at-cbi, the right hand; ka'-le^cbi, 
tJie left hand; bwut-so'-sat-cbi, sta-kn'-lat-cbi, the palm; slu-klal-tla'-cbi, slUt-lalt'- 
sat-cbi, the thumb; kwebnkb-bwat-cbi, the knuckles; ste-so-balk-sat-cbi, the little 



328 

finger; eiikb-lie'-a-lat-chi, ike fingen collectively; ko-bwa^-cbi, kokwai-chi, k'sdk- 
tal k'^et^-cbi, the nails ; a-cbi, the eleeve of a drees; o-kwi-dat-cbi, to take the hand ; 
kwuMa^'Cbi, the starfish; tsits-latsks, a five-shooter ; ye-latsks, a sixsliooter^ from 
dze-latrclii, six; sbis-cbuk-Bit-cbi, s'kets-k'set-cbi, a finger-ring; 8o-kwat-cbi, a 
bracelet of beads. See also naiuerals and Dumeral adverbs, idze-lat-cbi, six; t'kat- 
cbi, eight; sa-Iat-cbi, twenty (cui-le s'ba'-lat-cbi, ttto hand.*)] and so oo to suni' 
kwatrcbi, a hundred. 

Hand, the game of (|>Iayed witb small wooden disks which are roUed on a mat), la-hid, 
sla-hal. See *' Games ^^ " To bet^. 

Handle ofanyihing, the, kwud-dub-baMob (from o-kwnd'-dad, to fciA:f),kwid do-bai-o-cbed; 
handle of a Jcnife, cbS»ts'-a-bcd ; an axc-handle, skab-ot-Dd-aMi. 

Hang one*s self to, hwe'-a-kwos'-sub. 

Harangue, io^ od>2so'-hwub. 

Hard, strong (fiot brittle), swdg-wil, klak^-ba. 

Hat, eap,8hwais(Nisk.)i8he^-akw(from 8hiik'h,above,Sky.)9 a tromanVAat, ynl-le'-a-kwud. 

Haul, to, o-ta^-hwot; haul (imp.), tokh-hod; haul bach, takh-hdd ta lak^ 

Have, to, like the verb to fre, is wanting* Its place as a possessive verb is supplied bj 
the same adjectives, a-dk and at*suts, words denoting prcBence or existence, or by 
the connection. Have you any salmon t af-ok kwi^ sche-dad-hu' uP dng-we^ f (liter- 
qlly, present salmon tcith yon). I have some, at^-suts. See, I have some {this) bread, 
he-lab, at-snts til sap'-o-lil (sap-o-lil, a borrowed word). In other phrases the words 
seem to be understood. I have a gun, ya'-shed hwnl-ti-ma1sb. 

He, she, absolute, tzil, tzin-il. These are never nsed as nominatives to a verb, and in 
fact seldom in any mode except in the possessive ', as, his horse, gwnl tzil sti-a-ke^ 
yu. For the most part, the verb in the third person, both singular and plural, 
stands alone, and, as elsewhere shown, this person in the present tense is the sim- 
plest form in which it occurs. Sud-dXtl is, however, sometimes employed as a 
nominative; as, he hears, sud-ditl as-kla'-bOt; he sees, sud-ditl o-la'-bit. Del-shid 
represents a person who is absent; e. g., del-shid, delshid s'bnl-shut-sid (he under- 
stands), the pronoun being here duplicated for greater certainty. There seems to 
be no copnlative in the third person, unless it be shi, which occurs in the following 
cases : at the (it) house, ul-sbi a^-lal ; that man tl^ere (he) upsets, o-gw^l-shi al-te, 
le-itl 8t5bsh; I hide it, o-chad-shis chid, where it is interpolated. This, however, 
may be a demonstrative pronoun. Sha, shal appear generally to follow the verb, 
though not as copulatives; e.g., Do you know (him) that man? a-said-hu-chn shal te-ii 
stObsht I know him, a-said'-hnchid sha'. He is here, at-sud-sha^ In the same 
manner, it (q. v.) is expressed by sas and sa-bwas. My husband is good-natured, 
klob-5b-kIob sbul-ta-ded s'chest-bu. Here shul-tadid is compounded of shal, he; 
ta, a particle, signifying that the one spoken of is present, and de'-a-de, just there, 
as across the room. With these last appear to come hal and hal-gwa ; e. g., that 
horse is not bad (a bad one), hal sti-a-ke'-yn hwe' la ps.t'-latl ; she likes you, bd.tl to- 
bet'-sid hal-gwa'. The plurals of hal-gwa' will be found under ** They^, and it may 
be conjectured that the final syllable is an abbreviation of gwM, 7vho. The demon- 
strative pronouns often take the place of the personal, as will be seen under '< This^, 
'^That^. See also «ff» 

Heap, a {of earth), as-pud'. 



329 

Head J ihey B'bai'-^us; a round head (one not fiattCDed artificially), chal'-lmsy a|)ak-liu8; 
round-headed, as-pak-was, as-hn-po'-kwiis; a flattened head, ikli-pe'lns. See ^^Body, 
parts of^\ There are a few instances in which the S^lish word keu, ked, obsolete 
in the Niskwalli, is still retained in composition. These are mostly proper names 
of chiefs or persons of good descent, as Pat'-ke-nam, L&kh^-ke-nam, Hal'-te-a-ke'- 
nam, &c., the meanings of which are lost to the wearers. That of the celebrated 
Yakama chief, Ea-mai-ya'-k6n, signified in the Spokane, a cognate language to the . 
Selish, ^^Head without a akullJ' Other words in the Niskwalli preserving the ter- 
mination are : hn-ko-ked, the crotcn of t)ie head / he'-a-ked, to scratch the Itrad; as-pe- 
a ken, dead at the top; ])erhaps also t'smnl-k6n, f/itf mink. 

Head-band {for carrying loads), st-kwftK-shid, sle-dal'-shid. 

Hear, to, as-kla'-bot(rrom k wiMa^de, ^Aerar), as-lol-chid ^ J /lear, as- kla'-botchid; thou 
liearest, as-kla'-bOt-chn ; he hears, askla-bot, snd-dltV as kW-bOi; tice hear, de-betl 
as-kla^-bot ; ye hear, guMa-po askla'bot ] they hear, as-kla^-bdt ti!&^gwa^ This word 
\ is one of several elsewhere mentioned, in which the verb is conjagated from an ad- 
jective form. 

Heart, the, st'saltch, st'sa^-le (in the sense of tcill, wish, opinion, disposition, &c., the 
heart being the seat of the mind), hntsh : u. d., hntsh-ka^-lus, tlie eye-ball {heart or 
mind of Hie eye) ; shitlhat-chnb, to make up ont^s mind. What do you think f 
what is your wish t as-Led' gwud' kftd^-hntch^t (literally, how^ whc^ your^ heart*). Is 
tluLt your opinion t do you think sot {sd^ yout^ hearfit) as-is^-ta' kfld' hntsh^t My 
opinion is «ifcA (o/* mo^ liearfi <o^), gntP at-sa' hutsh' as-is'-ta^ 

Heat, to, to put stones on the fire to heat for cooking^ tlnl 6ts, stntsnlts. 

Heavy, kh'-db. 

Hide, to, o-chad. I hide it, o chad-shis-chid. Here the prononn shis {it) is interpolated 
between the verb and the oopnlatire. Where shall 1 hide it t alcbfid kuts ohadzil. 
Hide yourself, chad-zil. From ch&, a hole, 9. v. 

HUlj spo^kwab, sma^-del, klnp. 

Hip, they on the hip, hok-k'hap. 

Hired {as a liorse), as-chdlt-hn. 

Hit, to {<u a mark), ototsOd. I hit, o-tot-sod-chid. 

Hither, twul-te' (i. 6 , ^' to this^\ place being understood). 

Hoax, humbug, to, oka'-ka-lad. You are humbugging, oka'-ka-lSts chn. 

Hobble, fetter, to {as a horse), o-ke^nk-ntshid (from o-ke'-akait', tohold^ and dza'-shid /ooO- 

Hog, polo'kuks ; litter of pigs, ko-k5k-shn. (French, cochon.) 

Hole, as'lo'', a hole in the ground^ cha. Debiyatiyes, chft-ad, to dig; o-chad, to hide; 
o-chdb, u*cliab, to dig roots ; as-chats, hidden^ the hidden or menstrual lodge ; chal- 
ko, a well See " Where ". 

Hook, catch on^to {as on a thorn), kle-kwal'-litsh; to hook or fasten {as with hooks and 
eyes), dag*kus'-s6d. 

Hook. See ^^Fish-hook^. Hooks and eyes, klel'-gwidgwul. ^ 

Horizon (literally, the edge), eMahad. 

Horse, sti-ake'yn (from sti-kai^TQf a tcolf); a, mare, tan-il; foal, stit-ke'-yn, kai-ik. 
Debiyatiyes, tik-e-wAb, to ride (from o-hwob, a form of the verb *' to go ^). A 
horseman, tu-ste'-a-kuMagwid {{torn sti-a-ke^-yu, and o-ke'-ln-gwil, q. v., to mount. 
See •< Neigh ^ ^« Hobble ", «' Hold \ 



330 

Tilings pertaining to a horse: saddle, hnt-se^lapid (from si-la'-Io-bid, ike 
shoulder) 'y rape-hridle, kle^-datl-datl (from kle-tid, a rope)'^ stirrup, sakh-sba'-de- 
bad ; whip, q. v., bu-cba'-hwo-pud ; spur, sok-kol-cbid. It is noticeable that in tbe 
languages of several western tribes, among wbich the horse is of recent importa- 
tion, the adopted name is derived from that of toolf or dog. lu the Yakama 
(Sahaptin family), a dog is kusi-ktisi, Utile horse, and it is evident that his name 
was transferred to tbe horse, and that he thus became the diminutive of his former 
self. In the Similkameen, the ShUshwap skakh-ha, a dog, has been changed to 
ka^-ka-wap, and skakh-ha now means luorse, and kni-kfts-ska' hum to gallop. When 
in 1850 the American miners introduced horses upon the Lower Klamath Biver in 
California, where previously they had never been seen, the Alikwas gave them the 
name of wft-gi chisb^-e, or white men^s dogs. General George H. Thomas, United 
States Army, gives as the word for horse in the Yuma language, a-bot ; for dog, 
a-hot-chu-chu ; and for coyote or the little wolf, o-bdt-tol-yn-e'. Tbe idea of domes- 
ticity might naturally suggest the adoption of the name of dog, but that of wolf is 
rather singular. 

Hot, warm {relating to a place), s'kwul, nus-kwnl'lum, 5ts-guMe ; {as to p€rsofis)j see 
^^Warm^. See^^Fire^. 

House, lodge, a'-lal; roof su-gwudst-hu ^ plunks, s'ba^las; beams, as-hu-lat-Iab; door- 
way (the same as road), shug-w'tl ; fire-place, s'ho^-dd-Ie, (from hod,^r6) ; floor, hul- 
lel-do-p^d ; a seat in the lodge, swa-tekhw-t'n ; hed-place, lul-lo-a'-sed ; a menstrual 
lodge, as-cbats (see *'^Hide'^) ; a sweat-house, s'htit-6ts (Nisk.)« wdkh-tud (Snob.)* 

Household-furniture (see ^'Baskets^, ^^Blankets^^ &c.) : — Box, chest, wuk-kub, wuk^k'kub, 
wo-kap. A trunk with brass nails, as-cbitsb-s'do wuk-k'bub. Dittybox, to hold 
trifles, hud-de-gwegsa*le^ Bucket, skod, skwe^-a-kw5d. Bowl, saus, sa^-sus. Bowl 
of horn, spul-kwus. Dish or plate {of stone), luk-wai ; {of wood), lil-kwi. A large 
dish, hekb-pai'-yultsh (hekw, large). A cup, hu-kwe'-a-kod, sukh-ko'-kwa (see ko, 
water). Scoop, tuk-we'-lat. Tin kettle, tin ware, kaukh. Brass kettle, kwads-a-lat- 
hu (ku-la'-hu, bra^s). Cast-iron pot, chet la-holtsh (from chetla, a stone). Stone 
mortar or metate, ke-potl. Spoons, q. v., t$ub-b@d, kleb-bud; {of wood), t'ko-boltsh ; 
{horn), ha-'16khw. Cradle, s'hal-taus, sknk-ke'itl, s'hal-ted-etl. A seat, sukb-a- 
gwud-de. 

How, stab. How do you go f stab ab kats Okh t See '^ What ", a-hed. See under 
" Strike^. 

Howl, to {as a wolf or dog), ka-wob. See " Cry^. 

How many, kwed, kwe-did, kwe'-ditl. How many days ago t {i. e., how many yesterdays t) 
k we-ditl dat t How many days to come t kwet shla^-ho t How nmny dollars t kwed- 
els ! How many men t kwe'-ditl stobsh. See ^^Count^. 

How much, as-hed. How much a yard f as-bed* k wi' dutch-o' stuk- wub* f {how much^ ih^ 
on^ yard^). How much mu^st I pay f as-bed kwad hutch guz-bud-idb'-did. See ^^PayK 
Take as much cu you want (t. e., lu>w much you want), kwud-dud as-he' kwats hatl. 

Hug, to, o-ko'-bud. 

Hunch-back, kau'-its ; hunch-ba^cked, as-kau'-itsb. This word is repeated as an incanta- 
tion if any tale is told by daylight, lest the hearers should become so. 

Hungry, ast-so'-wul, as-a'-wul. 

Hunt, to {animals), klo-hob. A hunter, so-ob-de (apparently from o-hob, to go). 

Hurt or wounded, gwul alt. See ^^Strike^. 



331 

L 

I (personal pronoao, absolute), at-Sft, ut-sa, etsa. V ancP (^/ii^) you*^ al'-sa* ,>ukli' ti 
dug'-we*. (Note. — ^The IndiaD always puts himself first.) My {oP me^) opinion? 
[is] 8o*j gutV at'-sa* hutch' as-is'-ta*. [Are] yov} angry^ mth? me* t o-het-sil* chu-hu 
twuP at-sa* t J' comV [this^] myself \ te' at-sa* op-klo-suW-cbid*. 

(CopulUtive prefix.) — Id the simple form, the above are never used as nomina- 
tives to a verb, but in combiuation with the past or future particles thpy are so 
employed, and are then to be considered copulative prefixes ; e, g.y with the past, 
tets, tet-sa, tits, tuts, stats, stits, sttif, stuts. I came^ tet-sa-hwutl. 1 have often 
gonCj kSd tets-okh ; ka-hat-la-hu tUts o okb. * I came from Port Townsendy tUl ad 
KAf'TLL stits atld. Long ago I came^ es^-tu a'-go stUt klut-chil. I have done eating, 
o-ho'-yo tits utld. With the future particle, tluts, kluts. I shall go to-morrow, da'- 
da-to ki tluts 5kh-ho, or kluts 5kh-ho. 

(Independent nominative.)-^Kets, kits, kuts, kwets. These forms precede 
verbs or words used as such, but never become copulatives. They seem to be 
compounds of the demonstrative pronouns (having the force of the definite article), 
ki and kwi, with at'-sa, ut'sa, or 6t'sa. I canHfind [it], hwe kits aid^-hwu. 1 donH 
know, hwe' kits asaid-hn. Where shall I hide [it] t alchSUl kuts chadzil t I did 
not know I was drunk, hwe a kwots a-sai-alt>hu kets as-hwulku (the pronoun here 
being duplicated). 

(Copulative suffix.) — ^Ghid, chnd, shid, shed, shut. This is by far the most 
common form in which the pronoun is used. I see, sla-la-bit'-shid. 1 work^ o-yai'- 
us-chid. I return, ota'-shit-si chud. Yesterday I came here, to-datl-dot shids 
5t'hlet-chi twul te'. Last night I said, c£c., ash-tu slat-la'-hel-shut ttit-hot-bots-bid. 
It is sometimes duplicated, If I go, ho-la'-chid klo-okh-chid. It may also be used 
accusatively after the imperative. Teach me, o-gwa'-la-chid. In several of the above 
examples it, will be seen that where the verb is preceded by an adverb or other 
part of speech directly relating to it, the pronoun is referred back to the latter. 

Ice, an icicle, skakhw, ska'-ko. See ^^ Water ^. 

Idle, lazy, ununUing, as-che'-litsh, che'-litsh. 

If, bola', a-m6l,ab6l. Jflgo, a-bdl-chid klo-Okh ; ho la'chid klo-dkh. See also ^^Per- 
haps^. 

Ignorant, ast-z&tMab. I do not know Aotr, ast-zatMab-chid. See ^^ Mistake, to^, 5d- 
zSt-lab. 

Imitate, to, ot-du-so-wel. 

In, into, toithin, d6kh w, de'-ukb, as-d3khw, ns-d3khw, as-de'-ukh, usdukhw', hud-de' hn, 

hud-dekhw^ We are within the house, as-dukw^-chil-ki-a'-lal. Come inside, ut-lat li 

hud-dekhw' o-hud-d6khw-chu (imperative adverb). To put into (as water into a 
hasin), o-dug-wus. 

Indeed, very, is-shi-de'. Very long ago, is-shi-de' ha'-go. 

Indians. See ^^ People ". 

Insects'; — beetles, bugs, dbc. (generic), st'klit-lH-aV-knm, slit-lal-kub ; flies, hwai-o, hai- 
o'Jiwa; humble-bee, mau'-kwa-lusb ; yellow ira«p, jsukh'-snd-dub; mosquito, kvriid ^ 
ant, mit-chi-lo'-la ; spider, to-pel (Nisk.), bo'-buh-ta'-kwil (Sky.), its thread, kled-tid 
(see ^^Bope^y, flea, cho'-tnb; grasshopper, ke'-ko-wuts^ lice, b&akh'-chdd; maggot 
of blowfly, shod-za j sUtig of an insect, te'-sid (see "iirrotc"). 



332 

IndtuitriouSf as-baltsh. 

Infant. Bee " f7;*iW^ 

Inlandj the interior^ up a ricer^ kaikbw, skaikh, kekbw, tak, 6t2^k. Tbeso words are 
often used in combination, as mis-kai'-bwn, st&k-ta'-mish| t. e., people that live 
inland. 

In shorcj iotcards the shore {when ou the water), ta-tuk-tus (from t(lk| inland). It is also 
tbe word of command, *' keep in ", '^ make for the sbore ". 

Iron, a Tcnife^ as the iron, snokw ; uo-kw^d, an arrow-head of iron. 

Inland, sti-chi'^ (dim.) sti'-ta-cbi. 

It, sfis, sa-bwas. This at least appears to be tbe meaning of tbe words, c. g., Is there 
anything? {any it), a-o^-kwi sa-bwas. Where is itt al-cbad kwi sflst See also 
under " Re ". 

Interjections. For convenience' sake, tbe order is reversed, as tbey are untranslatable. 
Ad-di-da^l alas! expressive of grief or deprecation. It is tbe wailing cry for tbe 
dead. For an example see under '' Wail ". A-ba ! as in Englisb. An-a^ ! al-a' ! 
denote deprecation, remonstrance against miscbief, &c. Atsbi-daM expressive 
of surprise, astonishment At-cbida^chidu ! the diminutive of tbe last, signifies 
a little surprise, coupled with pleasure or amusement Asasb^-i-ma ! (used only 
by women), denotes vexation, for shame! stop that! A-sasb-e-b'bo-yoM has tbe 
same meaning, but is employed only by men. As-be'-hibe' I as-he'-ba cbu I for shame 
you! used in merriment. £'-si-uk ! just «0y very tre/L Es-si ! be^-si ! expressive of 
satisfaction. £'-si-ab I e^^-slab I from es-si and ai*ab, chibf, a term of flattery used 
by women towards those whom they wish to propitiate, or sometimes in mockery. 
As a verb, it means to flatter or coax. It is a common salutation to a person of 
note on approaching a lodge. E'-ya^ ! an exclamation in play, as wben one pulls 
another's ear. Ha- wo'! a salutation on arrival. Haukbl hurry! hurry up! 
Hi-ye' ! expressive of amusement, derision, or disbelief. Het'-sil ! for shame ! 
uttered with dififerent degrees of earnestness or anger. Ish'-i-ba ! another word 
expressing satisfaction or assent, rer^ well Is-saM i-sakb! impatiently calling 
the attention of one not listening, or enforcing a command ; as, is-sakb ! bo-yukbw I 
stop that ! Stab ! f oAa( / WO'b ! used in reply to is-sa', what do you want t or 
indicates that one does not bear. To tbe same class of words belong <' Crood bye " 
and ^' Tlianks ", q. v. A curious form is tbe converting a noun into an interjection; 
as, stukke'-wi-wu I oh ! heaver^ imploringly. 

J. 

Jcahus, as-butl ; to be jealous, obnMus!i. See " SicU ". 
Joint, hinge, yuk-kod. 

Just now, da'-bu, dakbw. I have just come, da'-hn-cbid o-blut chL Bee da under 
" Presently ". 

K. 

Eamas, a bulb whicb forms a principal article of food {squilla csculenta). This is a •* Jar- 
gon" word derived from tbe To-kwat or Nootka, cbamas, sweet, and is in univer- 
sal use throughout Oregon and Washington Territory. To dig hamas, o-bad-zu^ 
liid ; the kamas stick for digging the root^ kl ka'lid 5 the cross-handle of samcy swkb- 
ba'-kia. 



333 

Kettle {of basket-work)^ sialt; (of tin\ kadkh ; (ofhrass)^ kwads-alat'-ba, see ^^BraM^\ 
(of east iron)y cbSt^-la-holtab^ i. e., stone-hoMket ; the cover ^ ste-kot-sid ; the bale, tsab- 
ata'-de. 

Kickj tOy od-2o'-bod, 5d-zo-bilt. 

Killj hurt J woundj strike^ g^wulalt ; killed^ k wo-ot-did. How many men were killed f kwe'- 
ditl kwo-5t-did sto-o'-b'sb t Tbe mode of killing is generally specified. Bee To 
shooty atdb^ strikej &c. 

KisSy tOj twul-kdt-sids, k5ts-a-dits. 

Knee-pan^ hwai-jn, la-ka'-ldt-sid. 

Kneely tOj bil-Hl-bab, bil-a'la-hab. 

Knife^ snokw (»• e., iron) ; a two-edged knife^ hnt-tot-t&p' ; foint of knife^ se'4aks (and); 
edge^ seMa-buds; handle^ kwud-dub-ba'-lnb (from kwnd'-dad, to take), cbats-a-bed ; 
joint or hinge^ yakkod ; sheath, sno-do-kwal'li ; notched, nicked, as-tatl-kwa'-bad. 

Knock, to, s'bu-tet-sut-sid ; to knock on the head, cha'-wa-tnb ; to kill by knocking on the 
head, cbikb-kekb'-tab. 

Knot, tangle, Ot-tldts; to knot, to net, ot-tlotAoti o-t\6t^Vh6b, to catch sea fowl inneis; 
klots-a'-l^kw', to tie. 

Know, know how, understand, g. v., o-a-said'-bu. P knou^ [td^] you^, a-said-but'-sbid* 
twuP dug-we^ I have knoum^ you* [always^] a long time*, skoa^ tus-a-said'-tu^ esh-o 
a^-gwo* dng-we^ Do you know that man f a-said-bu-cbu shal te-il stobs'b t I know 
him, a-said'-bn-chid sba^ I donH know, bwe' kits a-said^-bn. Do you understand t 
a-said^-tu-cbu^t See ^^Understand^. It also means to 60 op^, erper^ at, &c. Truly ^ 
he is a great eater j tutP a-said-bu' kwi' satld^ (indeed^, he know^ hi^food*) 

Knuckles^ bwe'-kwi-bakb-hw^^-cbi. 



Lake, tsa'-lal, tsa'-lQtl (Nisk.jy ba'cbo (Snob.). 

Lame, as-bwat-lap, {. e., broken (from o-bwutl, to break), kluk-sbit. See ^^Foot^» 

Land, to (to come to land), kla'-lel. See ^' Shore^. 

Language. See " To speak^. 

Lap, the, o-liK 

Lap, to (aeadog does water), U'-kaukh, f.om kla'-lap, the tongue, ko, water. 

Large, bdkw, as-kl&kbw ; large round, mukkw&tbn. 

Lash or lace, to (as a child in the cradle or the thwarts i>'» a canoe), to tie, bukb-bud. I 

lash, buk-bM-sbid. I have tied up the cat, kwad bakb-sbid ta pisbpisb. See '^ Tie '', 
Late, tardy, to be, o-sbOb ; you are late, plur., o-8b5b-cbiMnp; very late at night, ba-gwo 

tut-la'-bel, «. e., long ago night. 
Lately. See " Just now ". 
Laugh, smile, o-bai^-ab. 

Lazy, as-cbe'-litsb. See " Idle ", " Unwilling ". 
Lean (not fat), as-klo'-il, klo'-wil. See " Cold ^. 
Leaning, dza'-ka-gwil, ftom Odzdkbw^ to blow down. 
Leave, to, a person or thing intenthnally, ot-blng-watl, o-klagwatl ; to leave an^hing by 

mistake, xiM)e-yukb. 
Leaves of trees {narrow or acicular)^ sb'kal-obi-cbit; (broad), chob-o^ba; leaves of the 

maple-tree, s'cbOt-la. 



334 

Left^ to tkCj kal4a-Ii'gwat; the left handj ka'-let>cbi ; lefl/oot^ kal-shid. 

LeckeroHSy as-i-la-kwut Bee ^^ To eopulate ". 

Leg. There i8 no name for the whole limb. See ^^JBoiy". 

Leggings (o/skin)^ hats'-a-be-ddk' ; a pair of legfingn^ yal-sbid; an odd legging^ klakshid. 

8ee"JFoo<». 
Lendj to. Bee " Borrow ^. 
Levels snk'hw; level country^ snk'hw-dOp. 
LkJc^ tOy kla^'kwal-lekwy from klal-lap, the tongue. 
Liej tOj o-bad-chub ; a liar^ tas-badsh ; one who teUsfibs or little liesj tos-be-badsh ; iVs a 

lie, budsh. It means also a hoax; ^^/udge.^^ 
Lie iown^ to^ o-tnd-zel; lie dwcn (imp.), tadze-lakbw'; lying on the heUg (used of people 

only), as-takh'-ha-gwil ; lying on the baeky as-knkh (applicable also to things, in the 

sense of " right side np "). 
Lift up, shnk-nd (shuk'h, «p, above). 

Light (not dark), as-lftkh^ ; the lights lakh (see *<Day "); to light {as a candle), ho*dak-shid. 
Lightning, wok'-snm. 
Like, 80, as. Bee " So ^ *' Thus ". 
Like, to. See ^'Love^, " Oood \ 
Limber, ch&p. 
Lisping, askle'-da-16khw^ 
LiUle. See ^' Small ". 

Lizardy sheVshela-wftp ; salamander, pipk&t-ziltl. 
Load, to. Bee *^ Oun ". 
Lodge. Bee ^^House^. 
Long [in dimension), hats. 
Long ago. See ^^Formerly^. 
Look for, seek, gwnt-chid, o-dz@lhtlt Look^ and presentli^ yo^ will find^, gwot'-chid^ 

dai*chu^ klo-6d'-hwu*. 
Look out ! take care I klob kat-si labt {good you see), from o-h\^bit, to see. 
Looking-glass, s'hn-lal-bus, from o>la'-bit, to see* 
Loose {as a dress), hwat-hwnib' (from o-hwntl, to break, q. v.). To loosen, untie, unfasten, 

gnkh'hed^, from o-gak', to open. 
Lose, to {at play), o-she'-gwitab, 5t-sal-tnb. I lose, Ot-sal-chid. Bee ^^Bet, to "• To lose 

or drop anything, o-ho'-bnt-stlt. Bee ^^Drop "• I have lost [something], o-hwlMalt- 

shid. 
Loud, a-kek'w; to talk aloud, o-bot-hot a-kek'w. 
Love, like, to, o-hatl. I love my husband, t'^-hatl te-itl s'chest-hn. I love my wife, hall- 

tn-chid tsi-itl chng-wnsh. Do you like met hatl-to'bsh-chn-hn t Bee also ^' Wish^\ 
Lover {of either sex), skads. 
Low {not hud), takh-hals. Speak low, takh-hals kats hot-hOt. 

M. 

Maize, Indian com, stul-els. The word has some association with beads. 

Mammals. Bee ^^Horse ", ^^Mule ". There is no general name for quadrupeds. Buffalo^ 
also cattle, kwist; calf, so'-lus; elk {eervus canadensis), tsuk'-w'sh; the buck, mai'- 
ets, kwS>g'-witsh; doe, ch'it-se^; calf, soMUs; deer, ske'-gwuts; buck, as-gwa'-dukw 



335 

{horfied) ; dtoe, taull'-si ; fawny tal-la', kal^ik j " bigJiorn^ {oris montana)^ ba-le^-wiUs 
(Skagit); mountaingoat (aploceras a»i.), swet'-le; iMg^ po-lo'-kuks; grizzly hear 
8tab-tab1, schat-klnb; hUick bear^ 8'ch^t-wut; raccoon, bldps; dog^ q, v., ko'-bai 
skcy-bai, ske'-ba; Mtchy to'-witl; large wolfj sti-kai'-yu; prairie-wolf qt coyote, ska' 
urn ; heaver, stikakbw, sti ka'-bo (Nisk.), stnkb-hwa (Skagit), skan-nitcb (Snob.) 
muskrat, skad-dikbw, skuddel (it is the heaver's younger hrother)\ sea-otter, ua 
batl; land-otter^ skatl (Nisk.), skalkatl (Skagit); mink, tB'mQl-ken (Nisk.)} bes 
cbab (Skagit); weasel, kWch^ai (Nisk.), scba^cbuin (Skagit); skunk, skub-bi-yu 
cougar, swau'-wa; wild cat, pe-chab; domestic cat, pisb-pish (Englisb) ; aplodontiOi 
sbo'-w'tl (it 18 the oldest of all animals) ; marmot (arctomys flaviventris), swe'-a 
kwuD ; kamasrat {geomys), akad'b {thief) ; Mirytailed rat {neotoma), ko-dai'ya ; pine 
squirrel {sdurus), skad-zu ; ground-squirrel .{tamias), skw&tzl ; shrew-mole (scalops) 
pel-kutcbi; fitotc^e, kwa'-tuD, skwa^-tad; hat, pep'-acbi; «ea2, as'bu (NiBk.)* sopks 
(Sky.) ; porpoise, k's-si'-o, 

Tbe female of any animal, 8kla'-de, tau'-itl. 

Parts of animals: — Horns, gwa'-dukw; hoofs, s'k-kdF-sbid ; claws, kwftkh- 
sbud {toe-nails) ; hair or fur, ta'-bid, ta'-b6ts; mane, kwas-sdtld; skin {with the hair 
on), skwa^-sub {dressed), wo-ai-ib (i. e,, worked) ; tail, Riunt'-tisiip; tail of heaver or 
muskrat, stnl-a-bSd' ; bladder, sus-bwad, spa-saltcb, s'bu'-pn; paunch, kwas-ol-sb'd ; 
liver, s'cba'-lob ; hone, s'blan'-ya ; ribs, luk'b ; sinews, tidsb, tetsb ; flesh {of animals 
and birds), be'-yets; fat, B5b\v'-tud; entrails, kad•zakb^ 

Make, to, oyai'-us. See ^^Do^, " TTorA;". 

Man {vir), stobsb, sto^-bQsb, (plnr.) sto o'-b'sb, stobo'-b'sb, (dim.) sto'to-misb ; a youth, 
grown up, lug-wab, wuMot-Hl. Bee ^^ Mankind^. 

Mankind, a man, {q. v., vir), stobsb, sto'-busb ; woman, q, v., skla-ne, sla^-de; people, q, v., 
persons, Indians {homines), ats-il-tel^-ma ; chief, siab; people of the better class, 
ska'-ka-gwutl ; common people, siMa-bad ; slave, sto'dak ; strangers {of other 
tribes), la-Ie'-ats-il-tel'-mu ; white men, bwul-tam ; aged persons of either sex, gkle'- 
bOt, 8kaMe'-b5t; man or woman, loMtltl slobsb or skl'a'ne; middle aged woman, 
old maid, kluMub skla'-de; father, dec, see ^^Relationships ^; lover of either sex, 
skads; strumpet, tus-kad-dnb; bastard, de'-bal-skad-dub ; hermaphrodite, kled- 
o-6b; a posthumous child, butMagwnl-le'gwaddab; young man grown up, lag- 
\^ub; (o^, cba'cbas, cba^'Cbesb ; girl, cba'cbas sla^-ne, si-cba'cbas (see ^^OirP); 
infant, de-bad-da (see ^^Child^)\ children, wc'-as-so; first-born child, s'cbul'b; 
fool, sbwuMak; hunchbaxik^ kaa'-itsb; thief, ska'-da, tus-ka'-da, skai-ki-kai; liar, 
tUs-bndab ; yirt man, mnkbw; friend, a'-sbid, asbad; ^^medidne-man^, conjurer, 
sbo-dab', sbo-nftm' ; carpenter, o-pai-nk ; hunter, sOb-de. See under ^^People^, ^^Flace^ 
^^Relationships ". 

Many, much, ka, kad, kat. Many persons, k&t ats-iltel'-ma ; many things, k6t es-t6b'. 
You talk much, kit t'ad-sa b5t-b5t. Not many, bwe-Ia-ka' ; not very many, bwe'-la- 
ka'-ka; many times, often, ka-bat'-la-bn ; seldom, bwela-kad (atMa-ba being under- 
stood). Ka is also used as tbe plural prefix ; as, ka-Bla'-de, women. 

Tbe letter k appears to be tbe ultimate radical, not only of tbis, but of otber 
words signifying quantity, abundance, and tbeir derivatives, as, for instance, uk, 
some, and its modifications ; also of tbe word ek-ke or ik-ki, denoting o/ccretion^ 
used principally in joining two numerals ; as, pa'duts ikki dut-cbo, ten plus one, or 



33G 

efeven, &c.; but fiometimes also to reinforoe ka; as, o-ho^-ya-chid ek-kekaVl^o 

many things. I am farther disposed to think that ko, irater, with all itM derivatives, 

takes its origia in the same fundamental idea. 
Marrffj take a toife^ tOj n'sla'-l^kw (sla'-ue, woman\ dbs chag-wush. I wish to marryy 

ikhrche-gwa^-sab-chid (fVom chog-wush, a wife). To take the tpifif of a deceased 

brother J ba-lot-sid-dab (sma'-lot-sid, brother^s widow). 
Marshy swampj s'ehe'-a-kwil; marshy^ miry^ asgoMa'-tad. 
Mask (used at danoes, &c.), stet-kwa^-mQs. 
Mast. See^^Canoe^. 
Mat (of flat rushes) J kOt; {of round rushes)^ skwe'-gwot. The under mat of a bed^ bW- 

gwid (from sla-gwats, the inner bark of the thuja) ; other bark matSj ch't-lak', es^cbai' ; 

mat-needUj k]&k\9'-tid'y seraper for smoothing mats^hnA'dB/'lvL-eid (Nisk.), h'da'-de-set 

(Sn5h.). 

Meaty flesh {of animals and birds) j be^-yets; {of flsh)^ t&lts. 

Measure. See *• Count ". 

Medicine {in the sense of physic), 8tQ^jitikh^ A doeiory stul-jitikh ha-l^kw-chid (from 
hut-la' lekwy to sucky to raise a blister by huction)y one of their nsaal curative pro- 
cesses. See ^^Medicinal plants ". 

Melty to {as snow)y Ot^zakhw^ dznkh-hir&lts' ; to become soft {as grease)y o-bSt'-lil, 
meltedy as-met'-Iin, as-bet'-lil. 

MenstruatCj to {for the first time)y o-bais-ho-bil, as-bais'-hub ; ImenstruaiCy as-bfitl, kwo- 
chid, o-batl-kwo-chid ; {subsequently)y as-mal-ko. It would seem that the former word 
applies to a condition which has terminated ; as, ka'-bai is a girl who has fiot reocft^d 
herperiody and ho'-bil signifies cessation; the menstrual lodge, as-chats {hidden). 

Merryy sat-se-kub (also used as a nickname). In Skywhamish, as-ha-sai-kub, the tail 
of an animaly expresses the same idea as in Ehiglish waggish. 

Messagcy kwftd'h ; to send with a messagCy o-kwat-sid-chad. 

Metals: — iron, snokw; brasSy ku-laMat-hn; tin, kaakh; gddy he'-kwitl {red); HlveTy 
hdk-5k dollar {white dollar). 

Middle {of length)y it-lng-wots, dk-se'gwns, o»dugwa'-bats ; {of width)y o-da-gwitsh, 
o-dug-witsh 'y around themiddlcy litl-o dug-witsh ; the middle section of a fl^hy so-di- 
gwa'-bats. 

Milk {same as breast)y skub-o^ 

Mind. See '^ Hearts. 

MinCy gutl at'-sa {of or belonging to me). 

MisSy to {a mar1c)y o-kwutl ; ImisSy gwntlshid (equivalent to ^^ throw away^y q. v.) 

MistakCy blunder in speechy lose the way, to, Od-zat'-lab ] I am mistakeny od-zat'-lab-chid. 
See ^^ Ignorant^. 

MiXy to ; also to mistake one for another y o-bal-bal ; mixedy asbal^ 

MoccasifUy yal'-shid. 

Money. The currency of the North Pacific consisted of a species of ^^ wampum ", known 
in the T'sinuk Jargon as hai'-kwa, made of strings of dentalinm-shells a fathom 
in length, or as much as would reach from tip of the fingers of one hand to those 
of the other. Shells {of all sizes)y net'-chu ; of standard sizCy or less tkan forty to the 
fathoMy hotl ; smaller sizesy so-lakh, so4nkh ; coined moneyy da'-la (Bng.). 



257 



VOCABULARIES. 

Family. 



5. WaV-ky-na- 
kaino. 

Dr. Wm. F. Tolmie. 



sqnil-i-qualt 



shoo-GOOsin 
sbeitikat .. 



sheitisht 



Bh-klux-tam 
tthoo-ooght . 



tee-ewk 

sbaanl-qaa .. 



kloo-kuUoogh . 



6. Shwoyelpi. 
George Gibbe, 



Bhit-ta-ta-qaa, 



bai-atl'-DO 



• • • • • » 



skn-ka-sint 
ba'-pe-na 

tcbeii'-kn-kn-&tob' . 
t'bal; B'bnl-'bftl 

a'bal. 

a-kim' 

tcbil -ka-kw&Bt 

(day-break), 
kok'-sns; kela-kbw 

(snQBet). 
fikdptcb 



Bta-ma'-ln ;(micl8am- 

mer) tcha-&kb'. 
ska-ai' 

so* IBX *1K • ••.. «■■•.• 



ene'-iit 



tBukts-kem' , 

Bbo-wik'-iB-tum ., 



Bket 

Bine'-kwut 

Btit-shi-lo'-Bbent ... 

Bbo-T«6^1p 

si-ul-ka 

B'buMnt 

tem-i-boMekb w 

Bbe-li-bwa; Bi-Qltk; 
Bkl-pit-li-mit-kwa. 

n'tn-et'-kwu (tbe 
main river of a 
volley). 



7. Skoyelpi. 
Btv, G, Mengarini. 



kbe-ye'bl'-DO 

skn-ka'-BeDt . 
Bkbal-kbalt.. 



Ben-ka-kwe-ets'-ttt 
khal 



kizn 

taen-a-iB' 



ke-lekh' . 

Bkep'-tstt 

Btsa-a'-l'o 



Bke-ai — 
si-iB-tti-ktt 



sne'-tlt 



tsak-tB-kem... 
Bo'*wi-ki8*tain 



BkeMt 

Bme^kot 

Btstt-tBtt-loe'-Beot 

BO-riB-Belp 

Be'-al-ko , 

skbiiMnt 

tn-mi-kbo lekb ., 



Bku-pn-hlit-mit-ka . 



n'tokb-kbwait'-ku . 



B. Spokau'. 
George Gibhe. 



Dis-ka'-ka-ets Bpe- 
kan-e' (nigbt bud). 

kn-kn'-Bum 

Bul-la-balt' 



Bka'-ka-etB' 
e-balt 



i-cbip'..... 
kwe-kw'Bt 



kil-bQ-me-miDy wi'- 

nBt. 
BkeptB; ke-pep-tBi'- 

llB. 

Ba-anlV; an-enl- 

kbe'-liB. 
8cbc'-e; cbo'-i-lis.. 
si-iBtk ; eB-ea-t'ki'- 

llB. 



Bne-Qt 



•tur'-e-tur-em' 
8a>a-e'-kinit .. 



Bte-pe'-iB . 
Bim-e'-kut 



BO-ri-shitBt 

se-wbil-k'w 

B'bQ-yint 

sto - likbw ; b t o 
likbw-malt. 



n'-tu-et'-k w u ( main ): 
n'Bbi-et'-kwa ( a 
brancb). 



9. PiBkwanBor 
Winatshn. 

George Gibb9. 



Bwo-kam'. 

puk-ptck-a-yaa'-tit. 
nak-Bkat-batl, B'bwr- 

l«p. 
Bt-Bo'-we. 



e-ka-kwfiBt'. 

baV-lotl. 

kep. 

lo-p6-lo. 

Bmokb-bo. 
Bbe-iBt^-kwiini (''cold 
now"); shmn'-kwui 

(r. BDOW). 

sbap; Btlttkb-pnl'- 

kwii. 
Btvp'-iini. 
scbi'-at-kwp' (firo). 

Bta'-o. 

Bmo'-bo, 6nia-kw«t. 

cboB-e-lo'-Ba. 

8*cbi-at'-kw*p. 

Bbau-id-kw. 

Bbwo'-in-t'k. 

em-maV-mut. 

Bol-cba-Bbau'-ilkw. 



en-ti-at'-kwu (main 
river). 



17 



258 



COMPARATIVE 

SelUh 



Lamguaok, 
Authority, 



Lake . . 
Valley 



Hil],moantain... 



Island 



Stone 
Salt.. 
Iron . 
Trco . 



Wood 
Leaf . 



Bark . 
Grass. 



Pine. 



Fleshy meat. 
Dog 



Onffalo 



Bear (black)... 



Wolf (gray) 



1. Sbihwapmiikb. 
George Gibh$. 



pa-sir-kwa 
si-kaa'-Ht.. 



ts'kom 



tsbOn-kum. 



sban'b 



swo-lu'-la-lmn 
tcbi-wap 



st'k-at sbo'-snn 
stli-a' 



pel-Ian' 
skle-a' . . 



sa-at'-kwulp ; (tir) 
skalp. 



so-wan'-bus 

skakb'-ba; (borse) 
kl-sas, ska'-ba. 



stnm-malt 



k'n-ka-ka-mim'; 
(grizzly) skum-bis'. 



mal' - nm - skli -a' 



( prairie wolf ) 
suOkb-bokh-bo- 
Inkb. 



2. Sbooswaap. 



Dr, Wm. F. TolnUe. 



hugh-tloot. 



s'bugh-tzei 



skeiltik .... 
kakoo-appa 



sknmakeist 



3. NikateuMkb. 



Gtarge Gibbs, 



pa-Bul'-kn 



spai'-yum 



b'yan'b 



ni-baa-e'-kan 



4. Okiujlken. 



George Gibba, 



te-kwvt ; (dim.) te'- 

tu-kwut. 
k'b W-si-&s (prairie) 

yani-kwo'-fit; (snow- 
peak) skal-kwalt. 



k'shon^-kw 



kekht... 
klat'-lntti 
sba-lis... 



tsme'-map; su'-i-pum 
sbe-ttk^-kani 



pai-yan' .... 
sbe-ttk'-kam 



pa-bai'-yuk (fir) 



sbmSts 
ska'-ha 



kwdisp 



spats; sbvkh-sbdkb 
(grizzly). 



ska-wtim 



b»kb-kl5t' 

tsurr-ttt 

wul-Io-ltm' , 

yat-so-bip';. (forest) 

yas-tsil-sal. 

k'slip'-bu I 

kwelt' - sin (acica- | 

lar ) ; pats • k'l 

(broad). 

ke-lil'-bu 

steV (coarse); tak'- 
w'lt(bunob-graBs). 
sa - at' - kw'lp (P. 
ponderoaa). 



sle-ttk'b ... 
ka-ka-wap' 



stum-alt , 



skum-mo-bist'; ke- 
lau'-na (grizzly). 

n'tset'-sin ; sin-ke- 
lip (prairie wolf). 



259 



VOCABULARIES. 

Family, 



5. Wtt-ky-na- 
kuine. 

Dr, Wm. F. Tolmie. 



6. Shwoyelpi. 
George Gihbs, 



Bh-hanDDgh, 



sh-hnghtzai . 



tzee 

sh-kagha 



sh-koollays 



te'-kut 



tsen • lo - au - turn ; 
(pnirie) sti-e'. 

tchem-m&kw; skill- 
k w a 1 1 (steep 
moQDtaiDs); ki- 
w a - sban - k a n 
(snow-peaks). 

tchek • sbon'- k » m 
( large ); k's h o'- 
shnn-kwKD (small ) 

shut-lot 

tsar-rt 

Q-lo'-lini ........... 

tchi-ip'; (forest) ki- 
shoMMkbw. 

se-lep 

p6tch-k1;(offir)ikh- 
he'-ka-ma. 

ke'-lil'-hn 

stii' 



sbat-kwilp (P. 
pfmdaroaa) ; picb- 
kelp (fir). 

sle'-uk'b 

ke-ko-wap; kus- 

sbin; (horse) sin- 

tsll-sa-Bka'-ba. 
stcbut-lem (bull); 

stimalt (cow). 
B^cttm-mo-bist; sma- 

'he-ken (grizzly). 

u-tcbe'-cbin; sin-ka- 
lip (prairie). 



7. Skoyelpi. 
Stv, G. ^engorini, 

te'-kbot 

tsen-o-^tnm 

tsum-miUko (bill) ; 
tsm&-ko (mount- 
ain); ktt-wes-sben- 
ken (snow-peak). 

o'-ksun-kn 

sbi-tlot 

tsart 

u-lu'-llm 

tsi-ip' 

SM-lep 

pets'-ktt-le 

ke'-lilkb 

sti-i' 

sa-at'-kelp 

sle'-ko 

kuks-kbin ; ke-wep' 



stsa'-blem (bull) ; 

ste'-ma (oow). 
skem-bit; sma- 
khe-ken (grizzly). 



nt-se'-taen 



8. Spokan'. 
George Gibbe, 

kU-kal-eb' 

Bche-hn'-la-lu 

ets-muk-A-mok 

et6-k'su*nMk 

she'-n'sb 

ito-o'*ra 

o-lo'-lim 

es-tsil-tsil 

lu-kwe 

pits-kil 

cbil-le'-lUkbw 

su-pu-lukb w 

cb-kalp(fir) 

skelt'k 

ba'-k'l-sbin 

st-ma'-bw 

n'kla-m'kie; sim- 
be'-cbin (grizzly). 

n'si-cbin.. 



9. Piskwans or 
Winataba. 

George Gibbe. 



tH^kwttt. 

bus-tum-tUnt (prai- 
rie). 

bai - aut ; b a t s - 
m«kw; t'k6ma 
(snow- peak). 



k'shilnkw. 



hut-lot^ 
tsarrt. 

wul-wul-lim'. 
at-spa-tl. 

se-lap'. 

ka-ma'-ma (ocicii- 
lar); chits- ttk'- 
kul (bn>ml do.). 

paMan. 

ste'-ya. 

nuk - sa' - Ink ( P. 
ponderoea). 

te'-la-wbiin'-tttin. 
be-bttt1-chin ; batl- 
chin (horse). 

kwaisp. 

meg-batl ; stam-ta'- 
nil (grizzly). 

n'tel-la'-na; smi'- 
yau (coyot«). 



260 



COMPARATIVE 

SelinJi 



Lakguagb, 
autuority, 



Deer 



Elk 



Beaver 



Tortoiso . 

Fly 

Moeqiiito 
Snake... 



Bird 



EgK 

Feathers 
Wings .. 



Duck 



Pigeon 
Fish .. 



Salmon 



Sturgeon ... 

Name 

Affection ... 

White 

Black 

Red 

Blue (light) 



1. Shihwaprnvkh. 
George Gibh$, 



tsikh 



Yellow 

Green (light) 



ten-ne'-ya; (caribon) 
sU-hwai-ya-bao. 

skul-Ia'w 



pel-kwilks 

kwak'-sta 

kw»n-ne-mHktl' ... 
tsel-le-hwau-w'Jsk ; 
ts^tlkb. 



spe-koh' 



o-o-sa' 

spomt , 

sko-wagh'-han 



sast-Ie-hum 



hots-h'-tsum 



2. Sbooswaap. 



Dr. Wm, F. Tolmie, 



skallaoo. 



skukkaka 



eeu-see-oolk 



ka-ka-so' 



ho'-tlh 
skwtfst 



pe'-ttk 

kwai-kwai-et', 

tse'-wkw 

t'kwalt 



kwalt 

skwul-hit-sa 



3. Xikateronkh. 



George Gibbe. 



kloMa. 



t'hats' 



4. OkiniikeQ. 



George Gibhs, 



stol-tea 



pa'-pa-lats 



sno'-ya 



ma>za 

ko'-kwos-ke 
tsots^it'-aa . 



ho-k'h. 



peewk 
qnai .. 
qneel.. 



SH>'-sba ... 
klam'-men 
hakh'-pest. 



ko-za'-kan (mallard) 



tsum'-mak 

ts'wautl (trout) , 



sto'-nilk 



ai-ra-stkw' 

kaMa-lnks 

se-laks 

sko'-ba-hwe'-hi-hi ; 

(rattlesnake) 

hakhV-Io. 
sknk-a'-ka ('Hrco 

birds "). 

a-o'-sas 

spom-t'sh 

stuk-pSsb'-nisb; skr 

wakh'-han-nish. 



sliwas 



bo'-tttl. 
skw^t 



st-pek 

tup-tiipt 

che'-ttkw 

s'tkwuz-kwult 



st-kwtil-lait' 



in-se'-uFkw 



tsum-tosh 
o'-ment... 



pe'-itk 

kwai 

kwil; te-kwii' 

kwai - te'-a - k w a i 

(pale); kwai(dark). 

te-kwur-re' 

kwai - te'-a -kwai 

(palo);kwai(dark). 



261 



VOCABULARIES. 

Famiiy, 






5. WiVky-uii- 
kuino. 

Dr. Wm, F. Tolmie, 



bkullaoo. 



8h-peeo 



Bkul-lal-tun 



il-ti-pewk 

ti-quey-o-qoey... 
ti-ki-cheowk 



C. Shwoyelpi. 
Oforge Gibbs, 



kl a-cb i'- D tt m ; eni- 
kfdt-sa (doo). 

pa'-pa hitst ; (doe) 
SDi-kuIt-sa; (cari- 
bou) stel-tBo. 

Btu'-uikh 



ar-m-sliikw, 
o-ba'-hw ... 



8t--!ake»' 

sbwoi-opA; Crattle- 

Bnake) kakb-ba- 

o'-lo. 
tukbt-ta 



ft-os-se 

8tu-ka-pib'-!eu . ... 



shist-li-bum ; bat- 
bwat (mallard). 

bo'-Uiim-bo'-tsMin . . 

kekb - wbu 1-1 fikb 
(ainall li(}b,HUck- 
crs). 

n*flbi-ul-tkwu; n*ti'- 
tikb (Biiriug sal- 
mon). 

tsem-tusb 

sbkwiht 



pi'-ukh 

kwai 

kwil 

Bk'pa'-pak»t 



kn-re' 

kl-kwenM'w 



7. Skoyclpi. 
Hev, G, Mengaritti, 



stle'-zi-uum.. 



pa-i>a'-la-t8en 



Bto-Disb 



ar-si-kii .. 
a-ba'-u .. 
Btt-Iaks . . 
kii-bwep' 



tukbt 



aOB -81 

sta-ka-pis'-teu 
sko-wa'-kben . 



BiB-bli-kom 



kbo-fBum-kboMBnm 
ke'-kbu-lisb 



n'tUtikb' 



Uem-tus' 

skwist 

u'kbwar'-pi-lis 

pik , 

kwaM 

kwil 

kwe'-i 



ku-ro' 
kwiu. 



ti. Spokau'. 
George Gibbs. 



ch(>u-likbw(wbite- 
tailed); sklo'-Iicbw 
(bbick tailud). 

Buo'-kl-tsa; Btfil-tsi 
(caribou). 

skul-Io'-u; ilt-kn 
(ott^jr). 



sbo-yfipB; ba-u-lo'- 
bu (rattlesnake). 

wbi-wbe-yutl 



9. Piskwaus or 
Winatsba. 

Gvorgc Gibba. 



Bklatcb-i^-iiim, stol'- 
tsa. 

te-bat'-za. 



sk'la'-o. 

al'-a-sbik. 
skuk-a'-ka. 

6CbUb'-SU-]l(k8. 

sko'-uuk (rattlc 
Boake). 



n-u'-sa ..... 






spurn 

scbo-a'-ban 

sest-la .... 



bttts-but-sen. .. 
sis-se'-ul-kwisb 



sim-k'litcV 



cbim-e-tu8. 
SKwest .... 



> m m « • • ' 



e-pik' 

yfik-kwai' . 

o-kwil 

ye a-kwai'. 

yik-kwwr-i' 
yt(k-k\viu' . 



a-o'-sba. 
spu'-kut. 
stuk-pa-sin (quills). 

s'bat-bat. 

Rput'-la. 



en-te'-lo-ttkh. 



kwal-e'-kun. 
Bkwnn-cbot^ 

pai'-t(k. 
kwai. 
kwil. 
t^kwai. 

kwir-ai'-«k. 
kwir-ai^-ttk. 



262 



Language, 



Authority, 



Great . 
Small . 
Strong 
Old ... 



YoUDg .... 

Good...... 

Bad....... 

Handsome 

Ugly 

Alive 



Dead.. 
Cold . 
Warm 



Thou 

Ho 

We 

Ye 

They.. 

This 

That 

All , 

Many, mach 

Who 

Near 



To-day.... 
Yesterday . 
To-morrow 

Yes 

No 

One 

Two 

Three 

Fonr 

Five 

Six 



COMPARATIVE 

Scliah 



1. Shiwapmitkh. 
George Crihba. 



hai-yom' .. 
kwai-e'-sa . 

y&-y&t 

ke-yai'-akh 



»kwi-nia'-milt 

la 

kest 

le-hos' 

kes-soa' 

slos 



kwut-sak' 
ts'alkh ... 
bA-sms'.... 



ye-etk' 



ho-h wai-etk 

hwo-etk' 

SQ-wat-te 

tas-a-ko-ldt ; (far) 
ke-kau. 

pe-e'-li-slt'-ktft 

n'pis-salt' 

p'ch-he-aat 

ma'-a 

ta'-a 

ne-ko' 

se-eoMa 

ket-hlos' 

rods 

tse-likst 

tuk'-ha-mukst 



2. Shooswaap. 



Dr. Wm. F, Tolnw, 



seiloowha 



tzalt 



nncha.... 
nnnowi .. 
chineelch . 



nax , 

isseil 

katleis 

moas.. ... 
cheilizt . . . 
takumkist 



3. Nikatemukh. 



George Gibha. 



httz-zom' 

ka-me'-ma 

hiiz-zot 

ktttl-me'-no-we ... 



che'-che 

ya. 

kest.... 



zok 

tselh-tsen . 
tscl-lo'h .... 
n'-ch&Q-wa 

ha-we' 

tchin-etl' .. 
ne-me'-mitl 
pi-apst 



tohe'-a 

tttk-kum 

hwet 

shwat 

ke'-kat; (far; ke-kan 



scM-kttt 

pe-haut 

ets-kap-pos . . 

a 

ta-ta 

pai'-ya 

shai'-ya 

kat-las 

mos 

ch3kst 

klak-um-ttkst 



4. Okinukvu. 



George Gibba. 



silM-hwa 

ka-kwai-o'-ma . . . 

kttts-kwatst 

ke'-u-Ukh (aged) 



sh^te (new).. 

hast 

ktis-to-el'-ha. 
swe-nOmt'... 
kast 



tlal; le-o-mist^ 

kin-ket' 

kin-ks-kwalt 

in-cha' 

o-no-wekh' 

ya-hfis' 

ma-nam']-tut 

ma-nem-i-hlttmp . .. 

chin-kos-tlikh 

i-kla'-tSs; kul-la' .. 

i-kla'-hes 

yai'-ya 

hwi-it' 

sn-sa-it' 

ke-kaV; (far) le-kot 



a-pe-na' 

pi-silt' 

ha-lap' 

ki-wa 

lot 

naks 

es-sU' 

ka-tlis' 

mos 

cheMikst — 
ta-hiim-Mkst'. 



263 



VOCABULARIES. 
Family. 



5. WiVky-uft- 
kaine. 

Dr. Wm. f. Tolmie, 



hy-oom 
skee-ai 



nDcbo-cbowa 

UDDawi . 

nDQawiisb. .. 



• • • • • • I 



nnk-oapsh . 

Bisalla 

kilthash... 
sahmoast.. 
uscbeeiliks 
tnktlniaxt . 



6. Shwoyelpi. 
George Gibhi, 



flil'-hwo 

ko-ko-yo'-ma 

yo-yant' 

klatrla-faap (of a 
man). 

shiUt (new) 

host 

k»hfl8t 

8wi-numt 

kes-sfiLB 

hwil'-hwalt 

k'lal 

tsalt 

ahkwalt 

in-cba 

a'-nu-i 

tchi-nilta' 

me-niml'-tit 

me-nim'-blimp 

me-nim'-cbe-likb .. 

fikb-be' 

kakb-be 

tcbe-a' 

bwn-it' 

8»hu-it' 

ke'-ket; (far) le-kot 

pis-tsilt 

na^iup • •■•••• >■■•■• 

ki'-wa.. 

lot 

naks 

e»-8bir 

kat-lisb 

mdsb 

tcbi-likat 

ta'-kum-mikst 



7. Skoyelpi. 
Rev. G, Mengariui. 



sil-kbwe' 

ko-ko-yo'-ni 

yo-ya'-ut 

bla'k-bla-kbep 



sko'-kwi-melt 

kbest 

kest 

swi-num-ti .. . 

kea-suB 

kbwil kbwelt' 



te-lel 

tselt 

kelt 

in Be 

a-na -1 

tse-nilts 

me-ni'mbl'-tit> .... 
me-nim'bl' nmp ... 
me-nim'hl-tae'-IiBb 

e'-kbe 

ka'-kbes 

tei-ya' 

bwi-it 

bl 

ki'-ket -.-. 



a-ptt-ne .... 
pis'-tselt ... 
kba-lep .... 

ki'-we 

lot 

naks 

Bil 

ke'-blis 

moB 

tBi-likBt 

ta-kamk-Bte 



8. Spokan^ 
George Gibbs. 



kwtft-tnnt' .. 
kuk-oi-u'-ma. 

y^i-yoMt 

po'-pc-but . . . 



Bku-kwim-iu 

best 

tai-a 

kwam'-kumt 



ets-wbil-i-wilt 



klil'b 

ke-ai-itcb 

skw-ets' 

ko-ye'-e 

a'-ne-wikb 

tcbin-ih' 

kan-pe-le' 

n'pel-ep'-Bt'n 

tchin-iMltB 

ye-e' 

ets-e' 

ets-e-a' 

wbe'-et 

BU-et' 

cbikb'-et; enl-k&t 
(far). 

yet-Bbe-as'-kat 

spi'-eB-cbe-elt 

beMip 

o-n^ 

ta 

ne-kn 

e'-Bbel « 

cb^-et-leB 

mus 

cbil-ikB 

ta'-ka 



9. PiMkwanBor 
Wiuatsba. 

George Gihba. 



kwat-tuut. 
te-ta-o'-ma. 
yai'-yfit. 
klttkb-klttkbp (aaa 

roan); tum'-ukb 

(worn), 
cbikb-bun. 
bast. 
koBt. 



sbats-bwatl-bwatl- 

tftm. 
stukb-bokb- mukb . 
Bt-Hnlt'b. 
skwilts. 
in-bai'-la. 
in-yo'-kwa. 
cbin-ner. 
in-cba^ 
e'-no-we. 
cbin'-cbin-dl. 
keM-ta. 
at-lo'. 
yai'-ya. 
bwe-it'. 
Bbwat. 
ke-kei'-ta ; le-kut 

(far). 
B'bMl-bttlt'. 
pe-la'-k«L 
ai^kwaBt. 
e'. 
lof. 

UIlkB. 

t^ka'-oB. 

kat-las'. 

roos'-iB. 

che'-lukst. 

bo-teb-makBt. 



264 



COMPARATIVE 

Selish 



Language, 
AtriiouiTY, 



Seven . 
Eight . 
Niuo .. 
Tvn . . . 
Eleven 



Twelve 

Twenty 

Thirty 

One huucrod .. 



One thoa Bond 



To oat .: 



To drink 



To run 



To dance 



To Ring . 
Sleep . . . . 
To Hpcak 



To gee. 



To love. 
To kill . 



To Bit 



To stand 



Togo... 
To come . 

To walk. 



1. Shihwapinukh. 
George Gibbs, 



nuk-ops 



o'-pttkst 

o'-pukst Atl ne-ko. 



o'-jifikst atl 8c-8a'-la 

setl-o'-pukst 

ketl-o-pukst 

htttii-iH.>-ke' -kunkst. 



ui-oll'-nik 



oa-ta'-kan 



wn-uan-ttlkh-kan 



nk-kwa-ct-likt 



o-kwun-nam'-k't 

ap-6l-et'-ki 

Bttk-kul-lot 



at8-a-httn-tan 



2. ShooBwaap. 
Dr, fVm, F. TolmU, 



aeiBpilk ... 
teemilh.... 
bnghunoot 
opankat ... 



ins-hoi'-hoi-aoi' 
ap-ol'-stau 



a-ui6t-ka 



a-takh-Pkb-kan 

ta-wau'-ta 

nats-nas'-ka • . . 



wuk - kau - a- turn'- 
kan. 



3. Nikateniukh. 
George Gibbs. 



tcbur-ka 

pe-dps 

tum-il-pai'-ya 

6pon-uk8t 

6[)en-ttkBt al pai'-ya. 

6pen-uk8t al sbai'-ya 

slo'-pen-tikst 

katl-o-pen-iikst .... 
huts - p o - k 6 - kau- 
tikst. 



kla-hansh 



o'-ka 



to-ai'-ikh 



kwai'-toha-ta 



et'-la-ma .. 
oMt 

kw6nt-shut 

two'-ahum . 



u'»-ha-zoui. 



u'ai'-ya- 



tat-le 



naa-ken . 
o-e'-hwa. 



4. Okin(&k6n. 
George Gibba. 



sis-ptl-lik 

te'-mikhl 

httkU-httn-not 

o'-i)en-lkHt 

at-ble-nuks ; o'-pen- 

iks tat bic-naks. 
o-^icn-iks 'tat la>.sir. 
as-i-Ia o-p( n-ikst. . . 
kat-li-o-pon-ikat . .. 
btttcb-e-chikst . . ; . . 



kin-8i'-itl*nikb.... 



kin-Bi'-ust 



kaiv'-sil-li-bukb 

kwai-oMi-bukb 

in-kwttn-nim' 

oVh 

kin-kfil-li-kwelt'.. 



we'-kin. 



on-bttm-me'-u ak 
poMiB-tttni 



kin-na-mot 



kin-akH9wekb 



kin-bnMs 

t*cb-ba'-i(be comes) 

kin-buMkb 



265 



VOCABULARIES. 

Family. 



0. Wa ky-n&- 

kaine. 

Dr. Wm. F. Tolmie. 



cboo-chil-ka 

uncoapigh 

timilthliu-kooqua 
usli-oopakts 



6. Shwoyelpi. 
George Gibhs, 



m • •■»*•«' 



sbis'-pilk 

tim'-bl 

kha'-klia-utft 

o'-pen-ikst 

o'-pen-ikst ctl naks. 

o'-pen-ikst et Ics siF 
es-Bil o'-peu-ikst ... 

katl 6-pen-ik8t 

bttt'-e-cbikBt 



in-cba-ke-Dikst-itl- 

uikb. 
nik-Bbi'-ufl-ta 



kin-ske'-chi-la-ba'. 



kwai-men-tcbut 



oik-kwuMiiin' . 

liik-sbut-bakb 

skul-kwelt-ba 



ek-swe'-kum 



in-ba-meok 

kwek-sbpul-stum 

iD-ahi-mut-ba.... 



in-stil-ha 



kin-a-baM 

in-tobu'-tQ-tcba 

kin-sba-ist' 



7. Skoyelpi. 
Rtv» O. Mengatini, 



sis'-pel-ko 

tim-ble 

kba-kba-Du' 

o-pcnk-ste 

o-penk-8te ebl- 

nakst. 
o'-penk-Bte ebl-es-sil 
cs-sel o-penk-ste . . . 
kebl lo'-penk-Bto . . . 
kbu-Utt-tBik-bte .... 



kiD-tse-tai'-ble- 

nikb. 
kin-tBe-tse'-QB-te-bi 

kiD-tBC-keMse-likb . 

kin-t se-k wai'-men- 

tBQt. 

kin-tse-tac-kn-nikb . 

kiu-tBO-tsikh 

kin-tse-tBe-kol- 

kwelt-kbti. 
kin-tBe-^t'i-kam .... 

kiu-kba-menk 

(do genoric verb) .. 



kin-mui' 



kin-a-en-ikb 



kin-lits-kbu-ikb ... 
kin-toe-bu'-i 

kiu-tee-kbwiBt 



8. 8pokaD^ 
George Gibba. 



siB-pil'kb ... . 
u'be'-eD-Dam 
bc-be-uot' . . . 

o'-poD 

eor-nfi-ko ... 



eol'-8©l' 

es'-sel-i-o'-pen 

cbet'-li-o'-pen 

ne-ko-o-ken (oue 

bead). 
o-o'-peD-tst-kon 

(ten beads). 
iiMin-iab 



BtlBt 



ket-Bbilsb 



kwai-nifD-BCLlt 

n'kwe-nesb' .. 
iUh 

kwnl-kwelUb . 



wi'-chiDt; atn'-bfrnt 



be-men-tchin 
imlsk 



kla'-kalsb 



te-sbilsb . 

ba-i8b... 
tcbii'-isb 

wbb»t'-sb 



9. PiHkwoas or 

Winalsba. 

George Gibbn. 



sis-pilk. 

tu-winkb. 

la-ban-uol'. 

bttt'-le-biitJ. 

ta'-lc-naks. 

el-ta-ka'-d9. 
t'ka'-OB-btftl-butl. 
kat-la-bakst-btitl. 
bnt-e-cbakBt. 



B'it'-lin. 

k«n-na-wil-kwatr 

kwu. 
na-wikbln-ta, s'Da'- 

wnl. 
sin-kwu-nam'-bu. 

a'bat-cba-w«st. 
it'b; Be-it'-ba. 
wau-il-ikb| s'wau- 

irkb. 
at'-BiD-ta, sa-at'-aa- 

ban. 
in-ba-mo-nik. 
boik-to'-bo, B'to- 

hOkb. 
kla-ka>lut, stla'-ka- 

likb. 
tVlikb'-ta, s'obo- 

likb'. 
iidkbta, s'oo'kt. 
cbe-Do'-tii, cbt- 

nokbt'. 
nOkb-to'-te-a. 



. VOCABULARIES. 



IL 

10. — Vocabulary of the Kalispelm. 

A tribe of the Selish family, living on Clark's Fork of the Columbia River ; 
obtained January, 1860, from an Indian of the tribe, by George Gibbs. 

11. — Vocabulary of the KtUleespelm. 

A tribe of the Selish family, obtained from Dr. Wm. F. Tolmie, of the Hud- 
son Bay Company, by George Gibbs. 

12. — VoccAulary of the Schit-zuL 

A tribe of the Selish family, obtained through the Rev. G. Mengarini, by 
George Gibbs. 

13. — Vocabulary of the Selish proper. 
Obtained through the Rev. G. Mengarini, by George Gibbs. 

14. — Vocabulary of the Bellwola. 

A tribe of the Selisli family, obtained at Victoria, April, 1859, by George 
Gibbs. 

Note. — ^This vocabulary was obtained from a woman of the tribe 
through the medium of "Stewart", a "Hailtzuk" Indian, and may be 

267 



268 

relied on, although the exclusively guttural chai^acter of the language 
is hard to render. 

A few words will be found similar to those of the Hailtzuk, aris- 
ing, I presume, from their vicinity and intermarriage. I consider the 
language itself, however, as decidedly belonging to the Flathead. The 
tribe probably crossed the mountains during the period of migi-ation, 
and found their progress stopped by the Hailtzuk and Tsimseyans, 
and their retreat has subsequently been cut oflF by tlio Can-iers de- 
scending Eraser's River. 

The Hailtzuk, it will be seen, has in time borrowed some words 
from the Flathead. 

Mr. Gallatin has placed this with the Naas, or Tsimseyan, on the 
strength of a very imperfect vocabulary. — G. G. 



15. — Vocabulary of tfe lAlowat. 

A tribe of the Selish family, living on the Lilowat River, obtained on Har^ 
rison's Lake, March 16, 1856, by George Gibbs. 

Note. — This language is spoken on the Lilowat River, the main 
feeder of Harrison's, or Tsehniss Lake, emptying into Fraser's River 
from the north between Fort Hope and Fort Langley. 

The vocabulary was obtained from K'shaan-ta, chief of the Village 
of S'koots-ahs, at the mouth of the Lilowat Skeh-uhl, chief of the 
Sumas, acted as interpreter. I had no time for revision, and perceive 
some errors, but in the main presume it to be correct. 

The occurrence of the letter r once or twice in this, and once in 
the Saamena, I believe to be certain. — G. G. 

16. — Vocabulary of the Tait. 

A tribe of the Selish family, living on Fraser's River below Fort Yale, ob- 
tained from a woman at Fort Hope, September 25, 1858, by George 
Gibbs. 



269 

1 7. — Vocabulary of the Ko-mookfis. 

A tribe of the Selish family, obtained at Nanaimo, September, 1857, from a 
man, by George Gibbs. 

Note. — Their own name is S'tlaht-tohtlt-hu ; that of S'ko-mook 
is the one given them by the Uguultas. 

The words in this vocabulary were given as corresponding with 
those in the Kuwalitsk, the Indians not understanding the jargon. — 
G. G. 

1 8. — Vocabulary of the Kuwalitsk 

A tribe of the Selish family, obtained at Nanaimo, September, 1857, from a 
man, by George Gibbs. 



270 



Language, 
Author iTi', 



Man 



Woman 
Boy .... 
Girl .... 
Infant.. 
Father . 



Mother. 



Hosband 



Wife 
Son . 



Daughter 



COMPARATIVE 

BelUh 



10. Kifliapelm. 
George Oibbs, 



8ka]-ti-inikh' 



A-mani 

te-tn'-wit--.- 
shet^h-u'-tttui. 
Bku-kwi-milt 



11. Kal]ee«pe1m 
(K^lUpelm). 

Dr. Wm, F. Tolmie, 



akil'-ti-mewh 



nim-aim 



Brother^ ®^^^--- 
I younger 

Sister ^®^^«'- — 
\ younger. . 

Indiana, people . . 



Head. 
Hair. 
Face . 



Forehead, 



Ear 
Eye 



la-aw (boy says); 
mea'-ttfui (girl 
says). 

Bk6-i, (boy says); 
torn (gill tttt^b). 



s'be'-lui 



n0kh-ho-u6kb 
s'n-se'-ltllt .. , 



shu'-tNUi-elt 



ish-shiu'-sa 
eu-katsk' . , 



el-cfait'-hba 

eu-cbii'-cha-dps . 

ska'-iekhw 



spel-keu' 

k&ni'-kan 

skut-hlos' 

stchil-chu-niu'-sbin 



lay-ayo (by ma]e); 
nieis-tini (by fe- 
male). 

8kni(byma]e); toon 
(by £0male). 



12. S'chit-zni or 
CoDur a*A16ne. 

Rer, G. Mevgarini. 



skail-te-mdkb 



sme'-em 

ie'-tuMt .... . 
stei'-sbe-mish 
gwskkh'-telt... 
pi'-pe 



nu -ne 



ifl-koo-say 



stiui-chailt 



Nose ... 
Mouth . 
Tongue 
Teeth .. 
lieard . . 
Neck . . 



A m 



ta'-na 

skwiit-kwtlt-Ids^-tan 

spas-ttuks' 

spil-Iiui'-tsan 

tdkhwtch 

hal-16khw 

sop-tsikh 

as-kdl-tsum -is in 
(throat). 

n'chttm-pa s ' - b fi u 
(upper) ; stcham- 
lil-kwekst (lower). 



spil-kein .. 
kora-a-kun 



skhail-gwe 



nokh-ho-nokh 
skwas'-kuH-se . 

stim'-tsbe . . . 



se-nek-si'-khukh 

Bme/-mo-]e-mokh. 
stsbint 



ko'-mc-keu ... 
tshap-kai-nen. 
slos'-se-meu . . 



13. Selisb proper 
or Flatheads. 

Rep. G. Mengarini. 



skaltmigu {vir,); 
Fk6!iga (homo). 

s'm-^m; slmfi^m ... 

skukusb'lt 

sti' cbmi'sh. — 

skukui'milt 



taiu-neh 

8inoo-koot*Ioo8-tin 



spts-saks .. 
Bpleem-tziu 
tewchtcb .. 
hilleioogh .. 



Ten' (relating to a 
son); mestem (re- 
lating to a daugh- 
ter). 

sk6i (relating to a 
sou;; torn (relat- 
ing to a daugh- 
ter). 

sge'lui 



u<>gnog 
skusee. 



stmch' e'lt. 



Bnkuflsi'gn < 

tsem ; sgnsm' ^m.. . 
ske'ligu ........... 



splkein . 
ko'mkan 
Bgulus .. 



tshet-tshe-me'-luH . smlcbmes'-sebn 



ti'-ne 

t^hlo'-blo8-men ... 

Bt-tt»ha'-meks 

Rt-tsbem'-zen 

tikh-uts-tshe 

khe-lekh 

Bgwep'-zcn (beardy) 
tshcH'-pen 

sl'sho-gwa'-hcn 



te'n-6 

chkultcstu 



sptl&ks .. 
sp'li'mzn 
ti' guzch . 
gale'gu . . 
Bupzi'u .. 
chspi'n . . 



s'cbua'gnn 



VOCABULAEIBS. 
Family. 



271 



14. Belhoola. 


15. Lilowat. 


16. Tait. 


17. Ko-mookhfl. 


1& Kuwalitsk. 


George Gibb$, 


Gwrge Gihb$. 


Gwrge €ribb9. 


George Gibbe, 


George Gilfbe. 


klnm'-sta 


Bkai-yongb 


8wob'-a-ka 


to'-besb 


Bweb'-ye-ko. 


h'yin-n&m' 

mnn-Dah 

ohee^muD-Dah' .. 


Bbe-ab'-k'toba 

ko-ko-mebt 

Bbeb'-yak't-Bba 


Blab-leib 


(-babli'-boo 

cbo'-ie. ...... ...... 


Blab '-me. 

BlebtMa-kutl. 

slab'-ne-ablb'. 


sweb-ka-ablb' 

8lab-ne-ablb' 


^ Bbab'-ehlt-boo 


kaikb-teh 


8b«b'-wbatrb 


Bkaa-ka-bfc 


tab'-ta-[io8be 


m^bmin. 


maan 


skabt'-ae-la 


maam 


bfiad 


maa'-me-yeh. 


staan ...... . .... 


Hkeb'-fibe-la ...... . . 


me 


• 
Dek'yb ...... ...... 


1 

B'dab'-de-yeb. 
n-Bwan-stab'- la b b ; 


kwoo-inrntiih .... 


too koo-taain-cba .. 


BwcV-a-kuB 


klatBBbablt-boK)... 




\ 






d'b wah-n'Btab-lnsb . 


aut-«l'ye>naas.... 


'n Bbe-tnaam 


B'o-stabMas 


tad-yab-kaah 


D'atab'-loBh. 


uh-uiilk'li 


teucboo-wuBBkwu'-ZD 


tel-u-ioeu'-na 


ttUB-bab-da 


n'swab' -n a • in n u • 
ninn-na. 


byiD'-naas' 


ten oboo-wa skoo'- 
kwa-lfi. 


Blab-leib tol-e-meu'- 
ua. 


tutB-bab-da 


Blah-ne-ablb' mun- 
na. 


no-m&a-otes 


Bbfta-lak-Bba 


ten-BiitMa-tan 


cbet-kah-bet 


n'Bet-b&&t-nn. 


ttbo-'beh' 


BbiBB-kwai' 


tel-Bkab'-ak 


ats-keb-acb . . . , .... 


u'iB-kaak. 


^kobtlb'yin-oaas' < 
klam-atab' 


Bbaa^luks 

BbiBB-ka «... 


8en-Bnt.Ma-ton . . . ? 
Ben-kab'-ak { 

ta-wbalMe-moocb . 


klcts-aibb \ 

kai-mebw 


u'Bet-ba&t-nn. 
n'lB-kaak. 

n'Bet-wbnl-uioob. 


ue-(ke-8bai'-ke-teD )• 
na'. 


tuuh'-ba 

inela-kwab' 


kw'trklo'-Bba , 

uiaa-kuiu' 


B'bai-yoB 

inaa-knu 


bo-obBb' 


B'beb'-yna. 
«bai-it. 


bab-kut 


mo'-sba 


kwnt-kloBbe' 

u' al-keb-DOBb«' 


ta-Bab' BOOS 

Bko-malae' ; Bab-mal 
(eyebrow). 


akao -kao' .:....... 


h'ab-BUB. 
B'ku'-mnlBe. 


skobt-leh-koahe' . 


ebt'-sbad 




tankRb-ta 

kolMokea' 


k' bcii'«na 


kol 


k wan-wa 


kwnn-nnn. 
kul-lnm'. 


kloBbe-ten 


kuMam'; klep-tel 
(eyeltisb). 


tflkab'-oom 


mak-sbab' 


Bpnb^^uksb 


mnk-Bnn 


mnk-Bbud 


innk'-Ben. 


tsbote-Bbab' 

kbnt-sbab' 

eet-ebab 


cboo-cheen 

toot-sabtl' 

bai'-ohe-min 


aab'-Bol 


Bob-aed . . . • . • ••*.•. 


Bab'-Buu. 

toke-BQll. 

yin'-niBB. 

k web'> nc-es'-Bu n. 


• 
toke'-BQlb 

yil-lias' 


teb w'-BUtl ......... 


4jid'-diB8 


Bko-pobtah' 

ku'-ko'-Deb 

!4ko( eMeb- wbablst' 


Bbwoo-petsb 

kaV-keQ-ua 

ke- wah'-kisbt 


kweb-le-QB^'-Bao .... 


ko'-DO-Bod 


t np-Biim 


Bbait-tatl 


alt-latl'. 
cbab-lisb. 


cbabMicb 


cbab-aab .......... 







272 



COMPARATIVE 

Seliah 



Language, 

AUTUOniTY, 



Hand .. 
Fiogers 



Nails 



Body. 



Leg. 
Foot 
Toes 



Bone 

Heart 

Blood 

Town, village, 

Chief 

Warrior 

Fiieud 



Hoose. 

Kettle. 
Bow .. 
Arrow. 
Axe .. 
Knife . 



Canoe (bark) 



Shoes ... 
Pipe .... 
Tobacco 

Sky 

Sun 

Moon . . . 



Star.. 
Day .. 

Night 

Light 



10. KiHispelni. 
George Gibba, 



en-chaM'sh 

st-chdr w a i t o h t ; 
BtOm'-tcht(thumb). 

k4-kent-ch'»*tan ... 



skgl'-titch 



st'-so-sben' . 
st'so-shen' . . 
8t'-ch44hen 



st-8om' 

spds J 

sin-hfikhl.. 



iMe-me'-hflni 
li'che-solsh' .. 
is-fii-lakht'.. 



chit-hu; spe-yar-bu 
(skin lodge). 

kl-chap^ 

tcb-kwiutsh 

ta-pi-min' 

sbil-la-miu' 

nen'-chi-man 



kli-a' (bark) ; stet'- 
1am (dog-out). 

ka-shin' 

Bin-ha-man'-hu-ten 

sa-man'-hu 

s'ch-chi-mas'-kut. . . 

spe-ka-ne' 

spe-ka-ne' 



kn-kn'-Bum 
s'hal-halt' . 



eku-ku-ats' 



ye-hal' 



11. KolleeBpelm 
(KlKlispelm). 

Dr, Wm. F, Tolmie, 



chailish 

stowtikeeuish 



stzooshein 



sinohool 



tzetooh...««. 



shilmein .... 
Dein-chiinin 



kai-shein 



ist-choomaskit 

Bpikunnay 

Bpikunnay ilskoo- 
quay. 

kookoosim 

Bchil-halt 



skoo-ka-aits 



12. 8'chit-zni or 
CoBur d'A16ne. 

Stv. G. Mengarini. 



stW-yetsh-Bte .. .. 

skhwe-le-m e k -ste 
(sing). 

n'k wakh-k w a k h- 
kaiu-chest. 

skair-tikb 

8t'so-fihJn 

gwak'-sben 

skh wel-kh wel - 1 e - 
moB-ehen. 

st'sam 

etb^-pos 

med-tshe-de 

a-Ml-khu 

i-li-mi-khum 

le-tsbe-li-tsbit 

kha-men-tBhi'-wes . 

zet'-kha 

ble-tship' 

a-ze'-tshin 

ta'-pe-men 

BheMe*men 

Cd-ul-lim 

te-de 

skai-Bhen 

sen-mel'-kh wen 

se-melkh' 

te-tBhe-mas'-ket 

al-da'-rentsh 

al-da'-rentsh 

stBhe-ze-khun-znt . . 
at-set-zet 

es-Ben-kwi'-its 

khal(aclj.) 



13. Selish proper 
or Flatbeads. 

Bets, G, JiltngatinL 



chelscb 

chelsch , 

kogkei'nobst 

Bkfeltich 

zooschin 

zooschin 

zooschin 

szdm 

Bp'tis ...^ 

BDgtil 

skeikei 

ilmi'gam 

ililimdl 

slagt 

zi'tgn 

Icbep 

zkui'noh 

tapmi'n 

B'ch^lmi'n 

ni'ncbmn 

t/ie'e 

kaeschi'n 

anmenigntn 

sme^nigu 

s' ch' cbujiiskt 

spkani' 

spkani' skukuez 
(night sun). 

kukllBm 

sglgiilt 

skukuez 

ig^ 



N. 



VOCABULARIES. 
Family. 



273 



14. Delbuola. 


15. Lilowat. 


1(5. Tait. 


17. Ko-mookbH. 


la Knwalitsk. 


George Gibhs. 


George Gihla, 


George Gibha. 


George Gibbe, 


George Gibbe. 


• 
sho'b-b'yacb' 


le-bo-laurka . ...... 


Blacb'-tsas 


ko-teteb-e-ilo'-ja. .. 
b wau-we-Uwoje 

kab-pab-jc-ko'-jo-te* 

ai -yo-il asb ( t be cbost ) 
kwaw-wa(tbe belly) 


cbah-liab- 


B^ZQcb-ton ......... 




nucb-oboas. 


ko-Dacb ......... 


kbwo'b-ten ........ 


kwul'-tBQB 


a'n'-klab'-lobta. 


skam-mab' (cbest) 


mezabtBb-katl .... 


tsaa-mel; kwol'-la. 


B'ee-laab. 


sko-tleDkh 


kwab'-bai'-katl.... 


B^bnl-la 


Jesb-Jeab-id 


b'ben-na. 


icb-b»yab' 


Bbpab'-b'jan 


Bwab'-sna-Bbil 


pak-abl'-8bid 


B'buD-na-aliet. 


skobtlM'k-satl'... 


lacb-bo-le b'yl 


Blncb-b'yin 


bwa-wau'-o-sbiil . . 


B'bnn-na-abet. 


tsabp 


k'kwob.b»l 


BOm-tBOB 


baw'-o-abid 


n'aabm. 


8bilk'b 


sbwfta-kook 

pe-tel'-la 

bweb'-ta cbeb-too'b 

kwoke-pei' 

u'ke-BbaDd'k 


kwabMo-wal 

saa-Be-y nl 


kta-kwai-e-gat 

k webtl .... .... .... 


nua-kwab'-lome. 
a'bwabm. 


sboecb ..... ..... 








• 

ae-amm'. 


Ktabr-tiiinab .... 


see-am'-m .... .... . 


eb'-ff nse ...... .... . 


wee-naU' ,.. 


B'bai'-tl-Bnt 


fl 

klal-ababm' 


kwam'-koom. 


uobtl-kweb'-k e - 


Bbe-aa-lukBb 


n'B-kleb' 


Uta-babtl' 


u's-kleb'. 


sbo'tl 


cbeb-too'b .... ..... 


tul-abMnm 

Bkwab'-wnB 


klub'-uab 

bul-licb-klab' 


laa-lnm. 
ab-kwalse. 


bow-is-.'-bablse . . 


ba-laa-ka 


potes-tnn' 

k'k-Bnum-ta .-.*.. 


to'b'-wbatBh 

k'k' smaa-htBb 


tacb'-wbntab 

Blabt'-lo'b 


tluk-bw 


ta-botea'. 
akwa-laab^ 


bai-c-beb'-ye 


ko-potc8-a lebts' . 


kowMsB-kait' 


kow-eha'-ka 


Bbo-pai'b 


akoo-kom'. 


te-kV-klacb' .... 


bweb'-ke-ten 


klaatB-tal 


kl abt-lap-boo( pock- 
et); keoabe'-keo'- 
aba' (Bbeatb). 


klatcb-ten (aboatb) ; 
acb-ten (pocket). 


klalMuB 


klfiatB ; b'do'-met- 
laata (small canoe). 


Blo'b-wbntl 


daob-wbentl 


snoo'-wutl (generic). 


keb'-DQob 


Bheblt-zoo 


BknlMa-b'yin 


klnk-Bbid 


sink' Bbin(mocca8inH) 


Bbo^-kope-tab' . . . 


akwoMtz-ten 


Bko-uB-tnn 


bvra-bant'-sa 


b'pblitlum'-eV-la. 


klabwk' 


BbmaarDOob 

koo-bab'-a 


smaa-lich . . ....... 


a-wabk'-bn 

abee-ant' 


apabt'-lum. 
cheets'-itl. 


bbo'-w'u-noocb^ .. 


kwut-cbeb-cbil 


Hbin'-nacb 


snok-waai 


aee-ab-kome 


tai-irib 


akwai-um. 


kloke 


klal' -lam-ten 


akoo-be-abas 


tai-cib 


kl-kaltae'. 


maB-meb'-kitl 

wa»-Bbo'-noo-at- 
Bagb'. 


ke-ko'-ebe-nnt 

teis-katt'-sba 


k wab'-Bil ...... .... 


ku'-abnd ........... 


kwau'-anm. 
tauk-akwAi-il. 


tel-a-web-yil 


bab-be-at-ta 


tBo-Hbum ; 1 8 o - 
bbuut-BUu'. 




ba-raap'; plen-a- 
raap. 


tel-a-slatt 

to'b Bweb-yil 


datt 


natt. 



18 



274 



COMPARATIVE 

Selish 



Language, 
Authority, 



Darkness 
Morning. 
Evening . 
Spring . . , 
Summer. , 
Aatumn . 
Winter.. 
Wind ... 



Tlionder ... 
Lightning.. 

Rain , 

Snow 

Hail...... : 

Fire 

Water 

•Ice 

Eartb, land 
Sea 



River 



Lake 



Valley 



Hilly mountain 



Island. 



Stone 
Salt .. 
Iron .. 
Tree . 
Wood 
Leaf . 
Bark . 
Grass 

Pine . 



10. K^ippelm. 
George Gibbe, 



ioh-im' 

kwe'-k wust , 
ke'-katl .... 
skap-ts .... 
sa-alk' .... , 
stcba-al' — 
se-ie-titch . 
snaut 



n. Knlleespelm 
(K^lispelm). 

Dr. Wm. F. Tolmie, 



stttl-ti-lau' 

s^nV-kub 

ste-pes' 

sma-kwttt 

tset-se-lo'-slmn 

sol-shist' 

sa-wutl-kwn... 
s'bnMu-tiim . . , 
stall' -lekhw 



stcbil - pitla - met'- 
kwn. 



en-tn-at'-kwu (the 
principal river of 
a valley). 

i'cbil-ka-le' 



sin-lan'-titm 



es-Bum'-kwil-mekh ; 
chu-kwu-tol'-kun. 

klo-us-ohn-son'-kwn 
sbansb 



o-lo-lim' 

tcbi-at-abi'-ta. 

lo'-kw , 

si-po'-lau . . . . . 
chi-lal'-hu ... 
ste-a' 



stee-pais 
sim-boap 



Bol-sbettit 
^i-oolk .. 



stoo-lewcb 



nisbi-aytuk 



Bbaiusfa 



soak 



sa - a t' - k w u 1 1 p ; 
skalp {fir.) 



12. S'cbit-zni or 
C<»nr d'Aldue. 

Rev. G, Memgarini. 



tsliem (dark, adj.) 

kwitz-tum 

te-ti'-pep 

sit'-kaps 

yal'-ste-ke 

s't<8biMd 

sit'>sit-ke 

sne'-ilt 



statz-ta-ro'-em ..... 

sel-la'-kham 

Kko'-pict 

sme'-kot 

ttt malkb 

st ii*k wel'-kop ...... 

si'-kwe 

skbu'-dent 

ttt-mi-kboMe-mukb 

sl'sbet-po'-tum-kwe 
(shore, end of the 
land). 

n'ze-khut 



sla-kait-kwe ; tshet'- 
ke-le {dim). 

u'tel-lo'-l e - niukh ; 
ujru-nit-kwe. 



i-]u-1i8b;i-li8b; khu* 
zot (snow peak). 

etcb-sun-kwe ; e-ti- 
Bau-kwe. 

shcMot 

zor 

n-hiMim , 

et'-sho'-ta 

se-lep' , 

pet6'-tshi-le 

tsheMe 

st4j'-de 



yat-kwalp {P.pon- 
dtroiM). 



13. Selish proper 
or Flatheads. 

Rev. G. Mengarini. 



tcbim' 

sknekast' 

8* cheldg ...... .... 

skopz , 

s' iinlka 

s' cb' ei , 

s' istcb 

snent , 

stellell^m 

stelleliim 

stipeis..... 

sm^knt 

saldsae 

solscbi'ztn 

seulku 

sguiemtikn 

sUSlign; malt 

kntlint seulku 
(great water). 

seulkn (water) ... 

es' cklkalti 

tgasul^ga 

2mknent; esmdk.. 

es'cbsdnko 

s' sobensch 

cbitgnzi'n 

ololi'm 

mk 

zolzi'I 

pi'zscbl 

cbileign 

snpuliSgu 

s' atkoZp 



275 



VOCABULARIES. 
Family. 



14. Belboola. 
George Gilhs, 


15. Lilowat. 
George Gibbs. 


16 Tait. 
George GMs, 


17. Ko-mookbs. 
George Gibhe, 


la Kowalitsk. 
George Gibbs, 




. 


lootrlab-blabp' 




bwaa-nebt'-et. 
bwon-nan'-it. 

tam-kwab'-lisb. 

tam-b(&it*t. 
s'cbaob'-bam. 

kwal'-last. 

yakw. 

slum-mob'. 

maft-ka. 

sknUkwal'-bn. . 

bai-kw. 

ka'b. 

spob'-oo. 

tam'-moo. 

kwabtV-kwa. 

stab'lo. 

bab-tsba. 

spelb-ban. 

smaftnt. 

skw-sass'. 

kleb'-toba. 

klabt'-lnm. 

ba&-lebt. 

ska&t. 

keb'-a-kah. 

sab-lesbt. 

kwal'-lob. 

sab'-wbnn. 

klaa-knf. 


kaikb-teeb 

cb-niob'-ya-eS .... 


naa-na-toob 

iob-Dais'-klo-raap .. 


noa-tatl 


kwai-ee ........... 


bwool-la&lt 

mo-k weh'-l as 

kwab'-kwas 

otl-meb-baitl-sut . . . 

es-beb'-itlsb 

pa-balse' 


aa-ab'-dat 

kw-asb ...... ..---. 


kwull . ...•••••.. 


pe-pa4D>obak 




tcbem-i-tcbem .... 

pob'-bab (^neric); 
to-ab-bai (d.); 
tab-kab-ak (s.). . 

bai-beb 


nobsb-kel-lotes' .. 
as-sboke 

B^ai-yootl 

bebm'-bebm 

abr-wol-Iaatlb .. 

k*yai-im 

kr-bo-sbim' 

neh'-bn ......... 


gboo-tebk'. .----. •. 


sb-kaob'-bam 

kel-lok-knl-lnk 

kalMo-sbim 

sbkwees...... ..... 


f" ■"*""**'' ....... .... 

bo-bwabas' 

baV-ltfk-U 

alam-mo*b'. ........ 


kat'b w .•. 


cbetl 

ko'-bai 


maa-ka ...^-x.,^ 


ma&-ka 


skok-boshe' 

spab'-mesb; wnV-lap 
kob 


ko-kwhabss' 

bai-akw 

tok-ka'b 


t' tsab'-o-sbid 

k wai'cb .-... 


knl-lab' 


kab'-ai 


Do'-kbas 

a'ai'-tl 


obeb'-ucb...... .... 


slel-lakw' ......... 


t6ti(tabw) 

ff id- veb ............ 


te-mchw' 

ba-do'-me-cba-laatl 

soboo-an'-wucb .... 

cbee-il'-itl 


tam-mo'l/ ...... ... 


st'-ass 

ish-sboot 

obaatl 

yai-yoo-lumpsb'.. 
sbtmt ........... 


k wabtl-kwa 

stab'-lo :.. 


o J «.-. .... .... 

kobtl''-ko 


kwnt'-tum ......... 


• 
babt'-sa .•••• 


sab'-atl 


pal-lam; sb*pal- 
Inm (prairie). 

b'al-losbe' 

sbeesb'-botsb 

kot'-laob 


spelb-bal (prairie) . . 
smaalt ............ 


sbal '-ye-akw 

tah-kut 


kao-kAlsbt' 

tacbt 


klebt'l-cbos 


kwo-saisb' 

bab-iaisb ..... 


Ht'-QSb 

bait' 68 


klaatrlam ...*..... 


klaat-lam ......... 


kobt-Iobe 

bobts ............. 


bwebk-ten 

sbe- waaD .......... 


b'oaal-tol ......... 


nt-eetrblimm'.... 

koomMtl 

BDOsbe ...... ...-. 


skaat ...... .••.•.. 


pab'-ad-ai 

kwabt'-a-bobe 

b* vai-ba ........... 


paa-misb (firewood) 
sblak'-am .....••.. 


te-beV-akw 

kwur-lat-sos 

sab'-korae ......... 


klaoV-kwot 

slaawse 


Bbeb'-keel 

sblak - kara ; tsap'- 
paats. 

zo-bal - meb'- wbats 
(fir). 


pab^-yatt 

klak-knm 


sacV-bwal 

Hlai (Gr) 


klaa-(l(fir) 







276 



COMPARATIVE 

Selish 



Languagb, 
Authority, 



Flc8b| meat 
Dog 



BofTalo 

Bear (black). 
Wolf (gray) 



Deer 

Elk. 



Beaver .. 
Tortoise . 

Fly 

Mosquito 
Snake ... 



Binl 



Krk 

Feathers 

WingH .. 
Duck ... 



Pigeon 
Fish .. 



Salmon.. 
Sturgeon 
Nauio . . . 



Affection 

White 

Blsick 

Red 

Blue (light) .. 

Yellow 

Green (light) . 

Great 

Small 



10. Kalispeliu. 
George Gihbs, 



skal'-titsh 
htttl-tcbiu 



stcbot-lifm (bull); 
Btum-makL' (cow) 

n'klam'-ka: sum- 
bai'-tcbiu (grizzly ) 

n'tse'-tsin; siu'- 
tcba-lep (prairie). 

tse-o'-likw.^ 

b'hu'-sa-lttks: stc-el'- 
tsa (cariboo). 

ska-la'-o 

al-si'-kwu 

o-watl' 

teha-se-laks' 

s'cba-we'-la ; ha'-o- 
lo (rattlesLake). 

hwe-hwai'-yutl ... 



o-o'-sa , 

spom 

b'tcbo- wagb'-han . 
hwat'-hut 



bots-bo'-tsum 



sim-at-blitch' 
tsem-a-tos' .., 
skwast 



i-pe'-uk 

il-kwai' 

i-kwiV 

i-cbil-kwouMikhw 

i-kwa'-li 

skwea'-tsa 

kwa'-tont 

ku-kwo-yo'-nia ... 



U. Knlleospelui. 
(Kdli8}>elui). 

Dr. JVm. F. Tolmte, 



skailtcb .... 
bncbtiltzecn 



simbaitcbin 



skullayo. 



wbeewbayoolh ... 



simtbeleotcb. 



ee-peo-uk , 
yuk-kwai 
ee-queel . . 



koo-toont . 



12. S'cbit-zni or 
C<uur d'Alduo. 

Her G. Mengarim 



sktil -tilsb 



nko-koB-me'- tin- 
sben. 

szh-blani (bnll) ; 
ste'-ma (cow^. 

n'bla m' • k a ; sma- 
kbe- tier (grizzly) 

n'te-la-na (large) ; 
sniiV-u (coyote). 

«Ov ...y ........... 

sc-le'-8bot<8 (buck) ; 
spil-ze (doe). 

n' mul-sbentsb 

spar-k walks ...... 

n'ke-kai'-ka-no .... 

sza^-salks 

te-tv-disb 

i-tikbl;i-li'letfi)/Mr.) 

os'-se 

tsbv-zu; gnr'-sen . 

at'8btf-gwa'-keD(arm) 

khwat-kbwat (mal- 
lard). 

kl' ots-kbo-tsnm 

ke'-kbn-lisb 



su-mu-tlitsb 
znm-tns' . . . . 
skwist 



kbar-po-hlets'-pos 

pek 

kwcd 

kwil , 

koMo 

ku-rek' 

kn-nu 

khai'-khat 

tshi-tshe'-no . 



13. Selisli proper 
or Flatbeads. 

Rev, G. Mengarini. 



skelticb (vide body) 
ukokosmicbuBchD . . 

8ziilm(bull); st'maV 
tni (caw). 

m^CKrokan: smg6- 
icbn (grizzly). 



nei^-zin 



z'oliga.. 
SD^cblze 



skalea' 

spelkaiiks 
gamaltui .. 

sliiks 

s'sobeuiMe. 



guignet'u/ (animal 
generally). 

nilsse 

skaptissel 

s' obaagan (arms) . 

s<^st/ignm , 



gzg^izom 
sneuZ' . .. 



smfi'cb 



skuest. 



ipik ...4 

ikoiti .' 

ikuil « 

ikoi'n. 

ikoali' 

ikoiu' 

kntant (inanimate) 
I kukuiumo 



277 



VOCxiBULARIES. 

FamUy, 



14. Ueihoola. 



George Gibbs, 



^k^lulltl 
waato.. 



klacb; t«-wheh'- 
bu (white). 

noot-nba-kwach' . 

shoo-pah'-Ditl 

Btlacbt 



15. Lilowat. 



George Gihbs, 



tse'b (veDisou). 
skah'-ha 



kwdUbp. 



bea-lmatl; mea'- 
haatl. 



kow'-wam 



ko-loou^ 



p6-k'ynni' 
pap-iD'-ik 



tcbeetshi'-che-pee 



knp-ach' 

Diaan 

sbee-sbee'wk-tab' 
um-to-tobai' 



obn-Bt-k'k ■ 

Hbini-shim-kakl- 
k'sbee'. 



t'baats . 



16, Tait. 



George Gihb*', 



sloo-wbeb'-yovB 

Bko-xnai 



kwaisp 



spuus ; bai - tbulsc 
(grizzly). 

8te-kai-ya-a' 



smai-esB' 



kat-yehto 

skni-laa' skal-lan 






bo-mabts' .... 
kwal-eb-mok' 
na-wbebt 



sbeb-okb 



flbiiii-tlk. 



sktvats-tab' 



tsucbvr 

akiobnee 

mo-kwautl'.. 
kwul-le-aaatl 



kwal-le-aantl 
Hk' wab'-natz 
kaikb-t«b' 



a-o'-Bha 

o-kwilBb 

Btla-kabl' 

kook-saalt-natl 

he-beh'-was 

sitB-kwai' (Bmall 
kiudB). 

cbaa-win laa-wa... 

bob'-atl 

skwaa- c b e o t s h ; 
shwaat kwaata- 
eetsb (wbat iB 
yoor name f ) 



bwai-a ... 
kwauK... 
elb'-kat-a 



kai-ebtl'. 



17. Ko-uuKikhs. 



George Gibbs. 



cbel'-t&t 
cbiid-do , 



beb'-batl... 
klabt'-lobe 



keb'-gaBS. 
kai-ebtsb' 

tak^-kobe. 



18. Kuwalitsk. 



George Gibba, 



klobt'-Bnt. 
sko-iiiai. 



b wahVb wa-job« . . 
tsak-cbobBbe .... 
obl-kai 



mab'-me-la-balb' 
Bbelts 

tel-ak'-aen....... 



ba-niah' 



Ba-ar-tol , 

kwah'.wuts.p. 
skweeB 



pok'b 

bo-kweb'-Qcb.... 
cbG-kwS-obee'-uk 
kwnts-kwaaz 



kwul-«bt'-aa. 
buz-zomo' ... 
kweb'-kwasb 



t'pak 

to' keb-cb' . . . 
tu-cbacb' .... 
tobweb'-ukw 
to'kwai'h.... 
to'kwaPb.... 
to-b«b'-iikw . 
ta-meb-mil .. 



bo'-oke (Bea-fowl) . . 

bwab-bwebt 

teobt-taokw' 

bab^-pap 

kebd-a-kehd (mal 
lard). 

bab'-a-boh 



jaatl-boo 

kwoo-tai'-o-sid. 
tus-dabd' 



pokb 

tabt'-Bebm.... 

bwuflb 

kwaab'-kwaab 



cbo-kcb'-Dob. 
Bt«-kai-yacb. 

bab-pit. 
kai-obtob^ 

BkuMao^ 

meb'-niakb. 

iDcb'BbaD^ 

bbailktl. 

iDo'-o-kw (eoa-fowl). 

Qmn-Dasb. 

Bl-kasBc (qaillH). 

Bl-kaaso. 

ten'-nk 8.*d (mallard; 

bnm'-anh. 
slote-lah-lam. 

B'cbaal-tnn. 
kwa-toi-sia. 
skwcQBh. 



kle6b-«b-bobkt 

teo'b 

te-toblb' 



puk'b. 

cb-kwim^ 

cb-keb'-Qcb. 

sbt-kalse'. 

ob-kwim'. 

cbe-kwai. 

HceMi. 

mec'>mii)li1. 



278 



COMPARATIVE 



Selish 



Lanotjagb, 

AUTHOIUTY, 



strong 
Old ... 



Tonng 



Good 

Bad 

Handsome. 



Ugly 



Ali^e 

Dead 

Cold 

Wann 

I 

Thou 

He 

We 

Ye 

They 

This 

That 

All 

Many, mooh 



Who 

Near (not far), 



To-day 



Yesterday . 
To-morrow 

Yes 

No 

One.-'. 



Two 



Three 



10. Klilispelm. 
George Gibhs, 



yA-yAt 

pokh-po-hot'; skicsh- 
paMttks(wom). 

skn-kwi'-milt ; is- 
sits' (new). 

hast 

tiu'-ya 

ha-sos' 



tches-sos' 



es-hwil-hwilt' 

kl-itr 

ohits-»t-lai'-in 
tchis-kwilt'.... 

ko-ya-a' 

a-no-we'.--.-. 

tsan-itl' 

kan-pi-la' .... 
n'pi-leps'-tttmt 
tchen-ni'-iltsh 

shai' 

chet-lo' 

pas-si-a' 

hwaiMt 



11. Knlleespelm 
(KiUispelm). 

Dr. Wm, F. Tolmie, 



tzalt 



kooi-ay.. 
an-uai... 
tzineelt.z 



BQ-W&t' 

tasMi-kot (not far); 
li-kot' (far). 

etl-hwa 



tspu-salt' 
hal-i^V .. 

o-na' 

ta-a' .... 
ne-ko' 



os-shatl 



r.«-1/ 



chat-laa 



Rjaf 



nikoo 



is-sail 



chail-thlais 



12. 8*chit-ziii or 
Ccenr d'Aldne. 

Bn, O. Menffarini, 



dor-dol-gnt. 
o'-de-mnm.. 



khist 

tshist 

swi-nom'-tM-mish .. 



13. Selish proper 
or Flatheads. 

Bev. G. Mengarini, 



is-is-ot .. 
pogpog6t 



sknkni'mlt 



di-e'-di-it 



khwel'-khwilt 

ta'-khokh 

zart 

kwelt 

tsin-ens 

ka-en'-got 

ze'-nel , 

tshi-li'-pot , 

ko-pe-li'-pot 

zti-ne'-ltt-lish , 

ZN-zi; h'u-hwi' .... 
hle-hlo< 



a'-l-a' .. 



a'-tt 



hla , 

tshi-tshi'-te 



khwa-kho'-al 

as-pa'-la-kol . 

la'-kho 

he 

lot 

ni-kwe 



es'-sel 



tshi'-hles 



gest 
ieie 



gest (good); gesns 
(beautiful). 

ieie (had) ; chesns, 
(deformed). 

gulgailt (is alive).. 

tli'l (is dead) 

ztflt {suhsU) 

skukulil 

koi'e 



znilz 

kaompile 

mpilepstemp 
zni'-ilz 

yo 

I'izii 

essia' 



gn^it; chga^gueit' 
(of persons). 



suet..... 
{ chi'chet 



ietlgoji 



spiszolt 

n^galip 

une 

\h 

nk<$ (inanimate); 
chinaks (animate). 

esel (inanimate) ; 
ohesel (animate). 

chcles (inanimate); 
ohehoichios (ani- 
mate). 



279 



VOCABULARIES. 



Family. 



14. Belhoola. 
Gtorge Gibhg, 



tlah'-nats. 
skwuPh .. 



skatts; al-lo- 
waich-wa(iiew) 

ee*yah' 

tish 



ach'-ko at-to-masB' 

at-to-mass' 

noos-kel-loots' — 

kwiU 

nntsh 



ee-DOotl' . . 
slim-meetr 



15. Lilowat. 
George Gibbs. 



bul-la-ral 

k'tl-mem-maao 

cfaee'-obil 



aa-ma 
ktial . 



zo'-ak 

taehji'p 

kammp 

Bhd-en-teba' 

Bhno'-wa 

uebl'-la 

wiBh-neb'-iuohtl 
shmo-laap 



16. Tait. 
George Gibbs, 



kwaain-kwnm 

lote-la- what- what' 



tach-beh'-wiu) 



yes-ei-iB 
knl .... 



sbohtl 

wich-yowtBt' ... 

kwa-latse' 

B'laoh 



wal-uokes' 

bebk-tleh'; iohw 
(far). 

wai-bee'-ae-kle- 
yookaf. 

ya-ka-mai-noocbB 

k'yai-noooha 

waia-hu 

ach'-kn 

s'lu-ma'-o 



kl-no6e' 



aB-moo6e' 



uo'-wlaap 

t&b-kein-et-lob' .. 
hu-«ht' 



Bbo-wftat 

keh-knt't; ke-kabw 
(far). 

tcbaiU-tchoo'l'-oh a 

Dat'-whaBh 

klp-Bhoh'-lasb-k'l .. 

k'w-ahehw' 

hoo-ahz' 

pal-la 



ab'-no-wasb 



kat-laaab 



meh'-yil-ha 

lak-ai 

tsam-met-sabt'-Iani 

tBam-mo-kwaiB 

ta-al'-sa 

tal-lo'-wa 

ts'-Ba-a 

tal-leh'-milh 

tnt-lo'-wup 

yis-Ba'-a 

ta-eh' 

tel-Ieb'; ta-Iah'-la.. 
mukw; to-mokw .. 
te-kagh' 



17. Ko-mookbs. 



George Gibbs, 



klalb'-sbap .... 
Bbe8b-ho-hohtl' 



ai-yh 

klach 

pokb. 



tow-aat 

td^ta'-a-tebB,* tsabkw 



tel-a-wai-yel. 

tsel-aa-katl.. 
wai-il-li88 ... 
aui'a ■■••«. . .. 

ow-wa 

tel-nt-sa 



aaa-leb; tee-saa-leb. 
klebw; tat-lefaw... 



kote-bo-kab'-a8b . 

kai'b 

chah'-chum 

kwasB'-tcb 

ohe-detl' 

deg'-yeh i. ... 

tote-sehtl' 

deb-bobtl' , 

do'-ap 

aeb'-ye-wote 



ko-te-tab', 
ab-wokw', 
kuob ..... 



g'yant-e-g'yant ... 

eb-eh'-bit ; te-deb- 
Je-ab-ta (far). 

t6ob'-kw 



BbiBb-jab-sbobtl' . 

kwai-ish-ub 

(f ) gid-dab-bwott 

bwab' 

peh-pab'-^ 



sheh'-sbab. 



cbabt-lai 



18. KuwalitBk. 



George Gibbs, 



kuiii'-kum. 
wet-blcb8\ 

bauB (Dew). 

ai. 

kulb. 

p'kahs. 

kolb. 

hal-eb'. 

kai. 

sabtMam. 

kwab'-kwuB. 

an'-Ba. 

ten-oo'-wa. 

to-Deetl. 

tole-nee-mit]. 

tole-le-wei'-lop. 

o-nab-latl. 

neelt-sa (person). 

ta-nee-ni. 

m6* kw. 

kacb. 

to-webt. 

klebtl-keb; cbabkw 
(far). 

ten-uk kw' ai-itl. 

ko>cbIl-Iab'-kitl. 

o-kwai'-it-luB. 

ab'-ba. 

ab'-wa. 

woD-iiat'-Ba. 

is-sab'-la. 

klobw. 



280 



COMPARATIVE 

Selish 



AUTUOKITY, 

Four 

Five 

Six 

Seven , 

Eight 

Niuo 

Ten 

Eleven 

Twelve 

Twenty 

Thirty 

One handred ., 

One thonsand . 

To eat , 

To drink . 

To run 

To dance 

To sing 

Sleep , 

To speak 

To see 

To love .... 

To kill , 



10. K^ispelm. 
George Gibba, 



11. Kulleespelui 
(KdlisiMilni). 

Dr, ff'm. F. TolmU. 



mOs 



tchor-ch't 



ta'-kan 



sis'-pul 



ha-a'-num 



ban-not' 



o'-puu 



at-lio-ko' 



at-la-sa(l 



es-flel o'-pMU 



chatl o'-pfin 



iu-k^l-kein 



chuk-se-itl'-nikh ... 

chtfk-8ds-tt .... 

chuk-skatl-shi 

chnk-sk wo'-mi n-shu- 
ti. 

chnk-si D -k wun-uai '- i 

chuk-s^-kel'-fihi 

chick-skul-kwal-ti .. 



chfik-yttk-8a-»t8'- 
hum. 

cbttk-in-na-mantch' 

c li u k-y it k-8 p o V- 

tSttUl. 



uioas 



tzeel 



takun 



sis-pil 



hai-aiunm 



han-noot 



opnn 



• • « • « ' 



12. S'cbit-zai or 
Cwar d'Aldue. 

Uev, G, Mmgarini, 



nios 



tsi-Ukst . 



te'-u-shekst 



tso'-uiks-tum 



ba-ho'-num 



kba'-kha-not 



o-peukst 



o'-pen-ol-ne'-k we. . 



o-pen-ol-is-ael 



es-sel' o-pen 



tacbe-hle'-lo-pen .. . 

n'ko-kain ; khe'-ZM- 
zu-ti-stu. 

a-o'-pen-tis-Btc-ken 

tshi-zi-hlen 

tshi-zoks' 

tshin-ze-kwt-nem .. 

tshi-tekwe'-in-ziXt .. 

tshi-nkwl'-ne-mish 

tHhi-zt'-tshtt-intsh .. 

tshi-eta-kwa'-k w a- 
hini. 

tsbin zgwi-ti 



hin-kha-mcnsli' ... 



13. Selish proper 
or Flatheads. 

Rev, G, Metigarlni, 

mas (inauimate); 
chmusems (aui- • 
mate.) 

zil (inanimate) ; 
cbziMzil (auimate). 

tackan (iDaoimate); 
cbtiickan (a n i - 
mate). 

si'spel (inanimate); 
chsi'-spel (a n i - 
mate ) 

hebbnem (inani- 
mate); chheh^nam 
(animate). 

gaoilt (inanimate); 
ohganut (animate). 

open (inanimate) ; 
ch'6pen (animate). 

6pen-^/-nko ( i nan . ) ; 
cb'open el cbiu^Uut 
(auimate). 

dpen-el-es^l (inan.); 
ch'6pen e{ ebcs61 
(animate). 

(ela-dpen (inani- 
mate); ob^sl 6peu 
(animate). 

chel-6pen (inan.)* 
ch'cbcl open (ani- 
mate). 

nkakein (literally 
one head;. 

openchstkan 

tncsMZni 

tnesstisti 

tnesuilmi 

tneskoimenzuti .... 

tuesukouot 

tnesitschi 

tneskolkoelti 

nichten ( I have seen ) 

ingamdntch 

io8p61sCm 



VOCABDLARIES. 
Family. 



U81 



14. Iklhoola. 


15. Lilowat. 


16. Toit. 


17. Ko-niookbB. 


18. Kuwalitak. 


• 

George Gibbs. 


George Gibba, 


George Gibba. 


George Glbbs, 


George Gihb». 


luoBe ............ 


bob'-tchin 

cbeor-kiabt 


ba-abt'-sol 

Hkebt-sns; tat- 
skcbt-suH. 


bo-aai ...•.•..•.... 


bah-ah'-aiu. 
kl-kaht-aaa. 


tse<5h w .tTT 


Beb'-at-6ai ......... 






tuoU-hohtl' 


klab-kum-Qxt .... 


tacb-hum'-nia 


tucU'-biit-al 


tuch-hani'. 


as-k't-lamiu' 


tcboot-lab-ka 


tsiihkws 


tao'-cho-sai 


aah'-kwa. 


kebtl-uo8o' 


pal-opo-6b't 


tuk-iiat-za 


ia-ah'-chish 


te-kah'-cba. 


kecsb-ma^-o ...... 


khDm-pal'-a-mil ... 
kam'-m&p 


to-o*h' 


teg-€h w 


to'bw. 


ts-kel-liiakt 


ta-aV-pel 


o'-pad 


o'-pnn. 


itl-poe'-atlish- 
mu'-o. 


kani'-tntlp wie-pal- 
la. 


ah-pel kas-telatrsa. 


o'-pad oh-ak-pab-a . 


o-pun tnn-ut-aa. 


itl-pee'-atl natl- 


kam-mup wie an'- 
uo-wasb. 


ah-pel kns-te-Baa- 
leh. 


o-pad eb-haksbah-a 


o-pnn-t«e sab-la. 


klo-ah'-sletikt 


aD-DO-wash kampsb 


ta'kwaiub 


tsum aba'-a 


ohe-kwa(f>k.' 


a8-mo8u'-sleekt .. 


kat-laasb kumpsb . . 


klo^h-whal'Bb'yab' . 


cbad-aliw aha- a.... 


klaoh-whel-sbcb'. 


ts-kel-lakt'-tleokt 


holi-cbil kompsh. .. 


laat-8o-wat9 ^. . 


te-ababMtab 


Daht-80-^itah. 

nVawilLbal-Bal-tn. 
n'a-kah'-ka. 


aatlps ........... 


8hk«i 

oh-k wail'-ka 


ol'-tul-cbel 

kah'-kat-cbel 


ohtl-tid ........... 


kochMa 


ko'-oh'-ko 


klee-kimm' 


ho-men-cboot' 


wfaal-b'yaa-lam .... 
whai-ol-icb' 

tch-lom' ........... 


iitl 


ho-ohab'-D QUI. 


nach-boom' 

uoo-yahm'-tlk ... 

chee-too-iua 

tlo-yobk'... 


boot'-suDi 


cbeht-lib ...... .... 


kwai-eb'-liab. 

n'teh'-lam. 

en-tul. 

n' 8waii-8kalil\ 


ebi'-lam...... .... . 


hwo-obo. ...... .... 


oh'-yet 

kwal-lote-tohn 
(imp.) 


eb'-tat-chal 

kwaal-tchel 


klah'-chit 


tots-k wai .... ..... 




kbiD-a-kee-hicbw . 


ats'-han 


kwaat-snt-shen .... 


ko-tah'-ta 


lom-nooh. 


sk wah m'-keets . . . 
kaikMi-t(M) 


uVbaatl 

z6*k w-tob 


noo9-k]8-eh' 

kaitrcbol 


tnta-hahtr 


nist-leb^ 
ka'-it. 


kai-tah «. 







282 



COMPARATIVE 

SelUk 



\ A'^ - » >' 



Tosit ... 
To stand 
Togo... 



Tooome 



To walk 

To work, make 



l> 'Culmiielin. 
George Gihla, 



chitk-stak'-shilah ... 

ohick-ta'-shilsh 

cbuk-flbVo'-i ; ho'- 
isb {imp,). 

chifk-naiDrch i-D al- 
tcho'-i ; tch'ho'-isb 
(imp.), 

cbttk-Bwis'-ti 



It. Kullevspelm 
(KiiliBiielm). 

Dr. fVm. F, ToVmie. 



12. S'cbit-zui or 
CoBur d'AIdne. 

Rev. G. Memgarini. 



tshin-se-mot' 
tfihin-ze'-k)t . 
tshin-bu-i ... 



tsbin-lshit z-ho'-i 



tsbin-kbwist 



13. Selisb proper 
or Flatbeads. 

Rev. G, Meiigarini. 



tDo'stlakscblacbi 

tDe'cbiaui'scb 

tDe'sqtli 



tne'sqlii 



tne'sqai'sti 



283 



VOCABULARIES. 
Family. 



14. Delhoola. 
George Oihbs, 


15. Lilowat. 
George Gibbs, 


16. Tait. 
George Gibbe. 


17. Ko*mookbai 
George CHbbs* 


16. Kuwalitiik. 
(George Gibbe. 


r-^ - 

amt'h ........... 


shmeh'-tchahk 

taat'1-laoh 


nm-mat-cbel 

kleb'-licbt-sel 

ul-sblaa-ma 

um-mebt-cbel 

eh-miobt-cbel 

vais-cbel .... ...... 


kwab-da-cbab' .... 
kwa-ohsb' 


o-ob'. 

Pber-lwb. 

ai-yil. 

mebt-la. 
eb'-misb. 


tlim'h 


obfi'-koch 

at-lehch' 

ioh-kom 


D'sb-nasb-knatl .... 
sbeb'-ma-maatl 

maa-tuk-kntl 


yacb'-beb'-la 

kwo-lab'-g'yah 

eb'-babsbah' 


kB-nam-mak'h .. . 











DICTIONARY OF THE NISKWALLl 



I. 



NISKWALLl— ENGLISH. 



By Grorgk GiDBSy M. D. 



A. 



A' akwal, the lattices of a JUth wiir, 

Ab-rik, carry (imp.). 

Abbnlts-ts't, givcj make a present of (iiup.). 

A-bel, a iiiel, if. 

Ab-shitH, give^ make a present of (imp.)* 

A'-chi, a sleeve. 

Ad zat*1e-bi(ly astzat-Iab, to be ignorant^ 

not to know. 
A- lied la, hcd-Ia, perhaps {implying dishe 

lief). 
A-h\vus-ta8-8ub, trt/iter, cold weather. 
Ai-ai'-asli, ai' yi-asb, grave^ serious. 
Ai'-gwu8, exchange^ barter. 
Ais-chibsi'dob, intermittent^ fever and ague. 
Ai-ut'-la, bai-et'-la, come quick, hurry (imp.). 
Ak, ak-ki, ak8, some. 
Akas'-kap, correct^ true^ the right. 
A-kekw, loud (as talking). 
Akb-bwad' zad, a seine^ vM. 
A'kwi ha'-kwi (dim.), in a little while. 
A1, ul, at, to. 
A^-lal, a house. 
Al'-a-Hhik, a tortoise. 
Al child', whither. 
Alkb, aMatrh, hurry^ come quick. 
Alkli-bad, down stream. 
Alsb, (plur.) u'-hiHb, brother or cousin. 



AU'b khw, uniosy freshwater mtissels. 

AltoMi, (dim.) al-to' di di, there; v. dec- 
ade. 

Aok, present or existingy used as tlie verbs 
to be and to have, 

A said'-bu, to know, understand. 

As-a'-wnl, ast-so'-wul, hungry. 

Asbaib'-hub, the first menstrual period. 

Asbal, mixed, covfused. 

A8-baIt8b, industrious. 

A8-ba8, stationary. 

As-batl, as-met1,/uZ^, satisfied. 

A8beMil. e8-meMiD, soft. 

Asbi-sad', dark. 

x\8-cbats, the menstrual (hidden) lodge. 

A8 cbe-bwab', the hives (a disease). 

A8cbe'-Iit8h, unwilling^ lazy, idle. 

A8-che'-uk-wily dirty. 

A 8 cbitsh, studded with brass nails. 

As cbab-bn, to bring wood and water. Qu. 
wait on. 

A8-cb5ltbu, to hire, hired. 

Asdekbw', a8*dukbw', in, within. 

Asb-dril8,/r/6n(2 (speaking to a man). 

As be'-butsb, curly-haired. 

As-bed T how f how much f 

As-be'-ba-cbu, as-be'-bibc', for sJiame, jo 
oosely. 

As be' kwab, aabuts', timid, afraid. 



286 



As hep', striped, 

Ashlukl-kat, as-klakl-ka, spotted (of an 

aniinal), 
A'-shid, a'-shnd, a friend {speaking to a man). 
Asbokw, a standing tree. 
Asho'-yOs, ikh-hc/-yQ8, stammering, 
As-bu, a seal, 
As-ha cba'tus, hook-nosed, 
A^-8bad:dikbl, ihre placenta, 
As-hudsks', striped, 
As-bukw, upside down, 
Asbu-Ie'-a-kwatl-datl, to pull the lip down, 
As-huts^ as-be'-a-kwab, timid^ afraid, 
Asbwa'-kwil, tired, 
As-bwat'-sab, empty, 
Asbwe'-bwilnk, childish, 
As-bwe'kus, coughing, 
As-bwokb-w't, worn out, 
As-bwetsb, scratched, 
As-bwQMukh'-bwn, strong {as a man), 
As-hwnV'kn J foolishj drunks unchaste, 
AshwaMe-uks, unth the ears pierced, 
As-bwuMup, lame, 

As-bwuls-bwuti-gwns (meaning unknown). 
As-bwat', torn, 
As-i'lakwnt, lecherous. 
Asis'-ta, sOy asy like. 
Ascbab'-ba, to carry, 
As-cbulp, twisted, 
As-dat, isdat, midnight. 
As-dekhw', as-dokhw, tcithin, 
As-dut'cbo, one, 
As-dzed'-za-be', pregnant, 
As-dze-gwa'-tub, crazy, 
As-ed-i-gwut f what is said f 
AB'&-ukHi J forked {as a river or road). 
As-e'uk-se'ak (plur.), with many forks {as 

the delta of a river). 
As-guk, as gak, open, 
Asguk'-kel, sunshiny, bright 
Asguyiu-tud, marshy, miry. 
As-gwa'duk'w, Jiorned, a buck. 
As-gwi-ba'-had, fringed. 
As-bal, embroidered, figured^ written. 
As-bat-sitcb, covered {as with a blanket). 
As-jadsb, Vie neck. 



Asjiakf as-sbekw, shallow. 

As-kad'-as, open-mouUied, 

As-katsks, pug-nosed, 

As-kau'itsb, hunchbacked, 

As-ke'-a-kab, tangled {as thread), 

As-ke^lits, tight {as a dress). 

As ki'-up, ticklish, 

Askla'-betf to hear, 

As-klakb'-ka, as-bluklknt, spotted (of an 
animal), 

As-klakbw, as-tlakbw, large, grouping large, 

As-kle'-da-lekbw', lisping. 

As klekbw, klekbw, three, 

As-kle'-ak, as-tle'-nk, sticky, adhesive. 

As-klo'il, as-klokb-wil, lean, cold, 

As-kluds'-bn-bOs, dull (as a tool). 

As-klalkb, spotted. 

As-ko I5b. Qasere gray. 

As ka cba' go pats, with tJte hair parted be- 
hind. 

Ask-bes^ staring, to stare. 

Ask-bu-sbb'-a-gwus, '* hatchetfaced ", sharp- 
faced, 

Askuk'b, lying on the back, right side up, 

Askalb (meaning uncertain). 

As ku-lo'snm, steep. 

As kwad-zil, yellow or light green. 

As-kwad zis, vexed. 

As-kwai'-i, wi ted, withered, 

As-kwaPgwus, crosswise, 

As-kw6tsb, scratched. 

Askwe'-akw,as-kwe'-yukb,corpwfen*,j>r«/- 
nant. 

As-la'-gwit-sa, naked. 

As-hlkb, light. 

As-lo, a hole. 

AslOkb, split. 

Aa-lolcbid, to hear. 

Aslo'-kwutcb, bald, 

As-lukw, slakw, wet, 

As-Iukwa-dnb {or dop), muddy, 

As•lutsb^/u/{ (as a kettle, &c.). 

As-mal'-ko, menstruation. 

As-miW, friend (speaking to a woman). 

Aspe'-a-kail', brittle. 

As-pe' aken, a dead or old mossy tree. 



287 



As |>o!', broad ^ thick. 

A8pi-tletl'-8iiby with the fuind raised to tlie 
head. 

A8-pnd, tJie roots of plants^ a lieap of earth. 

As-pu'-kwub, above tide-water (of land). 

A8-pnkwas, round-headed. 

Aspa' 111, chaste. 

As $il'-sum, clotliedj dressed. 

As-shup', dried {asfishj &c.). 

Assbats, bring (imp.). 

Assbekw', as-shi'-akw, shallow. 

As'-sbi (meaning doabtfal). 

As-ta'-bed, furred or hairy. 

As-takh' ha-gwil, lying on tlie belly (of per- 
sons only). 

A8-tak-hu], chapped {as the hands). 

As-tsi'-ko, thirsty. 

As-t'hlai'-uts, syphilis {in a man). 

As-tikwa'-de, deaf. 

As-ti-kwa'dit, ignorant, stupid. 

Ast-kW-kos, blind. 

As-tla'-bOt, to understand. 

As-tlakbw, tlakbw, large, growing large. 

As-tletl, tattooed. 

Astlakt'kl, spotted {of an animal). 

A«j-tle'-uk, as-kle'-uk, sticky, adhesive. 

Ast-lug-wa'-di, an ear-pendant. 

As-to' a-bnts, spotted. 

As to^-ka-ba-dob, a cough, consumption. 

Ast-san' o, syphilis (i/i* a woman). 

Astse'-po lil, with the eyes closed. 

Ast-so'-wnl, as-a'-wul, hungry. 

As-tsak-liot, a standing tree. 

As-tsnp, a puddle. 

As-tutl-kwa^-bad, dinted or notched. 

Ast-zak, a fallen tree. 

Ast-zat-lab, ignorant, uninformed. 

As-yo'-bil, dead {of animals), still-born. 

At-a-bud, deud {of persons only). 

At-chi>da'-chi-dn, an interjection ofsurpriae. 

At-hlanolgwuu'-hu, 'the west, the country 
on the sun^s road to the west. 

A-ti-la'-bi, te-la^-hi, presently (in the course 
of the day). 

A-ti-s1akh'heI, to-day, to-night. 

At'-la, ul'-la, to come, bring. 



At-la'-hu, ^Himes^; the number of tiines any- 
thing lias been done. 

At-tel-gwiti, on this side. 

At'-sa, at-sa, I. - 

At-sbus-ka'-lQs, eyelids. 

At-si-gwas, to barter, buy, sell. 

At-sil-tel'-mo, people. 

Ats-le paldati, lips. 

At-sads, atrsats, present or existing {used as 
a verb), to be, to have. 

Au-teks, calf of the leg. 

B. 

Ba'-ba-ad, offspring, young. 

Ba'-chid, ma^-chin, the testicles. 

Bad, m^u, father. 

Ba^-ko, ma'-ko, snow. 

Ba'-kwob, ma'-kwom, a prairie. 

Bal-bul-le', bait for fishing. 

Ba-lot'-sid-dub, to marry a brother^s widmc. 

Bat-suts, betf-sats, a snake. 

Be'-a-kwail^-sat, to shake, tremble. 

Beb'-da, a didl. 

B6b-kdd, to pick or gather nuts. 

Bcb'kwu, all. 

Beb-kwu-chad, everywhere. 

BeP-kwa, back, come back. 

Besk'-ba, bes'-kwu, the edible crab. 

Beskh-chad, lice. 

Be'-yets, the flesh of animals and birds. 

Bi-dotl, tlie white-fish, coregonus. 

nn al-bab, bila'-la-bab, to kneel. 

BlaPgwa, the navel. 

Blops, a raccoon. 

Bokw, all. 

Bokw-detl', all of them. 

Bo 'kwi cbad, weryivJiere. 

Bokwi sa'-le, both. 

Budsb, a lie, it is a lie. 

Bnl-kut-shed^ to return, come back. 

BaMits, to pay. 

C. 

Cba, a hole in the ground. 
Oha^-ad, 0'Chad^ to dte. 
Cba'chug'-wuSjCba'-chukw, ojf sJiore, keep 
off. 



288 



Cha'-chns, cha^-cliesh, small^ UtUCy a boy. 

Cha'-bed, to ridicule, 

Cbful, where. 

ChaclK, cliats, acorns. 

Cha'dnts, an oak. 

Child zil, hide yourself {imp.). 

Cba'-Iekw, the icild tuUpy lilium. 

Cba'-lesb, iJie lower arm^ wrist. 

Oba^-lesb-atSy the brake fern. 

Cbalko, a well. 

Gbiip, limber^ soft. 

Cbatb'-a-bed, the handle of a knife. 

CbatbuB, a round head^ not flattened. 

Chan ai, shells. 

Gba^wa-tuby cba'-hwut, to cutj to cliop. 

Gbe-bad, cbe-ba'-dats, tlie Haw and luiw- 

tlwrn. 
Cbe'-lit»b, as-che'-litsh, idle^ lazy. 
Ohelp'-lin, a gimlet. 
Cbesl^ba, 8^cbe8t^-ba, husband. 
Cbetcb^-tla, stony. 
Chel'-hi, a rock or stone. 
Obet-la bdUsb, an iron pot. 
Cbe-yadsb', to cheat. 
Cbicba'-cbil>wi, the Uralia. 
Gbicbitcb-tia, graveU 
Cbid-cba bu (meauiiig not ascertained). 
Gbikb-kekb^-tuby to kill by knocking on the 

head. 
Gbi-kot^-8id (meauiug uncertain). 
Cbikwup'-sub, kl-k\\ap-8Qbtab, to choke 

in swallowing. 
Gbil ko^-ba, cbil-ko'-bat8, the raspberry and 

bush. 
Gbilpo'-ted, to make sail. 
Gbilt-8e', a doe elk. 
Gbi raas', a sister-in law [to a man). 
Gbisb ai', afl^hingpole. 
Gbitcb, near, come near (imp.). 
Gbit-lak, es-cbat, a bark mat. 
Gbit-leJ, the razor-clam. 
Gbit8-cbid-esb'-bud, a|?iw, a toothpick. 
Gbitsli-la'bwats, tlie wild pea. 
Gbi-wakb', the salmon-trout. 
Gho' tid, to gnaw. 
GbOt-bi, B'cbot-la, leaves of the maple. 



Gbot-lats, choot-lats, the maple. 
GbOtsb-Ot-lutSy a place where maples grow. 
Gbiy-tub, a flea. 
Gbnb'busb, ftro^Acr- or sistcrin-law {to a 

woman). 
Ghub-o'-ba, broad leaves of trees. 
Gbag'-wnsb, a wife. 
Gbukcbak-wets, large beads. 
Gbakbbad', to split. 
Gba-lalt8, to lend or borrow. 
Gbulput-tad, to bore {as with a gimlet). 
Gbu'-sad, a star. 

D. 

Da'-da-to, to-morrow. 

Da'bu, dakhw, just now. 

Dai, dai-ai', die', only, but, except. 

Da le'-te, anotiier^ otlier, different. 

Daat'-si, the body. 

De'-a-de/, dc'-dide', there, close by. 

Dea-le'-cbup, beyond. 

De bad, mi-man, small, a child. 

De-bad-da, de be'-ba-da, an infant, son. 

De-beds, beyond. 

Dekhw, de-ukb, in, within. 

Del, kel, kul (meauiug not ascertained). 

Del-gwa, they. 

Dia'-bats, beyond. 

Di'da-bokb, turnips. 

Di-di, dea-de', there, close by. 

Di-e', only, but, except. 

Di el, di elgwiti, across, on the other side. 

Do'-kwi bati, No-kwimatl, the Skagit name 
for a principal mythological character, 
familiar also to the Niskwalli. 

Do-te', you, you there {addressed to. a man). 

Dotisb'i-ba, ^oti there {to a man, with re- 
spect). 

Dot-si, you, you there {addressed to a woman), 

Dag-kus-sed, to hook or fasten {as a dress). 

Dug- we, thou, you (sing.). 

Dub'^el, flood-tide. 

Dnke-k'k snd, to wipe the nose, 

Dn-shakbw', to string beads, 

Dut-cho, as-dut-cbo, one. 

Dza-a' cbi, the right Iiand, 



289 



Dza'-a-gwat, 1o rod' {as a cra/lle), 

Dza'dis, the teeth. 

Dzaha^-legwut, to the right 

Dza' ka-gwil, to lean. 

Dzal'-gwa, the large barnacle. 

DzalkOs, to turn over in bed. 

Dza'-8bid, (i)lur.) dza-sh'd sbid, tliefoot, t-ie 

right footy feet. 
Dze'-hu, dzi'-hu, litldze'hn, ^r«f,/or<?mo*/. 
Dzokwusb-tab, the tide. 
Dzo'lak, a distaff. 
Dzol-cbn, tcavesy surf, 
Dzaddok-ted et>U the eradU stick or rocker. 
Dzakb^-tzat, to move, make room. 
Dzukb-bwalts, od-zukbw, to melt {as «7totr). 
Dzuk-kel, to stoop. 
Dzuk-kad, dza kad, the sound ofwiietting on 

a stone. 

E. 

Bbab'zicbu, a beach. 

E^-basb, to walk. 

E' babash, on foot. 

E'-bat8, e'-mnta, grandchild. 

E' bib, e'-pip, e'-miui, to copulate. 

E'-dad, a fish weir ^ also one oftlui constella 
tio7is so called. 

E e', eekh', yes. 

E-hwal-kab, c-hwul-kwab, a bay or Imrbor. 

Ek'-ke, ik'ki (a particle of iucrease). 

E'-kwia, e'kwed, to wipe. 

E'-la cbid, to pull the hair. 

E'- la- bad, border or edge of anything j tlte 
horizon. 

E'-lak, the stern of a canoe. 

E'-lot-sid, tlie outlet of a river. 

EMuks, e'lahus, the end or point of any- 
thing. 

E'-8i-ab, an eapression of flattery; ^^yes, 
chiefs. 

Esket^-a-hu, sket, the new moon. 

Eskb-kos'tnra, compress for flattening the 
head. 

Bs-melMin, asbet'-lie, softy pliable^ limber. 

Es pak, a penis with retracted foreskin. 

Es-takh'-a-ba, dark of the moon {gone out), 
19 



G. 



Qetl, guti, gwutl, of or belonging to. 
Gakh-bad, gakhhed, unstrung {a^ a bow)y 

untiedy loose. 
Gak-kot sid-dub; {v. o-gak), to open. 
Gaksbids, open (imp.)- 
Gal, gwal (meaning unknown). 
Gutl, gwutl, of or belonging to. 
Gut-te'-ud, a singing in theflre. 
Gwa'-dukw, a horn. 
Gwa-le'-ukw, waves. • 
Gwiit, who. 

Gwat-cbu ? gwat-ko f who are you f 
Gwisbe-lus, bushy haired. 
(^^wistulb, se-gwis-tulb, earthy sand. 
Gwitl (meaning unknown). 
G witsb'-gwitsh, to move from place to place. 
Gwudbebw', gwud-be'-hwuts, the dewberry 

and vine. 
Gwud'-del, sit (imp.). 
Gwiilalt', to kill, wound, strike. 
GwuMe'-chid (meaning not understood). 
G wus-sOb^, a species ofgrasSy a coarse thread. 
Gwutl, gutl, getl, of or belonging to. 
Gwut'-cbid, lookfory seek (imp.). 
Gwutl sbid, I miss {a m4irk). 

H. 

Ha akw', by and by. 

Had dub, s'bad-dub, summer. 

Hads, ba'-buds, a species of clam, lutraria. 

Hads-kus, long-nosed. 

Had'Zal'-yutsid, a long chin. 

Hadzub, the kamas-rooty squUla esculenta. 

Hai, enoughy stop {when helped to food). 

Hiii-et'la, ai-ut'-la, come qvicky hurry. 

Haio'bwa, hwai o, a fly. 

Haiuk' lo, quicky let u>s go. 

Hai-3'el, broken {as a horse). 

Halatlchitl, a species of thistle. 

Oa-le^, ha-Iikb', alive. 

lla-lekw', a spoon. 

Qal-gwa^ ; qu. shCy she who. 

Oapa-bed, the scallop. 

Hatl, goody glady pleased. 



290 



Hatlka^-chis; qu, good-natured. 

liatl^-tid, brother-in-law to a man (the wife 
living). 

Hats, tall, long. 

Butsa-bedak, ski^i leggings. 

Hatshid, to correct. 

Ha^8ud-8hid, a species of strawberry. 

Hau-wi-lo', the hermit-crab. 

lla-wet^-sa, tJie stone crab. 

He'-a-ked, to scratch the head. 

Hea'-Hbud, thankyou (byonemanto another). 

He'- bid, to scratch. 

Hed'-du-ya, n^rcr. 

Hed-la, a-hed-Ia, perhaps {implying disbe- 
lief). 

Hekhka'-bats sukh-pats', spool-thread. 

Hek-hobt, an oar. 

Hckhpai'yultsh, a large dish or plate. 

Hckw, large. 

Ht'-kwetl, red. 

He'kwet-solit'za, a red blanket 

He-kwetMutsli, red-haired. 

Hekwgwil-de', a mnle. 

nekws'ho'-ytib, dear (in price). 

HeMab, labt, see (imp.). 

Hes-ko, thanks (used by woman to man). 

Bets, raw. 

Bet-sil, for shame. 

He'-wil, he'-wil-la, begone (imp.)i go aw, (as 
with a story). 

He-nk'-aMa, o-kul'la, to thank one. 

Hi-paikhtl', h'pai'-ats, Oregon cedar, thuja. 

Hi-tot-sa, black, dark blue or grten, dark- 
colored. 

Hi-totsa-1it'-z$i, a dark blanket. 

Ho-bai'-ut-sid, to pout 

Ho'-bed, throw out (imp.), bail out (as a car 
noe). 

Ho'-bel, bo'-bc-lo, stop talking. 

Hobt, a paddle. 

Hob-ti, the ash. 

Ho-lu)b-ti-kobo, the ventral fins of a fish. 

Hod, hot, fire. 

Hod-de', HuD«ue', a mythological personage. 

Ho'-di, s'lio'-di, the toad-fish, cottus, the 
Pleiades. 



Hoduk-sid, to light (as a candle). 

Uo-elb, thread. 

Ho'i, goodrbye. 

Ilo-kokw, white. 

Ho kok, dollar, silver. 

Bok-kolit'za, a white blanket. 

Hok-k'bap, tlie hip, on tlie hip. 

Ho-kwaikhw', light blue. 

Hokwats, yellow or light green. 

Ho-Il'wxxXa, frightened, afraid. 

Ho-kwe'-lisb, smoke, fog. 

Bol, entire. 

Ho'-la, hooMa, bo'-lus, bo-lakht', if, per- 

Jiaps. 
Hot, bod,^r6. 
Hotbot, speak (imp.). 
Botl, tJie larger dentalium shells. 
Ho-tot'-sobam, to sJioot (with gun or bow). 
Hotsb, rough water. 
Bo'-yil, to become, to grow like. 
Hoyokb, ho-yukhw', stop, finish (imp.). 
Bo-yut, do (imp.). 

Bu, bwu, a 8uffix denoting locality. 
Bubda'ad, the womb. 
Bu-bo'-8id, o-po'-snd, to throw, to ca^t. 
Bucba'bwo-pud, a whip. 
Hu-cbe'akad, the large sea-mussel. 
Bacbilpe'-gwud, a gun-screw. 
Bnd-degweg'-sa-le, a ^^ ditty-boy^. 
Bad de'-bu, baddekbw', in, within. 
Biid-deld. Qu. for. 

Bud'-do, the humpbacked salmon, 8. proteus. 
Bud-sb'id'-bid, a snowshoe. 
Bud zad-mit, tlie human skin. 
Buida'-litld, to cook. 
Bnkbbud, to lash or lace with a cord. 
Bak-ked, bak-ke'ud, topiek up with iongs^ 

&c. 
Bu-ko-ked, the crown of the head. 
Bak-kdt-sid, covered, with the lid on. 
Buk-she ded', a string or cord. 
Buk-kwd^solit-za, a green blanket. 
Bu-kwas'-sud, a towel. 
Ba-kwe'-a-kod, a cup. 
Bu-kwul-letsb', the roe of crabs. 
BaMai-yutsid, large storage-baskets. 



291 



ITal-lat'-sid, a species of fungus used for red 
paint. 

HuI-leK-cio-pSd, the floor of a house, 

IlaMo-a'-sed, hulwa'-sed, a bed or bed- 
place in a lodge. 

Hulto m&ls^ bwulti-malsh, a gun. 

IIiiMo-bo-lit-za, a white blanket. 

Hun-ne^ Hod-de^ Hwuu-ue', a mythological 
chara^iter. 

Hup hapy the ground grape^ [tuber ofequise- 
turn). 

Hash-kos, light blue cloth or flannel. 

Has-kwi-dak'-ke (meaning unknown). 

Hutch, the unllj wishj opiiiionj niind. 

Hati, like in appearance. 

Hut-Ia^-lekw, to suck^ to raise a blister by 
suction. 

Hutid, bitten. 

Hutl-pa-lolkwid, the under eyelid. 

HntMu-gwul le'-gwad-dub, a posthumous 
child. 

Hut-se'-lupid, a saddle. 

Hutsgo-sad, soap. 

Hut'Sba'-to-bid, s^hmhsh^'-bedj footprints. 

Hntsb-kla'-lus, the eyeballs. 

Hutshuts-^ts, the wild geranium. 

Hut-t5ts, bl€u:kj or any dark color. 

Hut-tut- tap^ a two-edged knife. 

Hu'-ye-lo, to become^ to be changed or trans- 
formed. 

Hwai'-o, hai-o'-hwa,^ie«. 

Hwai'-yu, the knee-pan. 

Hwal'-ittit, to snorCj to purr, 

Hwas, sa-bwaii', it. 

Hwat8'l•ha^ the inside of the thigh. 

Hwiitl, a pillow. 

Hwe', no. 

Hwe'-a-ke, saw-grass. 

Hwea-kwas'-sub, to hcuig on^s self. 

Hwe^-cbidOp, to plough. 

Hwe'-kit-sn, to rub against anyone.^ 

Hwe'kwa-di, thunder; also the Thunder 
Birdj whose wings create the sound. 

Hwe'-kwibnkh'-hwa'-chi, tlie knuckles. 

Hwe'-kwi-e^-uk, the dake-urchinj scutelUi. 

Hw'1-bul-wild, thwarts of a canoe. 



Hwe'-lad i, the cheeks. 

Hwiukh'-kwi-ekw', kwiekw', a sailofs 

^^palm^^ a thimble. 
Hwiu-hwil-mekhw, a baby-house. 
Hwo^-skns, sharp pointed. 
Hwub-bud, throwj put (imp.). 
Hwndznks, bwudsks, sharp-pointed. 
Hwnl, to, tcith. 
Hwnl-hwul-kdk-shid, to make a fool of one's 

self. 
Hwnis, sliarp edged. 
Hwulti-maish, hul-to-mals, a gun. 
Hwutsh, the sea. 
Hwul-tam, a white man. 
Q wun-ne'. See " Hanne' ". 
Hwnt-bwulb, loose (as a dress). 
HwQtl, to breaJcj to separate. See also 

" Come^j " Eat^j Part II. 
Hwut-letsbt, to break {as a stick). 
Hwutl ma-cbin, to castrate. 
Hwut8ed-tid to pot-t'd, take in sail (imp.). 
Uwut-so-sat-cbi, the palm of the hand. 
Uwut-sutcb, the posteriors. 



I. 



I-basb, to steal upon a woman at night. 

Ikb che-gwa'-snb, to take a wife. 

Ikbbup'a-gwa, t'hup-a gwa'-sud, to fold up 
{as a blanket). 

Ikb-o' yu8, as-bo'-yus, to stammer, stammer- 
ing. 

Ikb-pe'-lus, a flattened head. 

Ik'-ki, ek-ke, a particle of increase. 

II cbakh^ half {in quantity). 

Ilbwatl, apart of anything. 

IMakb, half {in length). 

Is dat, as-dat, midnight. 

Isb'iba, an interjection denoting con- 
tent. 

Issa^, an interjection of impatience. 

Is'sbi, andy (qu. besides^ together with). 

l8-sbi-de', very, a strong asseveration. 

Is-tutlakb', last night. 

It-lug-wuts, the middle {of length). 

It-sa'-li-tut-tnb, to tell one's dreams. 



292 



J. 



Jad-8hiby a fxeclclace. 

Josb-id, claw of a crah^ the thigh. 

•lokhy proud, 

Juz^-wa, Zug'-WiXy frights J mofisters. 

K. 

Kn, many (theplaral sign). 

Kii'-bai, a girl not yet arrived at puberty. 

Kab-tled, to fold. 

Ku-dai'-ya, the liairy-tailed ratj neotoma. 

KfuV-lia, the mouth. 

Kiidzakh^, kad-zukh', entrails. 

Ka-gvvul'hw, flax. 

Ka-batlahu, often^ many times. 

Kii-holgwan'-hu, k'kol-gwunbu, t/ie eastj 
tlie country on tlie sun's road in tiie east. 

Ka-hos, ka bo' siu, a club. 

Kai-ik', a foal 

Kaikbw, skaikb, inland^ tlie interior^ up- 
stream. 

Kai-ukhkwa, the neck. 

Kakh'-po, ka-po'hnta, hazel-nuts and bush. 

Ka'-kani, salU 

Kakhw, kakb-bwuts, crab apple and tree. 

Ka'-let cbi, the left hand., 

Ka'-I5b, ka'-luR, tlie eye. 

Kal-sbid, the Uftfoot. 

Kals, tlie sun-flower root. 

Ka-ma'-ni, the sea-snail. 

Ka-se', uncle on either side ichile the parent 
is living. 

Kats-a'g Wilts, spiraea. 

Kau'its, a hunchback, 

Kaukb, tin^ tin ware. 

Kawob, to Iwwl as a wolf or dog. 

Ke' akulkb, herring-roe. 

Ke'-cbai, ground-moss. 

Ke-kai'-.yok8, trolling-line for fishing. 

Kekh-bu, kaikbw, inland^ up-stream, 

Kek-li elsk, a game similar to hockey or 
bandy. 

Ke'-ko-wuts, the grasshopper. 

Kel, kul, gal (meauing aukuown). 

K«-Iab, ke'lo-bit, a canoe (generic). 



Kelt, the skunk-cabbage. 

Ke-i)dt1, a stone mortar or metate. 

Kes, the higliest or four-point in dice. 

Ket-becbaib', ground-pine^ creeping ever- 
green. 

Ketsli, dear in price* 

Ke-uk-ut-sbid, to hobble or fetter (as a 
liorsc). 

Ke-ya', brittle. 

Ke'-ya, a grandmother or great-aunt. 

Ke-yap-tab, o-kiup, to tickle. 

Kb'ab, heavy. 

K'bo^'biibelts, white pebbles. 

Kik-dzo'-hap, tlie yarrow. 

Kla'bads, eel-grass. 

Kla-bat' sab, to cross on^s self sign with the 
cross, 

Kla'-cbub, bring firewood (imp.). 

Kla'dap, tofeed, give to eat. 

Kla'-de-el'-Ii, under leaves of bulbous plants. 

Kla'-di, a fallen tree. 

Kla'-gwits-ab, to strip owPs self. 

Kla-bai'-lnMus, the evening star. 

Klai, a sliovel nose or burden canoe. 

Kla'-kwu, by and by, 

Klakb, darkj night. 

Klakbw, us tlakbw, to grow large. 

Kla'-kwa-lekw, to lick. 

Klakw'-tid, a mat-needle. 

Klal, klalbas (meauiug uuknown). 

Ela' lad, kla-lad-kli, presently, soon. 

Kla'-lap, klal-Inp, the tongue. 

Kla'-latsa'ta, wait (imp.). 

Klab-bi-3ukb, weaned. 

Ela'-lel, to land, come to land. 

Klal-gwus, united. 

KlaV-leksbub, to put out the tongue. 

Klap, to hide, cache anything. 

Kla-pdk, afternoon. 

Klat'-sup-pad, a buckle, belt. 

KlatA, the belly. 

Klaat, klo-wut, new, fresh. 

Kleb'-bud, tsub'-bed, a spoon. 

Kle-beds, on one side. 

Ele'-cb'm, a weasel. 

Kle-cbiK-ke-dub, to cut the hair. 



293 



Kle-dab, fiMng line. 

Kle-dap, haUbut'liook, 

Kledeeb, a hermaphrodite. 

Kle'-did, tied. 

Kled' gwild, kled-tid, a rope. 

Kle-jit-chi, sharp-edged. 

Klekli (meauiug aukuown). 

Klc-kwa/litsb, to catch on {as on a tJu)rn). 

Klekhw, a8-klekhw, three. 

Kte-kwud, an iron fish-hook. 

Klel'-gwid-gwul, a hook, liooks and eyes. 

Klelkh, to turn aMde. 

Kl^l'-la-gwub, bring fire (imp.). 

Klelts, to hand fo, lielp. 

Klemhwe'-la, haiL 

Klep; klip, ^!e-pa'-buts, beneath^ under. 

Kletl-pikw, a woman's dress (modern). 

Klet-ud, to prick (as with a pin). 

Kle-uk' wud, a halibut-hook {of wood), . 

Kle'-yut (meaning unknown). 

Kl-be^ litsh, Htandj stand up (imp.). 

Kl bols, kl-bOl sut8, cranberry and vine. 

Kl hwat-8ut8, shrub of evergreen huckle- 
berry. 

Kl'-bwai', tlhe winter salmony 8. canis. 

Kli-kwa'-lit8, to snap {as a dead stick break- 
ing). 

Klip-pud, the eyelashes. 

Klip, tlip. iSec"Klep". 

Klit-lc'-abilluka, klo'a-bil-luks, beads. 

Kl'ka-lid, a kamas-sticky a stick for digging 
rootSy i&c. 

Klk\vap-8ub-tub, cbikwup-sub, to choke, 
strangle. 

KIo, tlo, khi, tlu, prefix denoting tbe futu«*e. 

KiOb, tlob, good, right, well. 

KtOb a8-i8^ta, it is good, good so, 

Klob o ta', tliat is right. 

Klobob-klob, good-natured. 

KiOb kut Hi-labt, look out, take care. 

Klo bob, to hunt. 

Klo'-bi-ebl, meteors, falling stars. 

Klo^-bwul, enough. 

KiOkb-klokb, oysters. 

Klo kwatl, the sun. 

Klo kwels-bid, tl^e skin of a bulb or tuber. 



Kidp, sunrise. 

Klo'snt, a gun-charger, a load for a gun. 

Kl6ts-a-lekw', to tie 

Klowil alp', to gallop. 

Kl'pat', the figures on baskets. 

Kin, tin. See^'KW. 

Kiuk-bu, klukb-ko, hard or strong, not 

brittle. 
Kluk shid, lame, an odd shoe or stocking. 
Klul-dnkbw', enough. 
Kluls, klul'-set, k\alts,st(^ (doing or going) 

(imp.). 
Klup, a hill. 
Klutl-te-de'-wuf, seeds. 
Ko, tcater, q. v. dn Fart II. 
Ko'-bai, sko'-bai, a dog. 
Ko-babahid, ko-bo'h-sbid, the ankle. 
Ko-bal'-it, an axe. 

Ko-bat' 8bid, ko-mat-8bin, a rainbow. 
Kobhwnl ia'-bad, ko-bnkh-wnt-sbid, the 

elbow. 
Ko bwa' ebi, ko-bwai'-cUi, the nails. 
Ko-kal e' kwu, copulation. 
Kolas'-tan, the service-berry. 
Kolatsb', to take small fish with a rake. 
Kolt chut8, arbutus tnenzesii. 
Komatl'-kcd, a dog^s hair blanket. 
Ko-o'-dak. (Qu.) to give a feast. 
Ko' pel-la, tl^e codfish. 
Kot, a mat of fiat rushes. 
Kotsa-dit8, to kiss. 
K'po'-sud, tofiatten the head. 
K'8-8i'-o, a porpoise. 

K'sok-tal k'set'cbi, nails of fingers and toes. 
Knda' (bo-lus ku-da') (meaning not 

known). 
Knk'b, elder brother (by a man). 
Kul, kcl, pul (meaning unknown). 
Knla-lai;'hu, brass. 
Kulkb, salmon roe. 

KuMa'-kabid, the shells of crustaceans. 
KuMa'-ligwut, to the left, 
Knl-lub', bad, wicked, vicious. 
Kul-sid, to cook with hot stones. 
Kult8-e' bu, get up (imp.). 
Kup-lusb, a slung-shot, a loaded stick. 



294 



Kwaci, a inosquito, 

Kwad-dat8b, to take back {a present). 

Kwa-de'a-kwats, oottonwoody populm. 

Kwad'b, a message. 

Kwadsa-lat^ ba, a brass kettle. 

Kwa'gwitcb, a buck elk ; also the constella- 
tion Ursa Major. 

Kwai'-ha, a landing-net for fish. 

Kwai-i-bot-li, come a^lu>re (imp.). 

Kwai'-ikbl, to send one on an errand. 

Kwai'-toltsb, back-baskets or sacks. 

Kwak-wa-stdi-miukb, a fabulous race of pig- 
mies. 

Kwal, crooked. 

Kwal, tame. 

Kwa'-litrb, pitchy gum. 

Kwa'-lius, kwal'-yus, an adae. 

Kwalts, boil (imp.). 

Kwas' do lit' za, a goaVs-tcool blanlet 

Kwasb-it^ to count. 

Kwas'-al-8bid, the paunch. 

Kwatid, to throw down, throw away. 

Kwa'tan, skwa'tad, a mouse. 

Kw^ase-ats, the lupin. 

Kwe'-ad, to shout, call to any one. 

Kwe' a-kwe', bea^is. 

Kwe'-cbid, to split open, to burst. 

Kwed, how many t 

Kw6d, kwedt, tfie beard. 

Kwedi-gwns, to tvrestle. 

Kwe-kwa-de'-a-kwats, the aspen. 

Kwe'-kwats, the tule rush. 

Kwe'-kwi-ie, the skate (fi^ih). 

Kwe'-kwua,/<?M7. 

Kwe'-kwul-li, grass, herbs. 

Kwe-lo'-litsb, a basket. 

Kwelp, roots of trees. 

Kwe tukht'-li, come ashore. 

Kwid-do-bai'-oched, kwud-duljba'-lob, the 
handle of anything. 

Kwid-datsbads, shake hands (imp ). 

Kwi-ekw, bwi ukb'-kwi -ekw', a sailor^s 
^^palm^\ a thimble. 

Kwil-la'-di, the ear. 

Kwi8b-k\Yisbks, an awl. 

Kwi-yukb', kwi-yo'k, the belly. 



Kwo-ot-did, killed. 

Kwotaitsit, the sturgeon. 

KwOt/ lecliid, to quench, throw water on. 

Kwn-da-be'duts, the dogwood^ cornus. 

Kwud-dub-ba'lob, kwid-do-bai'-o-chid, iJie 

Iiandle of anything. 
Kwudzab, lichens, mosses, die. 
Kwul, cooked, done. 
KwuMa'chi, the starfish. 
Kwul-ot'-sid, saliva. 
Kwiil-lus'-ti-o, fAe oulakan, ihaleicllhys 

Orcgona. 
Kwul'-hits, evergreen huckleberry. 
Kwus-is'-tas, in this way, thus. 
Kwus-Ratld', the mane of a horse. 

L. 

Labt, 1a-bid'-t1e'y he-lab, see! see ye (i(ii]>.) 

Lab bo- bad, a vest, or waistcoat. 

La-bais'la. Qu. to come or go witJtout pur- 
pose. 

Labal, slabal, the game of hand, game of 
di^sks. 

La-hod, to stab. 

Lak, back, behind,{for compouuds see Part 
II.) 

Laka'-lotsid, the knee-pan. 

Lakh, light. 

La le', lul le, another, other. 

Lale' kwus, another, different. 

La-le'it-ub, lale'-ilukbw, to alter or 
cliange. 

La-lel, lalil {see lei), /ar. 

La le'-o-sil, to alter in appearance. 

La-Iad'hu, icait (imp.). 

Lappeld', to drive animals. 

Le bed'-cbu, as-bed'cba, what is the mat- 
ter with you f 

Le-he'-lel-lu8, the morning star. 

Lekb'bu, ak-bo, stiort (in dimension). 

Le'-knd-ja, to fish with a rake. 

Lei, lil, la-lel, lalil, /ar. 

Le-le'-yi-was, tJie constellation Orion. 

Lel-sbudst, the bowsman of a canoe. 

Lel'-tsut, lil'-tstit, move farther, bcoff{\m\}.). 

Let-as- bukbw', tlie autumn. 



295 



Lil, lei, la-lil, la-lel, /ar. 

LiMsut, lel-tsut, be off {imp,), 

Lil-kwi, a wooden dish or plate. 

LitI, a particle deuoting directiou. 

Litl-dzi'-ha, before^ go before. 

Litl-lak, litl-e^-lak, back^ go behind, 

Lit'lelgwitl, a little %cay off, 

Lit1odag^-wit8b, round the middle. 

Lo^-gwua, a cape or cloaJc. 

Lo'-lutl, old (of persons). 

Lot-lil, to grow large. 

Lad hn chad-hn, where now f 

Lag-wub, a youths yaung man. 

Lukh, the ribs. 

Lukh^-shid, a torch or candle. 

Luk- wai, a dish of stone or crockery. 

Luk-kw&t-lad, to drive animals. 

Luk-wud, take food (imp.). 

LuMe', la-le', different^ other^ another. 

Lal-wa'-sed, hul lo-a'-sed, a bed^ bed-place in 

a lodge. 

M. 

Ma^-chin, ba'-cbid, the testicles. 

Mai-etB, a buck elk. 

Makwotn, ba-kwob, a prairie^ meadow. 

Ma'ko, ba'ko, snow. 

Man, hM^ father (used by both sexes). 

Ma-pot, again. 

Mat, glue made offish-skins, 

M'dab, to give birthj bring forth. 

Me'-ta-la, sme'-ta-li, a game of dice. 

Mi-man, de-bad, small, a child. 

Mish, bish, suffix meaning *^ people'', added 

to local name. 
Mit-cbi-lo^ la, the ant, 
Miukb, suffix denoting locality. 
Muk'bw,/at (of a person). . 
Muk-kwat bu, large round, stout. 
Muk kwe' gwado, a penumbra. 
Muk-kwet^-sa, to carry on tbe sboulder. 
Mnk-s'n, the nose. 

Mnt-sets^ da-letl, a variety of smilax. 
Mukw, bokw, all. 



N, 



Na' gwabet, an echo, 
Na'-batl, a sea-otter. 



Natla'-hin, sunset. 
N'cba'-hokb, once, one time. 
N'du-hu-dCib, to warm the posteriors, 
Net^ chu, the dentalium, ^^ wampum^. 
N'gwnt chid, to chaise. 
Nokwed, an iron arrowhead. 
Nokwi-makbl,Do km'b\xi\,tJie Skagit name 

for the principal supernatural being. 
N'sla'-lekw, to take a wife. 

O. 

O-ild za-kad, to turn anything round or over. 

O-aid'-hu, o-ed bu, to find, 

O-akbho, to dig clams, to clam, 

Oata-bnd, o-a'-ta-bud, to die (used of per- 
sons only). 

Oatld, outld, to eat. 

O bais'hub, o-bais-bobil, to menstruate tfie 
first time. 

O-bal-bnl, to mix, to mistake one for another. 

Obe'-a-kwait^-sut, to saw (as in a lumber' 
mill). 

O'be-dab, to give birth. 

Obetlil, to soften as grease, melt. 

O-bet-la-lekw', to grind (as in a mill), 

Obs-chug-wush, to take a wife. 

O-bnd-cbnb, to lie. 

O-but sbus, to put down, lay down. 

O-cba'-a-cbatl, to play, amuse ontfs self, 

0-chab, u-cb9;b, to die, 

O-chad, to hide. 

Ochad-dnb, to tremble. 

O-cba'-bwud-sid, to whip, 

O-cba'-pab, sour, it is sour, 

O cbo'-ba, as-chubba, to curry, 

Ocbdkw, to cut, 

Ocbugbub, the gonorrhoea. 

Oi-buk^-wub, to sink in, be mired, 

Ocbut-plu (meaning unknown). 

O da'-atsid, to give a name, 

O'dab, to order, command. 

Od bukwakw, to abort by violence, 

Odbul-ku-datsh, to eat excrement, 

Od-but' zo sub, to pluck out the hair. 

Od-bwe'-cbus, to scratch thefa4ic, 

O-dodkub, it is bad weather. 



296 



0-clug-wa'-batS| ilie middle of Unffihy half- 
way. 

O-dug-witshy o-da^-gwitsb, ifie middle of 
tcidth. 

O dugwus, to put into {as into a botcl)* 

Oduk-cha'-la-ak, to follow or pursue, 

Od-za'-lia-gwil, to learn. 

Odzakhw', to blow down. 

Od-zakhw, to melt, 

Odza'kwat, to quiver^ rock^ '^teeter ^, 

Od-zat-lab, to lose iheway, blunder in speech, 
make a mistake, 

0(l zed-zi, to conceive. 

Odzei'-but, to seek^ look for, 

Od-ze' ak-ud, o tse'-a-kad, to neigh. 

Odzu' bed, 6d zo'-bat, to kick. 

O dzo'-hwut, to vomit 

Odzak'-kad, to whet (as a knife on a stone). 

Oe'-a-kwad-dop, to clean upj sweep. 

0-e''ba8h, to walk. 

O e'bel, to copulate. 

O ed'liu, o-aid'-hu, to find. 

O-e^bil, ou'hal, to' smell something. 

O ed igwat, as ed'-i gwut, wliat is it? what 
is saidt 

O e'-ka, it is clearing up (of Hit weatlier). 

Oel'gwut, to say. 

O el-i-kwat, to copulate. 

O-e'-tut, to sleep. 

O-gbar, to unstring^ untie. 

O gak, oguk-kub, to open (as a door), to 
clear up. 

O-gu^-sid, to tell, relate. 

O-gwa!', to upset. 

O gwilK, to explain, teach, shoio how. 

Ogwa^-lab, to gape or yawn. 

O gwe^-gwi, to assemble. 

() gwfc'lid, to uncover. 

O gwo'bub, to bark (as a dog). 

O-gwud' del, to sit, sit up. 

O-gwulhilt', to strike, wound^ kill. 

O bab, to surprise, attack unawares. 

O-bab, o-ha'-bab, to weep, to cry as an ani- 
mal. 

O-badakb', to icarm. 

O-bad-dud, to push. 



O-badz^-ut-liidy to prise as with a lever. 

O bai-ub, to laugh. 

O-ba'-kut-tub, to wind. 

O bal, o ba'-lad, to embroider j writCj (0c. 

O-ba'-sub, o-bwa^-sub, to sneeze. 

O-batI, to love, like, wish, tcant. 

O bed, wo bed, why, what is the ^natter f 

O-be'-ba-betsil, to pretend tj be angry. 

Obe'-bud'dub, the spring. 

0-bet-8il, to be angry, to be ashamed. 

O-bet-sil-iUy to sulk, to blush. 

O bi etl, to ravish. 

O bob, o-bwob, to go. 

Obo'-but sut, to fall, drop down^ let drop^ 

lose. 
OAioAj o-kwasb, to burn. 
O-bot-bot, to speak, talk. 
O-bo'-kot, o bo^-kwut, to prick as with a 

pin. 
O-bo'-yub, o-hwo'-jub, to barter. 
Obo^yukb, to finish. 
Obo'-yut, to do. 

O-bud a ukbw', to become icarm. 
Obud-dekbw, to c^me inside. 
O-butls, to bite. 
O-but lusb, to be jealous. 
O'-bwa^ o-bwakbw, go (imp.)* 
O-bwa'-datsb, to ebb (as the tide). 
0-bwa'-8ub, o ba'-sub, to sneeze. 
O bwe'a kwitsbiit, to blaze (as the fire). 
Ohwe'-cbiis, to cut or scratch tliefacc. 
O bwe'-bwi, b'bwe'wi, to act. 
O-bwe'bwud, tj whistle, sing as birds. 
O b wet-lil (of luoteors ; qii. to fall or shoot). 
O-bwet-s'ba cbi, to cut or scratch the hands. 
0-liwet*8ko tul, obwetrMko-dub, to cut or 

scratch. 
O bwil-lal, to lose. 
Obwob, o-bob, to go 
O-bwo'yub, obo yub, tj barter, sellj buy^ 

trade. 
O bwub-bad, to throw down, throw away. 
O-hwutl, to break. 
Obwutla'-bad, to break the arm. 
O-bwutl-bwutl, clieckered. 
0-bwutl-8bud, to break the leg. 



297 



O-hwuts, to clean, 

Ohwut'Sid, to lal'e off {as a haf), 

Obwuts-kutub, to pull to pieces. 

O bwut-tub, to tear, 

O-jats, to overflow, 

O-ju il, to he glad, pleased, proud, 

Oka'-dab, o-ka'-dub, to steal, 

O kaddab, o-kad dub, wokad dub-ukli; to 
court, malce love to, lie tcith a woman, 

O-ka'-gwaty o-ka'-gwut-tnb, ok-he-gwad, to 
ridiculcy sneer at, 

O ka'bad, to open the mouth, 

O ka'-kab, o-t1a'-tlab, to taste of salt, 

O-ka^-ka-lad, to hoax or humbug, 

O-kalb, to rain {it rains). 

O-kapo, to gather nuts. 

O-katl, o-knkhl, to awaken, 

O-ka'-wa-lekw, to chew, 

O-ke'-a-kait, to hold. 

OkeMa-gwi], to get on or into {as a horse 
or canoe). 

O-ke'-ta-lat-bu, to go round {as round a 
liouse), 

O-ket, sket, (of the new tnoou, qu.). 

0-ke'-ukut-»liid, to hobble a liorse. 

Okhe'gwud, o-ku' gwat, to sneer at, deride. 

Okh-bot, o'-bot, okbt-8bid, go (ioip.). 

Okh-tu-8bid, carry (imp.)* 

Okb-ku8, tlie chiton, 

O-ki'-up, ke-yup-tub, to tickle. 

O kla'-kwullakw, to lick, 

O-klatcb, to extinguish, put out {as a can- 
dle), 

O-kle^-chid, o-klets, to cut, 

Oklet'-tud, to poke {as the fire), to prick. 

O-klugwutl, oiblug-wutl, to leave a per- 
son or thing intentionally. 

0-kluk-wod, o-tlukw, to chop, or chip off, 

O ko'-kwa, to drink, 

Ok8, ak, uk, some. 

Ok-sa'-gwil, to slide {as on ice), 

O-kab' o, to sucky to suckle, 

Okudduby o-kaddub, to court, make love 
to. 

O kukbl, o-kati, to awaken, 

O'kul-la, he-uk'uMa, to thank. 



O'kaMab, to sprain, 

O-kul-ki-laF-i-tal, to dream, 

O kwad datsh, to take back a gift. 

O kwa^-gwab, sweet, good to eat. 

O-kwai' i, to fade or wilt {as flowers), 

O-kwalb, okwalb, to roast on a stick. 

Okwalts, to boil, 

0-k\iasb, o-hod, to burn. 

O-kwa'-tatsb, to ascend {a mountain). 

Okwati, okwut), to throw away, empty, 
pour, spill. 

O kwat'-8idcbad, to send on a message. 

Okwe'-ba-gwil, to get down, 

Okwo-cbid, to ski^i an animaU 

O-kweV, o-kwil, to pick, as berries. 

O-kwetl, o-kw6tlkb, (meaniag pot ascer- 
tained). 

O kwidat-cbi, okwid-dat shad, to take the 
hand, shake hands, 

O-kwudde'-had, to thank one. 

O-kwad dad, to take, to catch, to gather. 

O kwulb, o-kwalb, to roast on a stick. 

Okwul-kwnl, to sweat. 

O-kwatI, to thrmc away, empty, pour, spill. 

O kwuti, to miss a mark. 

O-kwut^-sub, to slide, as on ice. 

O kwas-cbid. Qa. I want. 

O-la'-bit, to see, to show. 

O hi^hadha, to recollect. 

Ola^hel, ola' biMakh, to dawn. 

Ola-bar, o-la haMub, to gamble. 

O lal, the cattail rush. 

O-le^-a-wil, to be calm, or smooth {of the 
water). 

0-l6l-ahid, to row. 

Olakh-hwod, to strike with a weapon^ stab. 

Olutl, to go in a canoe. 

O mi-ka'lekw, to swallow. 

Ookh, to go. 

O o'pil, the lap. 

O o' sil, to dive. 

O othus, a canoe (Makah pattern). 

O-pai'-ak, a carpenter^ worker in wood. 

O pa'-lil, to revive, come to life again. 

O-patl-tid, to feel. 

Opad stad, to sew. 



298 



O pe^-lap, to rise J as the tide. 
O pi klo'-sub, to comb. 
Opo'-a-Iekw, to blow (as the wind). 
Opo'-od, to blow {with the breath). 
0-po'-8ud, hubo'-8id, to throw (as a stick, 

stone, riata). 
O-pUy to break wind. 
O-paddad, to bury. 
O-pakw, to drift with the stream. 
O-pakh-bwnb, to steam. 
O palba'-tHUt, to boil, 
0-8a'-had-8hid, to scrape (as with a knife). 
O sa'-hwa, to urinate (if a man). 
0-8llk'-bo, o-8ak'hwn, tojly. 
O 8e'-di kud, to whisper. 
Osba'-bail, to dry, 

O-sba'- bits, a form of supplicatiou, ^^ please "• 
0-8b€d zal, to go out. 
O-sbe'gwi-tub, to lose (at play). 
O-shtZ-wo, to urinate (if a woman). 
O-sbob, to be tardy, late. 
0-8bukbw', to swell, as a bruise. 
O'Sbukud, to lift up. 
O-shat-lukh, to leave dry (as by ebbing of 

the tide). 
O-so'-bOd, o-e'-bul, to smell. - 
Osukb-butl-kwed, to shave. 
0-8Ulp-t8at, to whirl (as water). 
0'tag'-t4i-gwil, to get on to anything (a^ a log). 
O-ta'-gwil, ba-ta^-gwil, to get down, descend. 
Ota'hwot, to haul. 
Otakh^, to fall, drop down. 
0*takh'-ba-gwil, to creep, crawl. 
O-ta' 8ud, to return, to pay back, give a re- 

turn present. 
0-tat-8ab, to taste bad. 
0t-du'-80-wel, to imitate. 
0-te'-a-ku8, surf. 
O-te'-cbib, wu-te'-cbib, to swim. 
O-te'-tetub, to bathe. 
O-te'-lib, to sing (speaking of people). 
Ot-blug-wutl, o-klug-wutl, to leave a person 

or thing intentionally. 
Ot-bu'-dt'-k\vi(l, to order^ covimand. 
Ot-hu-pud'-dud, to become muddy, 
O-tlal'-kwub, to be pungent^ spicy. 



O-tla'bwud dub, to drum, to pound with 

sticks. 
0-tlal8b'| o-tlals', to put away, to put on (a^ 

a hat). 
0-t1a^-tIab, o-ka'kab, to taste of salt 
O-tla'-wil, to run. 
0t-lo'-kwut8, to push. 
O-tloU'Lob, to net wildfowl. 
Otl-tab, to drown. 

Otlnkw, o-kluk'-wOtI, to chop or chip off. 
O-tlul'-cbil, o-klul^-cbil, to arrive. 
O-to' kob, o-to-wat, to spit 
O-tot-sil, o- tot-sod, to shoot with gun or bow, 

to hit a mark. 
Ot sakbw', to fade (as colors). 
0t-8alt-hu, to hammer, to pound. 
OUaltub, 0't8ul-tQb, to gamble, bet. 
O-tse^-a-kud, od-ze'-akud, to neigh. 
Ot-se'-po-Iil, to wink. 

Ots^'-uk'h, to squ€€ze(as berries in the hand). 
Ots-gul'-le, to be hot or warm (speaking of 

persons). 
O-tsi le'-kwid, to pinch. 
O-tsla' 16k w, to win at play. 
O-tsukhw', to go out, become extinguished 

(as a light or fire), to put out, extinguish. 
O t8a]tab, o-tsaF-tub, to gamble. 
0t-8UB'-8ud, to drive nails. 
0t-8Ut-biib, to trickle (as water from the 

rocks). 
Ot tlots, a knot, a tangle. 
Ot-tlots ot, to tie, to knot. 
O-tub-sid, to braid. 
O tuMlu gwalts, to load a gun. 
Otud'-zel, to lie down. 
O-tnk-kab, to net wildfowl. 
O-tas'-sid, o-tutso-shed, to strike. 
O-tus'sib, to be cold. 
0-tu'-8ha-8bukw, to embroider tcith beads. 
0-tat'-S0'8hed, otus-8id, to strike. 
O-tut-cbid, to roll (as a ball). 
Ot-znkhw', dzukbb waits, to melt (as snow). 
O utld', oabld^ to eat. 
O .> ai'-us, to make, work, to be busy. 
O-yet'-sum, wi-y6t'-8uni, to tell, narrate. 
0-yo'bi1, to die (confined to animals). 



299 



r. 

Pada-bed, pa-tab, put-heJ, tchcn^ever. 
Padsted, pots'-ded, a needle. 
Pad'-to-lns, autumn, 
Pakw, pa'kwuts, a pipe, a large pipe. 
Pat-latl,/or nothinff, tcithout purpose, gratui 

tously, worthless. 
Pa^8ab-at8, a shirt of dressed slcins. 
Po-cliub', the icild cat. 
Pekht, coals of fire. 
Pe'lakw, a spring of water. 
Pe lol-kwad, ligneous fungi growing on trees. 
Pep'-a-cbi, a haU 
Pet'-lo ki, the spring. 
Pi-daMikw, to plant or sow. 
Pi-ekt, plumbago. 
Pikats, puk-ats, rotten wood for smoking 

slcins. 
Pi o-pips^-pisb, a litter of kittens. 
Pipkot-zutl, a salamander. 
Pish-pisb (Englisb), a cat. 
P<»ai', a flounder, 

Poi'-cbu (idiom.), here, you^ come here. 
rok, po'-kwut8, red flowering currant and 

hush. 
Polko, Spanish moss. 
Pdp-8a ba'bat, ^oato of a net or seine. 
Po^-tad, a sail. 
Potsded, pad-8ted, a needle. 
Puds, to cook underground. 
I'up'p-ke-yets, tJie dogwood^ cornus. 
Put-bed, pad-abed, wlien, ever. 

S. 

Sa-al-8bid, the toes. 

Sad'-dnb, summer. • 

Sad'znp, tall, long. 

8a'-ba-pul, sup-bub, the cockle. 

Saikb, the prairie. 

Sakb'-ho, clafns, mussels^ &c. 

Sikk-bu, 8&k'-wu, to fly. 

Sa'-ko, my mother (spoken by both sexes). 

Sakb-huin, a dance. 

Sakb-bum-alt bii, a place of dancing, 

Sa'-lap, the thigh. 



Sa'-le, vulnerable. 

Sa'le, as-sa'-le, two. 

Sa-le^uks, a double-barrelled gun. 

Sa-lit'-za, blankets. 

Sappus, aunt. 

Sa'-puta, s't-sa'-pats, the willow, 

Satld, sutld, setld,/ood. 

Sat-le-gwns, the waist, 

Sat-se-kub, merry. 

Sat-sum, sat-sup, a species of salmon. 

Sats-kobl, the belly of a salmon. 

Sat ziis, the face. 

Saua, Ra'-6U8, a wooden bowl. 

Sb^a', roe of small fish. 

S'bokwaltSj^ne or smaU sliot. 

S'bolb, the prairie-thistle. 

S'blau'yu, a bone. 

S'cba'-de, a wooden fishhook. 

S'cbad zub, a woman^s fringed petticoat. 

S'cb3*8t, the limbs of a tree. 

S'cha'-lob, the liver. 

S^cbat-klub, a grizzly bear. 

S'che^-akwil, a marsh, swamp. 

S'cbe-be'-duts, the yellow fir, abies Don- 

glajisi. 
S'cheb'-it, s'cbub ed, bark of trees generally, 

inner bark of fir. 
S'cbe-dad-bu, sah}U>n (generic for the finer 

kinds). 
S'chest-hu, cbest-bn, husband. 
S'enet-wtit, a black bear. 
S'cbil-los^ shoulders and fore part of a fish. 
S'chit-s^, the tail portion of a fish. 
S'cbitsVSd, the tail of a fish. 
S'cbits, the blue mussel. 
S'chits-sbedo', a small bulbous root, bulbs. 
S'cho-balb, the dandelion. 
8'chotb, the lialibut. 
S'cbot la, the leaves of the maple. 
SY'hub-b6d, s'cb6b'it, the bark of trees 

(generic). 
S^cbu-la^ts, to lend, borrow. 
B'cbulkh, a first-bom child. 
S'chuoi-sba'-yucbid, the jaw-bone. 
S'da^ s'dlU, da, dsls, a name. 
Se-VL\'-\'pid, fresh-water mullet. 



300 



Se-cba' cbas, a young girl. 

Se-gwes'-tulb, skwes^tulb, earthy soiljSand^ 
dust^ i&c. 

Se'-gwuts, a living tree, 

So-kai'-8im, aflmcer; also a proper name for 
girls. 

Se'-kwid, to tear. 

Se-ke'-ja, my grandmother. 

Se'-la-liucl8, the edge of a knife. 

Se-W-bad, side-fins ofhalibutj cfcc. 

Se-le<l-gwa8, the breast or chest. 

Se-lelt8, fc>ilel8, the fordiead. 

S6lk8, skubo-al'-li, the nipples. 

Se'-luks, e'luks, the end or point of any- 
thing. 

Ses-kwnd, the snotcberry. 

8ctld, ^<atl(1, sutld,/o(Mi. 

Set-8at-8bid, to trot 

Set8-ko, right ^ correct^ true. 

Sc'-tnd, to snuffle. 

Sc-wuts', a bridge of logs. 

Sc'-3 np, an apron. 

jS'^ukkil, daylight 

Sgwistwib, se-gweh'-tulb, q. v,; earth. 

Sba'-ba, my father (spoken by botb sexes). 

b'bad-dub,bud-dub, summer^tcami weatiier. 

S'had'-zub, s'bad'-zuui, Jcamas-roots tchen 
cooked. 

Sba^-gak, the tvild carrot. 

S^babatl'cbitl, the common thistle. ^ 

S'hai'hai, the gills offish. 

S'hai-3U8, the head. 

B'baks, the ribs offish. 

S'bal, embroidery^ needle-vcork^ writing^ any- 
thing figured. 

S'ba'-latcbi, thehand^ the fingers. 

S'bal-tans, s'bal-ted-^tl, a cradle. 

Sbalbekbw', sbal-be^-ukh, out of doors, out, 
without. 

Shau-utsb, the skull, 

Sbauks, a bone arrow-head. 

Shcb edb, tofi^h with a seine. • 

S'hedas', the wood-fern. 

tSbedzus, the smelt. 

S'bcks, the seed-stems of sage, 

Sbekb, to rise, as from diving; to come up. 



SheMa, the penis. 

Sbel-sbeV-a-wap, a lizard. 

S'heQ-ha-nim, s'hi-ua, a conjitring petform-^ 
ance. 

Sbe-sba^-bud, a small seine or net. 

Shitlba^dab, a stepfather. 

Sbia'-)i, to grow up (as grass). 

Sbi-da^-dab, sbo-Da'-uam, ^^ medicine^ or 
conjuring. 

Sbi-its-ke/dub, to wash tJie lunir. 

Sbikbl-ta'-dab, a step-mother, 

Ski-ka<>bat8, on top of on^ upon, 

S'bi'-ua, s'beQ'baDiiD, a species of cot juring, 

Sbipot al'-li, the mast of a canoe or boat, 

Sbisbuk'b, above, over. 

Sbis-cbuk-sit'-ebi, a finger ring. 

Sbis^-ko bai, like a d^g {in the form of one). 

Sbitl-ha^-bad, to amuse one's self 

Sbits-ted', a file. 

Sbits-o'-kwa, a younger brother or sister (by 
one of eitber sex). 

Sbil'-io-kwatl, the afternoon. 

Sbitl-bat-cbab, to make up one^s mind. 

Sb-kai-yntsid, the upper lip. 

Sh-knP-cbi-cbil, narrow or acicidar leaves 
of trees. 

Sb-kwok \vu8, a bluff or steep bank. 

Sbla'-bel, sla'-bel, day. 

S'bo'dale, a fireplace, 

S'bo' di, tlie toadfi^h; also the Pleiades. 

SbOd'-za, the maggot of the blowfly. 

S'bo'-ho-lop, a species ofsmilax. 

Sbo-nam', sbodab'^ a ^^ medicines-man, a 
conjurer. 

Sbo-na'-nam, sbi-da'-dab, " medicine^, con- 
juring. 

S'bo-pats, sedge-grass. 

Sbop, the siphon of a shellfish. 

Showtl, the aplodontia leporina. 

Shub ed, a seine or net. 

S'hu-cbab'-kn, t'cbab-kukh, cloudy. 

S'budsbf sU-sudsh, nettles. 

Sbndst, the bow of a canoe. 

S'htid sba' bid, bat-sba'- to-bid, afooUpi*int 

Sbagw'tl, a road, doorway. 

Sliuk'b, tho sky, above, over. 



301 



Sliiik'-hos, vp hill 

Shiikli-hnm, wind. 

Slink^shidf tfie inniep, 

Shukb-shn-bats, the irillium, 

Slink-ud, lift up (imp.). 

Sbuk•u8-Re^ my uncle (by marriage). 

Siuikb'-sbukb-bud, she^sba bad, a seine or 

net 

S'bul-sbut-sid, to understand. 

S'ba1•a8^ a plank or board. 

S'hnlal' bus, a looking glass. 

S'hu-^*/uk-wii8, to paint the face. 

Sbulad, to pierce. 

Sh\V \n\t (Englisb), a shirt 

S'bu'-pn, the bladder. 

Shiip-o, a bladder Jhat for fishing. 

S'bus-kwalol' kwad, the upper eye-lid. 

Bbu-tu-ba^Ali, the clieeks. 

Sbtit-sits-a'-lab, the feathering of an arrow. 

Sbatukb'-bwitsh, tukb-bwitsb, a bow- 
string. 

S'butet-sut-sbid, to knock. 

Sbutl'b, to become dry on tlie falling of .he 
tide. 

S'bu-yam, a primeval ra>ce of supernatural 
beings. 

Sbwaifi^, hat or cap. 

S'hwe'wi, to get. 

Sb woi-ukw', the land-snail^ helix; also a par- 
ticular demon. 

Sbwukbw, a slide of rocks from a mountain. 

SbwuMuk, a foot 

8i ab', 8i-&iii', a chief. 

i>iab'o-kn, to scold. 

8i-alt, basket work Lettle. 

8ikb bwiai-.NUH. Qn. a tool. 

Sikh-bwo'-yuiu,/or sale. 

Si-Liliad, common ptople. 

Si-la'-lo-bid, the shoulder. 

8il-ai-yu*8id, the pudenda. 

Si-8iltiii, to dig out {as a canoe). 

Si-u'tid-80lt8bf to drum (as at dances^ &c.). 

2Ska, elder brotJier or sister. 

Ska'-da, a thief. 

Skad'h, skai^-ki-kai, the kamas-rat; geomys. 

Skad-zOy skud-zo, the hair. 



Skad-za, tJie pine-squirrel ; sciurus. 

Skai-yn, a corpse, ghost. 

Skai^-wa, skai-wa^-duts, the arbutus uva 

ursi berry and vine. 
Skaikb, kaikbw, inland, tlie interior, vp a 

river. 
Skai'-kad-za, a fishing line. 
Skai'-kikai, 8kad'b, a thief. 
Ska'kalak'-bo, the full moon. 
Ska'ka-gwutl, jpeop^e of the better class. 
Ska-ked, always. 
Skak'-baO»b, short (in dimension). 
Skakbw, 8ka'«ko, ice, icicles. 
Ska'-16k-8ad, the sJioulder-blade. 
Skal dlkwad, the upper eyelid. 
Skapsob, the throat 
Skap at8, rosebushes. 
SkatI, the land-otter. 

Ska' am, the small or prairie wolf, coyote. 
Ske' gwuts, a deer. 
Ske'-ha, a variety of the dog, sheared for its 

fleece. 
Sk6l8, a snow peak. 

Ske-lal-i-:ud, magic, a power or gift^ fortune. 
Sket, o-ket, the new moon. 
Sket8 k'8e' cbi, a finger-ring. 
Ski la jtit, a niece after death of her mother. 
Sklakb-bodop, plants or herbs (geaeric). 
Sklakb-bel, 8lakb-he1, night. 
Skla'-ka-di8h, dirty. 
Skbi'-ne, sla'-de, a woman, the female of any 

atiimal. 
Skle-bot, skuMc'bot, an aged person of 

either sex. 
Sklellitbb, tattooing. 
Skle-pai'-yut 8id, the under lip and chin. 
Skhig-wa'-di, 8let-lo a'-di, earrings. 
Sklal boltsb, the cranberry. 
Skla-elk, the licorioe-fem. 
8ko, an expression deaotiug or bespeaking 

good willf friend; it seems also to denote 

connectioTi. 
Sko-al-ko, a point in the forks of a river. 
8ko'-bai, ko'-bai, ko-niai, a dog. 
Sko-b6tsh, the dorsal offish. 
SkOd, a water-bucket. * 



302 



Skodzd-ISkw, sodomy, 

Sko'-h Wilts, a species of salmon. 

Sko^-i, mother (spoken of by both sexes). 

Sko'-kwa, a drink or draught of anything. 

8ko'-kwigwat, kokhhe-gwad, to turn the 

face a tray. 
Sko-tam', the small-pox ; also the demon of 

small-pox and pestilence. 
Skom J fresh'toater sucker, 
Sko^-putSy the hemlock'Spruce. 
Sko'-sub, sea-foam. 
SkOSy sko'Os, always. 
Skub o, the breast of a womanj milk. 
Skub'O-al'-li, selks, the nipples. 
Skub'-bi-yu, the skunk. 
Skubnt-ud-uMi, an ojcehandle. 
Skad-dikhw', skud-de/, a miMArraf. 
Skuds, lover^ sweetheart^ mistress. 
Skud-zalubthUy au opprobrious term, Fr. 

hougre. 
Skuk'-e-k5m, stuk-ti-k5b, forest^ tcooded 

country. 
Skuk-ke'-itl, a cradle. 
Skuk-uk', elder brother (spoken to by a 

woman). 
Skulb, it rains. 
Skul Intsh, cuttle-fish. 
Skwa'kwe-lnsh, waterfowl (generic). 
SkwalMup, aahes. 
Skwa^-se-buts, a scalp. 
Skwa'-sub, tJie skin of an animal with the 

hair on. 
Skwa'-tatsb, a mountain. 
Skwatcb, the dogfish. 
Skwa'-tan, kwa'-tud, mouse, 
Skwaul, skwa'wuu, a species of salmon. 
Skwe'-gwnt, a mat oftlie tale rush. 
Skwe'-akwod, a water-bucket. 
Skwekhw, the vitipairous perch. 
Skwe'-kwitsby the sea-urchin^ echinus. 
kSkwe'-kwuMi, gra^s. 
SkweMitsbt, gunpowder. 
Skwel'-lub, afi^h-spear. 
Skwe'-o-kwe'-o-ko-bai, a litter of pups. 
Skwets, a widow or widower. 
Skwes-talb, se-gwestulb, earthy soilj sand. 



Skwetsks, a point of land. 

8kwo-lat'-lad, berries or fruit (generic). 

Skwadde^, hair of pubis. • 

Skwukblt, the tail of aft^sh. 

^'kwul, nus kwul^-lnm, hot or warm {of a 
room). 

Skwal-bats, wild celery. 

Skwusb-ub, sk wash-urn, clouds^ fog. 

Skwns p'tl, brook or speckled trout. 

Skwut, the quahog clamj Venus (sp.?). 

Sla^-gwuts, ifiside bark of thuja. 

Sla^-gwid, the under mat or sheet of a bed. 

Sla-hal', la-hal, tJic games of Jiand and the 
disks. 

Slakh'bel, skl&kb' bel, night. 

Sla-kats, sUit-lukh, capberry and bush. 

Slakw, as-Inkw, as-lukw-dOp, wet. 

SUi^-ne, skla'-de, a woman^ the female of any 
animaL 

8Iatla^-he, evening. 

Sledal'-sbid, st-kwal-shid, the head-band for 
carrying loads. 

Sletloa^ di, sklug-wa'-di, ear-pendants. 

Sl't s'l-daby to breathe. 

Slo-kwalm, the mom; a principal mytho- 
logical being so called. 

Slo-tlalk-shid, slut-lalk-sbid, the big toe. 

Sluk-a-but-shid, the heel. 

Sma'del, a hill. 

Sma-lot-sid, relative of a deceased wife. 

Sma'-nash, tobacco. 

Snio-kwul, a girl who does not menstruate. 

Sme'-la-li, me'ta-la, a game played with 
beavers^ teeth for dice. 

Smub-be', the game of rings and arrows. 

Sinnk-ka, tlie belly ^ the body of a shellfish. 

Smnt-ti-sup, the tail of an animal. 

Sued-ka'tus, to wink, 

SuokWy iron, a knife. 

So-di gwa'bats, the middle section ofafi^lu 

So hot-hot, speech, a language. 

SOhw-tud, tlie fat of animals. 

So-kwat'-chi, a bracelet. 

So'-kwub, the outside bark of the thuja. 

So'-lus, a calf young of the elk. 

So ob-do, a hunter. 



303 



Sup'-sop, to pant. 

So-lakh, aolukh, the smaller sizes of denta- 

Hum shells. 
So-wikbl, s't'So' witl, pudenda. 
Spak-hus, a round heady not compressed. 
Spe'-o-kOts, root of sagittariay potatoes. 
Spi»h, fish-scales. 
Spimpt, a calico shirt. 
Spo'-kwab, a MIL 
SpopB, spup-sil, the whelk. 
Spuk'b, boils. 

Spul-k was, a bowl made of horn. 
Spu-baltcb, tJie bladder. 
Spats, excrement. 
Stab, what. 

Sta-bewks, Hiaib doj}^ propertyygoodsj thingr. 
Stab-Ota^, stabta', %ohat is that? 
Sta'-cbi-gwut, iJie body. 
Sta'-gwud, Htug-wud, sta'-gwa-duts, iJic 

salmon-berry and vine. 
Sta'-gw'sb, a bargain^ purchase. 
Stak, tBkyinlanfiy the interior. 
Sta^-latl, nephew or niecCy cousin of either sex, 
S't-ch't-bwa'lup,/ore«f, wooded country. 
Ste^ak'd, tlie swamp huckleberry. 
Ste'-a-kwusb, smuke^fog. 
Ste-di gwut, a twigropcy a withe. 
Ste-kai'-yu, the large wolf 
Ste-ka'-16kw, a fish-weir. 
StekOt-sid, tlie lid or cover of anything. 
Ste^-Ub, te'-lib, a song. 
Ste'-lim, the magic of success tcith women. 
Stel-kwa'-mu8, a mark used at dances. 
Stel-kwob, afi4thgig. 
Steso-balk'-sat-cbi, the little finger. 
Ste'-uk-wil, smoke or fog. 
Ste^-watl, a canoe (nortliern pattern). 
S't-ba' butcb, the sole {fish). 
Sti ake'-yu, a horse. 

Sticbi', sti'-ta-cbi, an islandy a small island. 
Sti-kukbw, sti-ka^-bo, a beaver. 
Stikb-bweb, stikb-bwe^-bats, bushcran 

berry and shruby viburnum. 
Sti-kop, stuk-op, wood or sticks. 
Stit-ke'-yu, a foal. 
Si'k-ta'-bats (nieaning not known). 



S'tkllt-la-al'-kmn, stlit-Ial-knm, bcetlcSy 

bugsy &c. 
S't-kol-sbid, the hoofs of a quadruped. 
Stkwa'-bats, t^'kwa'-bats, high tide. 
Stkwan^, the kamas-root when raw. 
St-kwal'-sbid, sle-dat-sbid, the liead-bandfor 

carrying loads. 
Stle-kel-kub, small " tree^ birds (generic). 
St'lup, deep. 

Sto'-be-lo, the north or dovm-stream toind. 
Slobsh, sto'-busb, a man (vir.). 
Stob-shaMi, the stems of bulbous plantSy 

&c. 
Sto'-duk, a slave. 
J^tol, herring. 

Stolcbakbw, tlie sea breeze. 
Sto-li-gwut, to-li-gwut, blood. 
Sto'lukw, a river. 
Stol-takt, tlie land breeze. 
Slotbo'-dnp, the yerba buena vine. 
Sto' to-misb, a man-child. 
S'rsa'la-gCb, darky night. 
S't-sa' SU8, tsa'-tsuts, a bote. 
S't-sa'-le, s't-saltcb, the Jieart. 
S't-sa'-pats, sa^'puts, tJie willow. 
S't so^vitl, so wikbl, tlie pudenda. 
Stub-sbid-dt', tob-sbe-dud, braided. 
Stubtabl, a grizzly bear. 
Stnd-gwa'-lus, the eyes (plur.). 
Siog-wakw^, the south or up stream wind. 
Stuk-wub, a sticky a yard-measurCy wood. 
Stakh-o-gwit), a portage. 
Stuk-te-kob, /ore«< country. 
Stuk-bum, trees (generic). 
8'ta-ku-la'-cbi, the palm of the hand. 
Stnl-a-bed', the tail of a beaver or muskrat. 
Stal-dls, maizcj Indian com. 
Stul-ji-ukb, mediciney physic. 
Stul-ledj, tlis back. 
Stuts-nlts, gravel. 
Sud-dibe' ba-da, daughter. 
Su-gu-gwalt-hu, a brown. . 
Su-gwudst-bn, theroofofa liouse. 
Sukh, a prefix denoting the use or purpose 

of anytbing, or tbe instrument with 

wbicb it is done. 



304 



Sukh-ba'kia, the cross-handle of the lamas- 
stick. 

m 

Sukli'a-gwad'de, a seatj a cluiir, 

Sukh-bal, pen or pendU meriting materials, 

8akb-he-a'-lat-chi, the fingers collectively. 

Sukb'hatl-kwed, a razor. 

8akb'-bwa, urine. 

Sukbko^-kwa, a cup. 

Sukb-letsb, a saw. 

Sakh-pats, thread. 

Sakb-8ba'-de*bad, stirrups. 

Sukb-sud-dnb, the yellow wasp. 

Suk'-bw, sjnooth^ fluty level. 

Suk-hw'-dop, level country. 

Sakb-w'tB'balt'-bu, a hammer, 

Sak-kol chid, a spur. 

Snk wat-tat, spunk of rotten wood. 

Suld, salt, yarn. 

Sul-kwa'-gwa-pfiUsb, back of the liead. 

8uMa-gwup, the stump of a tree. 

SuMe^ the soul. 

Sup, stiff. 

Suphub, sa^-ha pal, the cockle. 

Su8-el-tud, a stone adze. 

8u8-bwa'-ad, a hag^ the scrotum. 

Sushwa^-bed, the adipose fin of the salmon 

tribe. 
Sutld, 8atld, /oo(l. 
Suts ba'ha, motherinlaw (called by botb 

sexes, or, tbe motber being dead, an 

auDt by marriage). 
Swag-wil, Jiard or strong {not brittle). 
Swai^-a-li, a urine basket. 
Swfi-ka (meauiug not ascertained). 
Swa-tekbw-tin, the earth or worldy tlie 

ground J a place. 
Swau-wa, the cougar. 
Swe'-a-kwun, tJie marmot. 
Swe', swe^-hats, swes-bod-uts, tlie " Oregon 

grape'" and bush^ berberis. 
Swet-le, tJ^ mountain-goaty aplooeras. 
Swetleil-ked,.a blanket of goats' wool, 
Sw'hukt, oldy woYn out (of things). 
Swop, a bra^celet of brass wire. 
Swo'-yub, pricCy a bargain. 
Swak-ke'-nk, a frog. 



Swns, greasCy gravy. 
SwQs ke'-lfis, a swing. 
Swas-buk-kos, the compress for the chiWs 
head in the cradle. 

T. 

Ta'-bets, ta'-bid, hair y fur. 

Ta-betld', a rope. 

Ta-bot-sa, tlie yellow-dock. 

Ta^gwat, ta'-kwut, ta'-ta-gwat, noon. 

Ta'-bas, slowly. 

Ta'-hats, takh'bats, low [not hud). 

Ta'-ka, takads, saUal-berry and bushy gauU 

theria. 
Ta-koby the name of Mount Rainier. 
Tak, stak, the interiory inland. 
Ta kndt, tu-takt, towards the shore 
'Ta'-lakw, the shoulder. 
Talts, the flesh offish. 
Tas sub, tussub, unntery cold weather, 
Tatl, a pointed spear-liead. 
Tatli*/de-gwust, the rock-cod. 
Tatlewks^ the '" redfi^h^. 
Ta-tsult^-sukb, a rattle. 
Ta-tuk^-tus, make for the shorcy keep in 

(imp.). 
Tault^-si, a doe. 
Tan' 11, taa-itl, to^-witl, amarcya bitchy the 

female of any animal. 
Taz'-bil, to pay. 

T'cbab kukh, s'bacbd>b-ka, cloudy. 
T'chwa'wat, a load-basket. 
Te (meaning unknown). 
Te'-de-gwud-doltsb, a twig-basket. 
Te'-dehap, the full moon. 
Tegwa' (meaning ancertain). 
Te'-bats, a shrub used for teay tea. 
Te'-betsb. Qu. to ask for. 
Te'-lakw, a species of strawberry. 
'Te-lakh-bi, ati-lakbbi, presentlyy during 

the day. 
Tel-a'-wil, tla'-wil, to run. 
Tel'-be, tel-betsh, telb'ye, presently. 
Te-lib, ste'-lib, ste'-lim, a song. 
Te'-sid, te'-sud, te'-sura, the sting of an in- 

secty an arrow, a bullet. 



337 

ilfooit, slo-kwalm ; new moon^-Bketj o-kei', wa-ket'-a-bub, es-ket'-ahu ; /it?Z, tc'-debap, 
Bka-ka-lak'-ho ; trane, tsa, tuts-a'-lusho ; dark of the moouj es-tnkh-a-ha {gone out, 
extinguvtked). The signification of tUe other word8 was not explained. See ^^My- 
thology ". 

Morning^ klop. See " Sunrise ". 

Mortar {of atonCy for pounding aeeds^ a metate), ke-potl. 

Mother. See " Relationships ^. 

Mountj to {as a horse)y o-ke'-Ia-gwil ; I mount my horse^ kai-la-gwil sbid hwnl sti-a-ke'yn. 

jl/ottn/atn, swa'-tatsbf spo-kwnb, sma-del ; a snow pea^, skels; aAt7/, klup; to ascend, 

kwa'-tatsh. 

J^outhj kud' ha ; to open the mouthy o-ka'-bad ; to shut the mouthy o-kab-bo'-snb ; with the 
mouth pursed up, as-to-batl-dutl ; open-lipped^ as-kfulas ; themouth of a river j e'-lot-sid. 
This word offers some curioas speculations ; as-kad-as, as shown, means open-Up- 
pedy showing the teeth, a term applicable to the kamas rat {geomys) ; skad'h ; tJi£ hairy- 
tailed rat {neotoma), and the pine-squirrel {sciurus), skadzn. All these, and especially 
the first two, are notorions thieves, ska'-da. It would therefore seem at least 
prolmble that the animals took their names from their peculiar conformation, and 
their habits suggested the name which has thus obtained for thief Further, the 
practice of courtship among young Indians is for the lover to lie with his sweet- 
heart, skuds, by steaith, whence o-kad-dab, o-kud-dub, wo-kud-dub-nkh, to court or 
make love to; tuskuddub, a «friiinpet; and de'-bel skud-dub, a bastard or child 
without recognized father. Finally, the same root is found in skod-za-16kw^ sodomy, 
and in skud-za-labt^-hn, equivalent to the French bougre. 

Move {to make room), dzukh-tzut } to move from place to place, gwitsh-gwitsb. 

Much. See " Many ". 

Muddy, wet, as-lukw, asluk-wa-dub ; to become muddy, tu-tewk'o-bil, tus-te'o-bil, othu- 
pud-dub. 

Mule, hekw-gwil-de^ (hekw kwil-ladi, big ears). 

My, gutl at-sa {belonging to me), tid, sh, shed, (fem.) sed ; my horse,gut\ at-sa stia-ke'-j n ; 

1 think so {so my heart), as-is'-ta tid hutch ; lam glad {glad my heart), oju-il tid 
hutch ; my friend, shid-a'-sbud ; my house, shed a' -\vi; my wife, sed cbngwush. Sh 
appears to be the prefix in addressing or speaking of male relatives; s, which is 
the feminine prefix also, in speaking of or to females, a. g., bad, father ; sha'-ba, 
my father ; skoi, mother; ss/ko, my mother; ke'-ya, grandmother; se-ke'ya, my 
grandmother ;'ksk-se', uncle ; shuk-use, my uncle, die. See ^^ Relationships^. 

Mythological characters. There is some confusion as to the identity and offices of the 
principal personages recognized by the different tribes, though the system is sub- 
stantially the same with all. The most important among the Niskwallies is Slo- 
kwalm, the Moon, who, in conformity with their ideas and habits, is the elder brother 
and superior of Klo'kwatl, the Sun, both having been born of a woman without 
the intervention of a father. The relation to these of Dokwibatl, the Skagit and 
Skyhwamish deity (so to speak) is uncertain. By some be was represented to me 
as the chief of all, holding the same rank with the Ika'nam of the T'sinuks, 
Amotekdu of the Flatheads, and Time'hu of the Spokans. By others he was con- 
founded with H wun•ne^ Slokwalm is the Spa-ka'-ni of the Flatheads, except that 

they, like some other tribes, thought the sun and moon to be the same, or at least 
22 



Q 



38 



gave them the Rame name. IIwau-De', Ilanne', or Iltkl-de' is probably^ the same 
as the Ltal'-i-pas of the Tdinuk, the SpIF-yai of the Klikatats aud Sinchlep of 
the Flatheads {the prairie troZ/*), and as the Smi'-aii {bndger) of the Spokaus ; the 
western representative of Manabozho, the Great White Hare of the Algonkios. 
From their relations with the tribes beyond the Cascade Mountains, the name oi' 
Spilyaiisas familhir to the Niskwallies and Smian, to the Skngits and Skywha 
mish, as their own names for that character, and even more generally used. The 
name of Hod-de or Ilun-ne' is very probably derived from hoA^fire^ which, according 
to some accounts, he introduced. It is not a name for the animals mentioned, an 
the others are. Skotam was a female whose house was in the west, and who createtl 
pestilence and especially the small-pox. She ranked next in power to Hwun-ne% 
by whom she was destroyed. The various demons who peopled the primeval world 
are called S'hni-am (Nisk.), Si-a-ye-hOb (Skagit). The Niskwalli name appears to 
have the same origin as si-ftb, or siam, chief. They correspond to theT'sinuk, 
elip tilikum, or ^^ first people^^ i. 6., preceding mankind. Among them are Shwoi- 
Okw {the snail), the Tat-atlile/a of the Klikatats, a gigantic ogress ; M'sjug-wa or 
Zug-w^j frights or monsters ; the Kwak-wa-stai-miukh, a race of pigmies skilled in 
fishing ; Ke-lo'-sumsh or ke-lo'-sam-ish, giant hunters of the mountains^ Rud numer- 
ous others. Ti-yutl-ma is the spirit who jiresides over good fortune or luck of any 
kiiid (Ske-laM-tud). Tse'-at-ko are a race supposed still to exist, haunting fishing- 
grounds and earrying off salmon and young girls at night. 

N. 

Nails {of fingers and toes)y ksok-tal'-k'ei'-chl, ko-kwa'-chi. 

Nails {for boards)^ tsustud. See ^^ Hammer^, 

Nakedy nsla'-gwit-sa. 

NamCy sMa^ b'das. WJiat is your name? gwat kwat^'da't What is his name? gwat 
kwi sMast To namCj to give a name, o-da'-at-sid. 

Navcly blal'-gwa. 

Near, chlcht. Come near (imp. adv.), chicht-ehn. Nearly^ hweMa-lil, t, e., not far 
[from], 

Neckj thCy kai-ukh'-kwa, aa-jadsh; throaty skap-sub. A'^^eA'Iao^, jad-shib. 

Needle^ pots'-det, pad-sted, to-ta-la'-pud. MatneedlCy klakw-tid. To scWy o-pat-sted. 
Thready q, v.y snkh-pats {for the needle). 

Neighy to, ad-ze'-uk-u>l, o-tsc'a kud. 

Net. See " Cateh ", « ' Fishing ^, « Knot ". 

Ncvery heddu ya, hwe-put hed. 

Newy klaut, klo'-wut. 

Nighty klakh, sklakh, slakh-hel, sklakhhel; darky sklakh; eveningy slaMa'-he; mid- 
night, asdat, is-dat; at nighty ul ki sitslakh'-hel ; last nighty totlakh'; last night at 
midnight, istut-lakh' ish-dat' ; to-nighty a'-ti-slakh'-hel. To-morrow nighty da-da-to 
ot slakh'-hel. Very late at night, ha'-gwo tut-la'-hel {long since night). See under 
^^Day^ for relations of light and dark. 

Noy 7ioty hwe'. Compounds, hwe-kwi-stab, nothing (from kwi, if, and stab, a thing)] hwe'- 
kwi-gwat, hwe'-kwi-kiiad, no oney nobody (from gwat, kwad, tcho); hwe'-la-chad, 
nowhere (from t\vMy where); h we'la-iil^ a^tno^f, not far [from] ; hweMa-lelsh, «oo» 



339 

(from lil, lei, /ar); hwe-la liakw, not long until (from bakw, by and by) 5 bwe-U-ka^ 
not many; bwe-la-klUl, not often (from ka, many) ] hwe-ta', nothing (from ta, that) ; 
bwe as-is'-ta, not so (from as-is-ta, so), 

Noony ta'-gwut, ta'-kwut, ta'-tagwat. 

^'orth. Soe"Tfiw<?". 

Nose^ muk-s'n, mak'-shid ; tlie holes for the nose-ornament^ asbwal-Io'-nks (from aslo, 
a hole). ITooft-no^^, as-hn-cba'-tas; 2oi?^-no«(;d, badskos; pu^ no«e(7, as-katks ; ^t* 
fto«e(f, aS'bu-pelks; no«trt7«, as-lo'lo (from ix^-W ^ a hole). To wipe tA« no«^, daU-e- 
k'k-8ud. You wear the nose-ornament^ as-bu-sbeltskVcbfikh. 

Notched^ dintedj as-tutl-kwa^-had. 

Nothing^ for nothing (in tbe sense of without purpose^ from mere curiosity^ gratui- 
tously)^ also worthless^ pat-latl. It is nothing to me^ pat-latl al at-sa. I was merely 
laughing^ pd>t-latl o-bai'-ub. You come early (i, e., unnecessarily «o), a'lcbil pat- 
latlcbil. Tbe word bas apparently itself a root in at-la, to come^ and is often asso- 
ciated witb la-baista, la-best, understood to signify to come or go without pur- 
pose. Pat-latl-cbid la-bais'-ta, I came for nothingj from mere curiosity^ or out of 
idleness. See ^^Ooodbye^. Tluit horse is not a bad one^ bal sti-a-ke'-ya bwe' la 
pat-latl. 

KoWj a-te'-etl. 

Numerals. Tbe cardinal numbers in this as in many otber languages not confined to 
America are modified according to tbe objects to be counted. So far as yet 
noticed, bowever, tbe distinction in tbe Niskwally is confined to two classes, wbicb 
may be termed simple cardinals and cardinals of value. In certain otber languages, 
it is carried to a remarkable extent, indicating not merely tbe ideas styled by some 
writers noble and ignoble, animate and inanimate, but tbose of lengtb, form, and 
sucb conditions of existence. Tbe subject bas been noticed in Smithsonian Mis- 
cellaneous Collections, No. 160, App. B. It is unfortunate tbat tbe inquiry in tbe 
present case was not pushed wben tbe materials for tbis work were collected, as ' 
it remains uncertain whetber otber objects tban money are included in the second 
form, or whetber otber forms exist. Fatber Mengarini, in bis Grammar of tbe 
Selish (Sbca's Linguistics, No. II), says of tbe uui^bers, '^ Tbey are duplex, one set 
relating to tbings, the other to persons", and gives the digits accordingly. It is 
tberefore probable tbat, as tbe two languages are of one stock, tbe same number 
exists here, but it is noticeable tbat tbe set relating to persons given by bim cor- 
responds to tbat used by tbe Niskwallies for money, whereas in tbe Niskwalli the 
simple cardinal seems to be applied to men. It is a remarkable circumstance that 
tbe adjective sign as is often prefixed to tbese numbers, showing an instinctive, 
altliough doubtless an unconscious, idea of tbeir place among the parts of speech. 
Tbe system of enumeration was evidently quinary, and has gradually assumed 
a more decimal form, tbe tendency to contraction and changes from other causes 
obliterating the derivations of tbe second from the first five digits. The original 
root in tbe name of finger^ s'ba'-lat-cbi, still remains in tbe words for m, eighty 
twenty^ and tbe succeeding tens. Tbe digits are as follows : 

Simple oardiDals. Cardinals of value. 

1, as-dut^-cho, dut'-cbo, cbeelts. 

2, as-sa'le, sa'-lew, sla-3lts. 



340 

Simple cardinals. Cardinalii of valae. 

S^as-klekhw, kiekhw, klo-bwdlts. 

4, aS'bOs, bOs, bos-elts. 

6, tBa'-lat8y tslat-sdlts. 
G, dzeMa'-chi, dzlatcb-Slto. 

7, tbOks, t'feM>ksdlt8. 

^ 8, t'ka'-cbi, t'ka'cbi-glts. 

9y bwaly bwulelts. 

lOy pa'duts (Skagit, o^ pun), pa'-data-6lt8. 

Tbe intermediate nnmbers follow in tbis wise: 11, pa'-duts ik-ki dnt'-cbo; 12, 
pa'-dntsik-kisaMe; 20, saMacbi; 30, kle-bwat-cbi ; 40, s'mos-at-cbi ; 50, se-la'-cbi- 
8a^cbi; 60, Re-la'cbi a'cbi ; 70, e-bok-sa'cbi ; 80, s't-ka^chi-acbi; 90, a'bwula-cbi; 
100, sum-kwa cbi. 

Tbe following were obtained as applicable to counting men, bnt tbe prefix ta 
is certainly not always preserved, and does not belong to this sort of classification. 
See under ^^PMt sign^. It requires fartber examination to decide npon the radical 
character of the termination : I man, tn-dadcbo; 2 m«n, tusa'-Ie; 3 men, tnt-'lo'- 
bwal-li ; 4 men^ tu-bOs-al-li. 

It does not appear that measures are counted as moneys, e. g.j to measurej 
bai-kwa, or beadSj by the fatJtomj tus-ko'-kwid. 1 fathom, t'hu-dad-cbo; 5 fathmns^ 
n'cba'-lak-bid ; 10 fathoms, sa'-Ie-a1*a kid {two hands), tilspe'-pa-dats. To measure 
by the yard, kwi-detltatl. 30 yards, sle-hwut-cbi stuk-wub; 40 yards, bosat-cbi. 
stuk-wub. 

In tbe following, it would seem that while days are not counted with moneys, 
months are* The instances are, however, too few to generalize upon: Three days 
from tliis, tu-sle'-hw&tl-dat ; four days from this, bos-atldat; five days from this, 
tsletsatldat; three months, klebwglts slo-kwalm. 

Numeral adverbs: Once, u'cha'-bdkb; tunce, tsa-bab'-a-bu ; three times, kle- 
hwat'-la-hu; four times, musat'-la-bu; five times, tslat-sat'-la-bu ; six times, dzlat- 
chi-dt-la-bu ; seven times, t^ok satlahn; eiglit times, t'kachi&t-la-hu; ntna times, 
hwulat-la-hu ; ten times, pa^ats-at-la-hu. 

Q. 

Oar, bek-b5bt (big paddle). 

Of, belonging to, getl, gutl, gwutL The possessive particle. MelkeWs horse, getl Mel- 

ked stia-ke'-yu. Indian potatoes, gutl atsil-tel'-mu spe' o kots. Tliat is not mine, 

bwe-W gutl at-sa. Cow's milk, gwutl kwist skub-o^ 
Off, be off, away with you, go on, be'-wil, he'-wilchu he'-wil (imp. adv.). See ^^Continue^. 
Off-shore, keep off. See ''-iAorc". 
Often, kn, kads {many times being understood). I have often been to Olympia, kad tels- 

okh tud Ste'-ghas. Many times, ka-bat^-la-bu. 
Old {of men), lo'-lutl ; {of animals), tu-sak (abbr. of tus-a' go); {of things, as clothing, worn), 

as-bwokh-w't, swhukt. See ^^Wom ouV\ Of old, old ^tmc«, tus-ago. See ^'For^ 

merly^. 

On, upon (in the sense of above), shi-sbuk-h, sbi-ka^bots; as to position, ul, al ; on the 
mountain, ul sbi skwa'-tatsb ; on one side, kle-beds. See ^^Side^. As to time, nl; 
on the third day, al slt'hwatl dat. See ^'Onfoot,^ "On horseback^. 

One. See ^^Numcrals ". 



341 

Ont^s self^ Bbitl. To amuse omPs sdf^ sbitl-ha'had. To malce up on^s mindy sbitl ba- 
ch ab. 

Once {one rtwie), n'cha'-bokh. Once on a lime^ see ^^Formerly^. 

Onlyy buty except^ dai, dai-ai', di-e^ No one l^noKs hut /, bwcMcwi gwat n said-bn dai ai 
el'-sa. There geeros to be no connection o\ ideas between this and dai, presently. 

Openj tOy ognk, gnk-kol'-sid-dub; guk-8bids (imp.), open; as gnk, us-guk, open (adj.); 
o-guk-knb, fo clear up (as the w€atJier)'y b'guk-kil, daylight; as-gn k-kel, «Kn«/un^, 
bright; gukb-hed, to untie, unstring (as a bow)j loosen as a dress. See under 
''Mouth ^. 

Opinion. See ''Heart'". 

OrdcTy command^ odab, ot-ba-de'-kwid. 

Othtr. See "Different ». 

Outy outdoors^ outside^ sbal-bekbw, shalbc'ukb. Oo out^ be'-wil ta sbal-bekbw. To go 
outy o-sbed-zul. 

Outlet of a river y e^-lot-sid. 

Overflow^ tOy ojats^ 

P. 

PaddlCy bobt; hSk bobt, oar (bek, big)) bobti, the ash (paddle-wood)] ho-bdbt-tik5tly 
ventral and side fins offish. 

Panty pa7itingj as-ge kwakhl, sop sop (by onoma). 

PantaloonSy ^e-lam-tsen, yel-la'-bit shed. 

Paper, writing-y q, v. (Hgured or spotted, see "Embroider^). 

Part ofanythingy il-bwoti, from o-hwuti, to break or separate. 

Past signy t', to, tu. The idea of past, whether in connection with the verb, adverb, or 
other words, is conveyed by this prefix, which, however, when combined with pro- 
nouns, undergoes various modifications, such as tuts, stuts, &c. O-yai-us, to work; 
tu-yai-us, he worked; o la'-bit, to «ee ; ta-'sla-la-bit'-shid, J«atr; ookhy to go; sttifs 
oOs, J went; to-tlakb, ashtut-lakb, last night; to datl-dat, yesterday; tils-a'-go, 
tu-sak, of oldy old. In some cases, the past sign is idiomatically transferred from 
the governing verb to a succeeding one; as, 1 have done eatingy o-bo'-yo tits-utld. 
Tu also appears as a prefix to certain nouns; as, tus-budsb, a liar; tfis-kad-dnb, a 
strumpet; tus*ka'-da, a thuf; tut-stab, goods; tu-dad-cho, one [man]] tuts^-le'- 
hwal-li, three [men] ; but its meaning in this connection is not explained. 

People (homines)y at'sil-tel' mu, at'-sil-tel-bu, {. e., Indians. The word is used in the 
plural as regards persons, but there is also a plural form, ats'-ets-il-tSl'-mu. 

The word peopUy in the sense of a class, or as a race or tribe, is conveyed by 
the suffix mish, varionsly modified into m'sh, bish, or bsh ; ex., Swul-chabsh, jieop/e 
living on the seashorcy from hwultsh, tlie sea; Staktamish, Skai-bwa'-mish ((»m- 
monly written Skywamisb), people living inlandy from tak or stak and skaikh, 
inland; Sto'-luk-bwa-mish (nsually spelt Stiligwamish), river people^ from sto'-lukw, 
a river (these last are names of tribes living back from Puget Sound) ; Sa-ma^- 
misb, Sa-ba^-bish, people living b:; hunting^ from Sa'me-na (Skagit), so-ob-de (Nisk.), 
a hunteTy an appellation given with some variation to bands in different localities. 
It is apparently also the meaning of Swa'-dabsh, the Niskwalli ffame for the 
Klikatats and Yakamas. The termination belongs to a very considerable number 
of other tribes, the signification of whose names cannot be trkced, or are merely 



342 

local. Tbis ia the case with tbe Niskwallies themselves (Skwa'-li-a'-mish), the 
Dwa'-mish, Nu-so'-hipsh, Sko-pa'-mish, &c. Ki-lo^-sumsh or Ki lo'sa-mish is the 
name of one of the demon races. The particle mis or m's, occasionally prefixed to 
proper names, may be only auotber form of the above, as in Mis-kai^hwn, the fwme 
of a tnbe on the Skagit {Ska-jit) River ; M's-jug-wa, certain monsters. Another pre- 
fix often occurring in tbe names of tribes, the derivation and significance of which 
I failed to obtain, is nn, nus, as in Nus-klai-.vtim (commonly called Klallam), Nuk- 
sak (Nook-sahk), Nus-kop, Nu-so'-lupsh, Nukh-lum-mi (Lummi). See ^^P/occtr", 
^^ Mankind'^. 

PerJiaps^ hed-la, a-hed la (implying doubt or disbelief); as ^^it may be^j ho'la, ho oMa, 
hoMus, bo-lukht; perhaps he is comingy bolus ku-da' o-klutch-il-ukhw; perhaps I 
will goy ho lukht klo-okh. See *' J/". 

Petticoat (the fringed dress originally worn by women), s'chad zub, kle'tlpikw, yel-a- 
wakh. This last word is probably ft corruption of, or adopted from, the T'sinuk 
word kiilakwa^-ti, cedar-hark^ from which the petticoat was generally made, and 
. which gave it its name in that language as well as in the ^' Jargon ". 

Pickj to {feathers)y twalshtub ; I pick (a bird)^ twalsh-chid ; to pick up with tongs or sticks^ 
as a coaly huk-ked, huk-ke'-ud. See ^^ Gather^. 

PiercCy rtm anything into onCy to, shu-lud. 

Piny tooihpicky chits-chid-Osh-bud. 

Ptnchy tOy o-tsi-le'-kwid. 

Pipe (for smoking), pakw ; a large pipe, pa'-kwuts* 

Pistol. See «* Oun \ 

Pitcliy gumy resiny kwa'-litl'h. 

Placcy a, swa-tekhw-t'n. Tbe word has a very extended signification. It means the 
earth, or world, the ground, any particular spot, the site of a house or village, also 
the proper place of an individual in the lodge. Many names of places and their 
inhabitants present the terminations hu, hwu, miukh, &c., denoting localityy a«, 
for instance, ^akh'-hum-alt^-bu, the place ofdandngy from Fakh'-hum, a dance; Sno- 
kwalmi-ytlkh (commonly written Snoqualmie or Snoqualmoo), a tribe on the upptr 
waters of the Snohomish River ; Mis-kai-hwu, a tribe on the Upper Skagit. These 
are, in all probability, derivatives of the word tum-mekhw' or tum-me'-hu, the earths 
Uindy apUuiCy now obsolete in the Niskwalli and other languages of Puget Sound, 
but still extant in tbe She-hwap mukh (Shus-hwap) of Frazer River, the so-called 
at-na of Mackenzie, which, as the most northern member of the Selish, may be con- 
sidered as the mother tongue.* See ^^ Geographical itame«". 

Placentay thCy a'-shnd dikhl (Nisk ); hwat-ta-dikhl (Sky.), ^^the chiWs friend^. 

Plaity to. See ** Fold ". 

Planky boardy s'hul-as. 

Planty sowy pi-da'-16kw. 

PlantSy Jierbs (generic), sklakh'-ho-dop ; the stems of bulbous plantSy &c.y stob-shaMi, the 
under leaveSy kla'-de-el-li, from stobsh, a many sklade, a womany the former being 
considered the male, and the latter the female part of the plant; a flowery sekai- 
sim; the skin of a bulb or tubery kXO'kwUl&'h'id'y «e^<7«, klut-tc-de'-wut; raote, aspud. 

*AtDa, accordiDg to Mr. Alex. C. Anderson, H. H. B. Co., in the language of the T(£kali, or Carriers, 
their northern neighbors, means simply ^' stranger." 



343 

Edible plants: — Maize^ stul-els; the hamcLS^ st'kwau (Nisk.), sklol (Snob); 
arrow-head {sagittaria), spe'-o-kots, tbe name also given to the potato ; tcild tulip 
(lilium)^ cba^-lekw ; tiger-lily {L. Canadense)^ tsa'gwitsb ; wild carroty sbsl'gak ; tlui 
cultivated carroty gul bwultum, sba'-gak, or white man^s carrot; fum/pA, di'-<1a- 
bokb; yellov)dock^X^,'hot'%Sk] prairie-thi8tley^b6\b] sun-flower root^koXii] dandelion^ 
s'cbo-bElb; wild celery ^ skwal-bats; ground-grape (the tuber of a species of equine- 
tum)y baphup (Nisk.),liatl-de' (Sky.) ; root of brake-fern (eaten in times of scarcity), 
tud-de. 

Medicinal herbs : — Nettle^ tsadsh, s'hudsh (used for small-pox) ; thistle^ ba'batl- 
cbitl (to promote menstrual discharge) \ liquorice-fern (polypodium falcatum)^ skluelk 
(an expectorant) ; yarrow^ kik-dzo'-bap ; diarrhcea (spircea)^ katsa'-gwats, (dysentery)] 
yerhabuena, a ground-vinej so called in California} stot'-ho-dup, te'bats (used for 
tea), which latter name also is given to common tea. Chi-cbe'luts, a shrubby^ sweet 
scented plantj is also used for the same purpose. There are a number of others em- 
ployed for different ailments, not recorded. Arbutus uva ursiy skai'-wa-duts, the 
leaves used for smoking. 

Miscellaneous plants: — Solonwn^s seal (smilax)^ s'-ho'-ho-lop ; Solomon^s seal 
(small species), mut-sets'-da-I^tl ; trillium^ shukh-shu-bats (shnk'h, above)^ ka-lob a 
BVf^'tekh^'-t\x (the eye of the earth) 'j columbine^ tsum-tsumus; wild pea, ehitsh-la'- 
bwats; lupin^ kwau'-se uts ; skunk-cabbage (symplocarpus kamscliatcicus), k^lt; ^era- 
mum, huts-huts-Ms'; honeysuckle^ yi\l(io-Qts(yii'dOy a stchig); »orrd, to'-buts; grassy 
skwe'-a-kwul li (Nisk.), sa'-hwil (Sky.) ; *' saw-grass^^ hwt'-ake' ; flaxy^k^ gwal'hw ; 
a grass used for sewing mats^ gwus-bob ; sedge, s'ho'-pats ; seed-stem ofsedge, s'h6ks ; 
celgrasSy kla'-bads; cat-tail rush (typha)^ o-\a\'y tulerush, kwe'-kwats; brake-ferny 
cha'-lesh-uts (from cha'-lesh, hand) ; wood-fern^ s'he-das' ; small sand equisetum, tse- 
baMed; %>ieotM/un^J (growing on trees), pe-lol-kwad; toad-stools^ tssA} lirerworty 
se'-ynp a swnk-ke'-uk (Nisk.), wuk-wuk-alks (Sky.), liteniUy, thefrog^s apron ; lich- 
enSy mosses^ kwud-zab; Spanish mosSy iH>l-ke (Nisk.), sMo'-kwa-lush (Sky.) ; ground* 
mosSy kechai ; ground-pine (lycopodium)y ket-he-chaib. 

Playy to (to amuse ofi^s self)y o cha'-a-chatl, o-ha-had-shid. I amuse myselfy am playing, 
shitl-ba had-shid. 

Please (some form of supplication), o-sha'bits. Please to tell me, man, o-sha^-bits yet- 
sum tobsh. 

Plenty, enough, q, v.y ka. 

Plough, to, hwe'-chi-dop. 

Pluck out, to (as the hair)y ohut'-zo-sub (from skud-zo, hair). 

Plumbago (used for paml), pi-3kht. 

Point of land, promontory y cope, skwetsks (Nisk.); schetks (Sky.). One in tlie forks of a 
river y sko-al'-ko. Point of a knife, needle, <j&c., se'-luks. Pointed, hwudsks. 

PokCy to (as the fire), okl6l'-tud. See ^^ To prick '•. 

Portage, a, stnkh-o-gwitl. Stukh apparently is a raft or other obstruction in a river. 

Potatoes, epe'-okots (tbe root of sagittaria). 

Pound, to (as seeds or roots in a mortar), to'-pnd, tse^-akw. To pound with sticks, drum^ 
o-tla'-hwud-dub. To pound or hammer, Ot-salt-hu. 

Pour, empty, spill, to, o-kwutl. / pour outy o-kwutl chid (qu. also o-kwult). 

Pout, to, hobai utsid. (See ^^Lips% 

Powder. See "Gttn". 



<> 



44 



PrairiCj meadow, ina'-kwob, ba'kw5in. A small prairie^ baba-kSb. 

Pregnant, as -dze'-ilzi-he', us-kwc'-ukw. See ^^Corpulent^. 

Present, existhig, at-sats, at-snds, a-ok. For the use of tbese words, see " To 6r, " To 
have^. 

Presently, kla'-lad (dim., kla-lad-kli). The word is undoubtedly from the future particle, 
kla, klo, q. v.; presently, I will go, kla'-lad du^-chid klo'okh. Deuivatives, kla- 
lats-a' ta kluid'-hn, la-lud-hu (used iu the seuse of trait a Utile, after a trhilc); ImV- 
hu chad-hu (au idiomatic expressiou seemingly equivalent to what is your hurry?) 
(qu. also kluls, klul-sct, stop; klul-set uk se-ebsh, stop walking)] ha-akw, lahakw, 
kla'-kwu, a-kakw (dim., a'-kwiha'-kwi). In a little while I will go, da*chid klo-Okh 
ha-akw. Give me, and presently I will return, abshits dai-chid klo-ta'-shid a^kwi- 
ha'-kwi. Presently I will pay you, daichid tlota'-snd a-kakw. See under "for- 
mer ?^", a'-go, ha'-gwo, &e. 

In the sense of '^ in the course of the day ", a'-ti-hi'-he, today, and its contractions 
are used. Presently I will talk to you, a-ti-la'he kleb-a-bot-bot twul dug-we. Pres- 
ently I will go, te-la'-hi chit lo okh. Oo presently, dai-chu klo-okh teb-h'ye« Pres- 
ently we icill eat, tel-hetsh klat-la^atld. 

Soon is rendered by hwe'-laJil, hwe'-la-l6sh, not far off, or hweMa-hakw. 
I go soon, hwe' la lelsh ho-tOkw. The above words are used almost indiscrimi- 
nately in the sense of any future, time not remote. Lei or la-lelsh, strongly 
accented, expressing distance. 

Th^ particle dn, dai, rarely' occurs, except as associated with some future 
adverb, but its exact value has not been ascertained. It usually, if not always, 
precedes the verb, and serves as a support to the transferred pronoun. Its coun- 
terpart and derivative is found in dakhw^, da'-hu, jiiirt now, q. v., and it forms the 
root of the word da'-da-to, tomorrow, and derivatives. 

Price, See ^^ Barter^. 

Prick, to (as with a pin), o-kl6L'-ud, oho'-kot. I prickj o-ho'-kwut-sid'-cbid. Also to 
poke ilie fire. 

Prize, to (with a lever), ohad-znt-lud. 

Property, goods, die. See ^^ Things^. 

Proud, jokh. 

Puddle (a pool that dries wp), astsup^ 

Pudenda, the, so-wikhl', st-so' witl. 

Pull, to (as on a rope), tukh-hod. To pull tlie hair, e la'-chid. To pull to pieces^ 
ohwutsku tub. 

Pungent, spicy, o-tlaK-kwub. 

Purpose, use; also the instrument with which anything is done is expressed by the par- 
ticle, sukh, sikh. 

Sikh-hwo'-^tim, for sale, from o hwo'-yiib, to barter, sell, cfec; sukh-hutl-kwed, 
a razor, from hwutl, to separate^ and kwed, the beard; sukha-gwud-de, a seat, from 
gwud-del, to sit, snkh-ha' kia, the crutch-handle of a kamas stick ; su-gugwalt-hu, 
a broom, perhaps from kwatld, to throw away ; sukh-ko'-kwa, a cup, Irom o-ko'-hwa, 
to drink; sukhwt-salt'-hu, a hammer, from Ot-salt-hu, to pound ; sukh-lctsh, a saw ; 
sukh-pats, thread, from pad-stod, a needle; a-hcd kwi sukh gwul-lalt-sid f with what 
did he strike you f from o-gwilMal, to strike. 



345 

Purrj tOy bwal i-tut (tbe same as snore)^ from e^-tut, to sleepy q.v. 

Puahj to, o-had-dad, ot-Io'-kwats; pushed^ bad-tab, htid-ded. 

Putj to. There seems to be no general word for tbe idea. To put aicay anything^ o-tlals^ 
I put awayj o-tluld'-sbid. To put on (as a hat), o-t1a18b^ / put on, o-tlals'-chid, 
o-kla1b'-cbid. To put into {as water into a basin) o-dug-wus, from as-dukw, tn, 
Kithin. To put or throw anything asJiore, bwubbud tu-takt, from obwufbud, to 
throw, q. v. To put away a wife, id. To put down, o-but'-sbus. To put the hand 
up {as to tfie Jiead)y as-pi-tlSt-aub. To put out the tongue, an expression of desire, 
kkiMSk-sbub, from kbil-lup, the tongue, 

Q. 

Quench, to throw water on, kwot-le/-cbid. 
Quick, alkb, at-latlli (imp. of atla, to come), bai-ak'-Io. 
'Quiver t to. See to " Bock ^. 

B. 
Eain, skal. It rains, o-kalb, skulb. 

Rainbotc, ko-bat'-shid, ko-ma^-cbin, from ko, water (Nisk.), skw&k-sam (Suoh.). 

Baft, or obstruction in a river. See ^^ Portage^'. 

Battle, to ^as pebbles in a box, or by walking on them), tatsnlt-sukh (qa. al£0 a rattle). 

Baw, bets. 

Bead, to, o-la'bit s'hal (literally, to see a paper) ; he is reading, as-la^-bit ki s'bal. 

Beat, actual, ts6ds-ka. A real or actual deer {not a demon in the form of one), tseds 
ka ske'-gwats. 

BecolUct, to, o-la'-had-ba. 
V Bed, be'-kwgtl. 

Belationships :-^father (spoken of by botb sexes), m3rU, bad ; my father, sba'-ba ; your 
father, de-bad ; mother, sko'-i (by botb sexes) ; my another, sa'-ko ; grandfatlier or 
great uncle, tsa^-pa; grandmother or great-aunt, ke^-ya; my grandmotlter, se-ke'-ya; 
tfon, c7a7d, d'be'-ba-da ; (Zav^AterfSad-di-be'-ba-da; grandson or granddaughter, e'-bntB, 
e-mute; husband^ chest'ha, s'chest-hu; wife, cbug-wasb; father-in-law, tsa'-ba; 
mother-in-law, suts-ba'-ba (or, the parents being dead, the uncle and aunt by mar- 
riage, of either party, tbe same); daughter in-law, kwel'-ha; step-father, sbetl-ba'- 
dab; «tepmof Aer, sbikhl-ta'-dab ; 2»rotAer or eotc^tn, alsb (plar.,aMash); elder brother 
or sister (the speaker being of either sex), ska ; (the speaker being a man), kuk'h ; 
(the speaker being a woman), sknk-uk' ; younger brotlier (by either), shits-o'-kwa ; 
younger sister, so^kwa; brother-in-law (to a man, the wife living), hatl-tid ; widow 
of deceased brother or relative of deceased wife, sma-lot-sid ; sister-in-law (to a man), 
cbi-mas^ ; brother- or sister-inlaw (to a woman), chub'-bush ; uncle on either side while 
the parent is living, ka-se^; my uncle, shuk-ns-e'; aunt, sap-pus; uncle or aunt after 
death of parent, yc-lab, ye-lam ; nephew, niece, or cousin of either sex, sta^-lati ; niece 
after motlier^s death, ski- la^ jut; widow or widower, skwets. 

It would appear that the idea of abstract relationship exists, and that the 
Bimple word expressing such and such a relation may be used in speaking of a 
I)er8on, but that in speaking to one, the prefixed pronoun becomes part of the 
name. 

Remove, to {from one place to another), gwiUsh-gwitsh. 



\ 



346 

Reptiles :— frog, swukke'-uk; snake^ bet-snts, bat-snts; rattlesnaJcey w6kh-pa^b; lizard j 

tshel-sbel-a-wap ; salamander^ \i\p'k*a,t'Zni\, 
'' Returnj to {come hack), buK-kat-sbed, from bel'-kwa, back. To give or pay Inick, o-ta'- 

8U(1. r give in return*^ o-ta'-8hit-8i^-chu<V. Oive^ [me and] presentlt^ P will return^ 

(or pay back)^ nb-sbits* dai'-chid' klo-ta'-nbid-sid^ 
Revive, come to life again^ to^ opa'-lil. 
Ride^ to (on liorseback), tik-e-wab, from sti-a-ke'-ya, a horse^ and o-hwOb, to go. Soo 

^^Eorse^. 
RidictUcj to^ O'ka'-gwut, cha'-bed. You are making fun [of me], ka'-gwut-cba. See 

^^Abuse^. 
Rights good^ blob. That is right, good that, klob o-ta^ [It is] right so, klOb as-iB^-ta. 

Right (correct or true), ^U^'ko, tseds-ku, tsit^-ku. Right side up, as-kak'h. To 

the right, dza-ha'-le-gwut. The right Mnd, dza-a^-cbi. Right foot, dza^ sbid. « 
^«^'</ (^wf;cr-), s'kets-k'se'-cbi, shis-chuk-sit'-chi (from s'ba^lat-cbi, fingers). Ear-rings, 

slil-lo-a'-di, sklug-wa'-di (from kwi-la'-di, the ear). 
Rise, to (a>s the tide), o-peMap; ape'-lap, ^od tide; pe'-lukw, a spring; perbaps also 

opnl-ba-tsat, to boil. To rise (a« a river in a freshet), overflow, ojatB. 
River, sto-lnkw ; a creek or small river, sto'-ti-lakw, ste-to'-lukw ; the forks of a river, 

as-e'-uk'b ; delta of a river, a-se'-ak-se^-ak ; mouth of a river, e'•l^^sid ; point of land 
, between forks, sko-alko, q. v. 
Road, trail, doorway, sbog'-w'tl ; forks of road, as-e'-ak'h. 
Roast, to (on a stick), o-kwulb, okwalb, o-kwulm ; (on hot stones), kol-sid. 
Rock, stone, q, v., cb6t'-la ; a slide of rock from a mountain, sbwakbw. 
Rock, to (as a cradle), to quiver as a pole fastened at one end, to ^' teeter ^ (as on a board 

supported in the middle), 5d-za'-kwat ; the elastic stick to which the cradle is hung, 

dzakw'ted-etl. 
Roll, to (as a ball), o-tat'-cbid. 
Roots. See " PlanU " and " Trees ^. 

Rope, ta-b^bld, kled'-gwild ; hide rope, kled'-tid ; twig rope or wiihe, ste'-di-gwut. 
Rotten, wel. 
^ Roufid (in form), as-ka^-Iakw. 
Round the middle, litl-o'-dag-witsb. 

Row, to, o-lel'-shid, klel'-shid. lo row like a white man, o-leF-shid gal hwnltam. 
Run, to, 0-tla^-wil, tel-a'-wiL 
Rumble, to (as the belly unth tdnd), tsattolsh (Nisk.)} tokwot-Budtad datsh (Sky.)* 

S. 

Saddle, bat-se^-Inp-id, from si-la'- lo-bid, the shoulder. See ^^norse^\ 

Sail, a, po'-tad. Make sail (imp.), chil-po'-ted. Take in sail (imp.), bwat-s6d-lid to- 
pot'-t'd. Qu. from o-bwntl, to separate. See ** Canoe^. 

Salt (tbe sabstauce), ka'-kam. To taste of salt, o-tla'-tlab, oka'-kab. 

Sand, earth, soil; also, anytbing fine, as dust, powder, segwes-tulb, skwes-talb. 

Saw, a, sukbt-letsh'. To saw (a« lumber in a mill), o-be'-a-kwail'-sut. 

Say, to, o-el'-gwut, o-ed'-i-gwut. What do you sayf oed-igwut-chu? What does lu) 
sayf o ed-i-gwut-t'tti'l What do you sayf (plur.) o-ed-i-gwut chiMubl What do 
they sayf o-ed-i-gwut del-gwa'l What is said f oedigwat as-ed-i-gwut f 



347 

Scalpj skwa'-se-bats. 

Scoldj tOj e«-ab^-o-ka, from si-ab, chief (literally to '^ lord it "). Tliey scold^ yam'-o-ku, 
yab'-o-ku. 

Scoop (for hailing a canoe)^ tak-we'-lat. 

ScrapCj to (with a knife), o-sa^-bad-sbid. 

Scratchy to {with the nails), to claiv, tsme^-a-ko-dop, he'-bid. To scratch tlie head, be'-a-ked 
(see ^^Head^'). To scratch the face, od-bwe'-chos. To scratch the hatids, o-hwetsb'- 
at-cbi (b'ba^-lut-cbi, the luLnd). Scratched, asbwetsh. To rub against anything, b we'- 
kit-8u. See " Cut^\ 

Sea, the, hwaltab ; wbeDce swal-cbabsh, people living by the sea, and probably also 
hwol-tam, a white man, as coming from the sea. Seawards, towards tlie sea, off shore, 
cliakbw ; keep off, cba-cbukhw, cba-cbug-was. The sea-breeze, stOl-chahk w. 

Seasons, the : — tpring, pet'-lo-ki o-be'-bud-dub, a little warm, (dim. of bad-dab) ; sum- 
mer, bad-dab, 8'bad-dub, warm, from bod, fire; autnmn, let-us-bukbw, pad-to-las; 
winte}', a bwus'-tas-sub, tas-sab, from tas, cold. The distinctious are not clear 
except between warm and cold seasons, and tbe periods are not spoken of in any 
definite sense. 

Seat, cluLir. See " Sit, to ". 

See, to (also to show, q. v.), o-labid, o-labit> probably from Iftkb, Ught See *^ Day^ and 
" Future sign ". 

PABADIGM. 

Present. 

I see, &c., sla-la-bit-shid, as-la-la-bit-shed. 

Thou seest, sla-la-bit-sbe-bn. 

He sees, sad-ditl o-la'-bit, sla-lab-ta be-ta^ 

We see, sla-la-bit-s'cbil. 

Ye see, sla-la-bit-sbil-i-pa. 

They see, 8]a•lab•de^gwa^ 

Past. 

« 

I saw, ta-sla-la-bid-shed, tas-la-labcbid. 

Thou sawest, ta-sla-la-bld-sha. 

He saw, ta-sla-la-bid (pronoun omitted). 

We saw, ta-sla-la-bid-sbil. 

Je saw, ta-sla-la-bid-sblMip. 

They saw, ta-slarla-bid-del-gwa^ 

Future. 

I wiU see, kla-la-bid-shid, ki kluts-la'-bat. 

Thou wilt see, kla-la-bid-sbn. 

He will see, kla-la-bid (pronoan omitted). 

We will see, kla-la-bid-sbil. 

Ye will see, kla-la-bid-sbil-lup. 

They will see, kla-la-bid de^gwa^ 

Imperative. 

See, he-lab, c-la'-bit. 
See ye, la-btd-tle'. 



.>\ \ 



348 

No other iufloctioDS could be obtained. The above show the most regular 

form in which the verb exists, but in actual speech it varies greatly by elision, 

&c., as will be seen by the examples. What do you sec f stab kadsla^bitt Who 

do you see? gwat k'olu'-but-cliu t Wlien did you see [him]f put-tab ki-tats-as- 

la'-bitT Look out (imp.), klob kat-si labt. Take good care of my house^ klob kats- 

as-1a'-bit shed a-la1. 
Seeds of plantSy cfcc., klntl-te-dt'-wut. 
Seeky tOy o dzel-hut, gwut-chid (imp.). Sec " Look for ". 
i^elncj net. See uuder •* Fishing^. 
Seld&niy kwe'-kwnd; hwe-la-kad, not many [tim^s]. 
Ml, See '< Barter ". 
/Send, to [on a message) j o-kwat sid (from kw&d'h, a message)^ kwai'-ikhl ; to send one as 

apimp^ kwe-a-kwai-iklil. 
8ewy tOy o-pat-stad (from pad-sted, a needle^ q. v.). 
Sexual words. See under <* Feminine prefix ". 
Shadow^ tsal-bid (Nisk.) ; siti-gwud (Sky.) ; a penumbra^ mnk-kwe'-gwa-do. It is the 

shadoio of the soul as tsal-bid is of the body. 
SltakCy tremble^ to {as a log by standing on it)y be'-a-kwait-sut. To quiver or rocky q. v., 

od-za'-kwut. To shake hands (take the hand)^ o-kwid-dat-shuds (from o-kwud-dud, 

to take^ s'ha'lat-chi, the handj and a^-sbud, friend). 
BhalloWy as-shekw', as-shi-ukw', asji'-uk. 
Shame! for shame! het'-sil, from o-het-sil, to be Mhamed^ q. v. In a jocose tcayj ashe'- 

hi-he', as-he'-ha-chu. He is shaming mCj o-be'-hnt selsh. See also ^^ Interjections^. 
Sharp {edged), kle'Jit-chi, hwuts. Sharp {pointed)^ hwudzuks, hwudsks, hwot-skus. 

Tosharpen^ to tcJiet^ as a knife on a stoncy od-zuk-kud, by onoma (see also ^* To iratZ"), 

<>d-za'-kad. To staby tsa'-kad. 
Stavcy to. See " Beard ". 
ShCy tzil, tzi-nll' (same as he, q. v.). 
Shirt {ofootton)y spimpt (Nisk.), pol-tud (Snoh.); a skin shirty pat-sub-ats, shQ-put (the 

latter probably a corrut)tion of the English word). 
Shoes {of leather)y t'kwab-shid, from stuk-wub, troody and dza'-shid, foot; mocca^sinsy 

yal-shid ; moccasin-stringSy kl6l'-shid, from kle-did, to tie, and dzashid. See ^^Foot^. 
Shooty to {with gun or bow)y o-t5t-sil, ho-tot-so-pum tot-sa-dc^ Ishooty o-tot-so-chid. 
Shore {towards the)y tu-takt, ta-kudt^ fVom tak, inland (see " Towards'"). Keep insliorCy 

ta-tuk'-tus. Come ashorcy kwe-tnkhtli, kwai-ibotli. Put or throw ashorCy hwub- 

bud tutakt. To go asliore, ocho'ba (see " Inland "). For *' Off shore " see " Sea ^\ 

The words tu-takt, &c., are used for '* toicards the shore^ when on the water, and 

<< towards the interior^ when on land. 
Short {in dimension)y skak'-hu-ab, lekh-hu, uk-ho. 
Shoty sbo-kwalts. 

Shouldery ta'-lakw, sila' -to-bid ; shoulder-bladey ska'-lek-sud. 
Shout, tOy tse'-ak-ad ; to shout to, or caU any onCy kwe'-ad. 
Show, to, O'la'-bid, o-la'-bit. The same as the verb '' to see^y which see for paradigm. 

Show it mcy labt-tobish ; I show youy o-labt-hu-bet-sid-shid; to show howy see 

^^Teach^. 
Shut, to {as a door), tuk-kod, t'kot-sid dub ; to shut the eyes at one, to wink (an expression 

of vexation or in fun), ot-se'-po-lil ; I shut my eyes, o-tse'-pul-shid. See ^^Eyelids^\ 



349 

SiekjjealotLSj to ba, o-hutlatsh ; sicJc^ as hatl. Are you sick f as-haU'cha T I am sick, 
give me some medicine^ as-hatP-chid ab-sbits iik stal-jiukb. Inyour^ hearfisick?? {arc 
you jealous or vexed?) as-hutP kwad^ hutcb^f My^ hearfi is sicJc^ towards^ you^ {1 am 
jealous ofyou)^ as-hutP kid^ hutcb' twul^ dag-we^. 

8ide^ on one side^ kle-beds ; on this sidej at-I3l'-gwitl ; on tlie other side^ di el-gwitl, di-a- 
bats ; on the other side of a hillj di-a^-bats al sbi spo^-kwab ; right side upj as-kuk'b ; 
upside doten^ as-bukw. 

Singjto (of peopl€)yO'te.'-\\b; asong^ te'-lib, steMib ; {of birds)y o-bwe'-bwnd, $. e., to 
tchistle; singing in tlie fire^ gutte^-ad ; ste'-lim, an incantation to bring success with 
* women. 

Sink in^ be mired, to, o-chak-wab. 

Sister, See ^^ Relationships^K 

Sitf sit up, to, gwad'-del. Come^ {you^) and sifi [here], atMa^-cho-ho^ gwad-deP ; a seat, 
Bukh-ba-gwjid-de (sakb, use or purpose) ; o-gwad-del-scbid, I get up, i. e., to a sitting 
posture. 

Skin, hadzad-iuit {the human skin) ; skwa'-sam, the skin of an animal with the hair on j 
wo-ai'-ub (i. e., tcorked), a dressed skin ; to skin an animal, o-kwe'-chld. 

Skull, sliaa-utsb. 

Sky, shuk'h. See " Above^. 

Slander, to^ o-yai-lihab {to tell tales of one) ; she speaks ill of sf(>1l(plar.),o-yaiMi•hab-cbil- 
lap (from yai'-em, a tale). 

Slap, to, till-ka^-pad. 

Slave, sto-duk, (plur.) sto'-to-duk. 

Sleep, to, oe'-tut. Deeiyatives, as-e'-tut, as-e'-tutsh, fleepy, asleep; hwal-e^-tut, to 
snore, to purr ^ o-kal-ki-lali-tut, to dream ; itsa-li-tuttnt, to tell one's dreams ; 8ki- 
lali-ttld, the power derived from dreams, magic. We will sleep, klo-e<-tat-chitlde-betl. 
Let me sleep {good I sleep), klob-chid oe'-tut. 

Sleeve, a^-cbi. See ^' Hand ^. 

Slide, to {as on ice), o kwut-8ab, ok-sa'-gwil. 

Slowly, ta^-bas (see ^' Low ", not loud), ta^-hats, t&kh'-hals. 

Small, mi-man, mi-mad (see ^^ Child% cba'cbas. 

Smell, to {good or bad), o-e^bal, o-so^-bod. 1 smell [something], os-bob-tfLd-Bbid. 

Smoke, fog, ste'-uk-wil, ste^-a-kwakh, ho-kweMitsb. 

Smooth {flat, level), suk'bw. ^~ 

Snake, bet sats, batrsats ] rattle-snake, w6kb-pusb. 

Snap, to {as a dead stick breaking), kle-kwa'-Uts-cbid. 

Snore, to, hwal-e'-ttit. See " Sleep ^. 

Snow, ma'-ko, ba'-ko. See " Water ^j ko. 

Snow-shoe, bad-sbad-bid. 

Snuffle, to, se^-tud. 

So, as, asis^-ta. I think so too {so^ my^ hearfi), as-is'-ta^ tid* hatxsh'. I donH think so, 
hwe ki'Sa-so-ta tid batch (au idiomatio phrase), probably for kwos-is-ta. It is not 
good so {in that way), bwe-la-tlOb as-is'-ta; it is sometimes abbreviated to as-ta'. 
Not so, hwe as-ta^ Thus, in this way, kwas is'-tas; the termination ta is probably 
the demonstrative particle (see ^^This% 

Soap, hntsgosod. 



350 

Sodomy J to commit^ skOd-za-lCkw (an exclamation, often used in opprobrium). Skndza- 
lubt-liu is evidently derived from this, and seems to be equivalent to the French, 
hougre. 

Soft^ es-m^l'-lin, as-bSt'-lil ; to melt or soften^ 08 greoie^ o-bet'-lil. 

Some^ uk, uks, ak, ak i, aks, oks, uk-uk, kuk-ka, ek^-ke. See ^^Many ". 

ihngj te'-lib, ste'-lib. See " Sing ". 

^'oon, hwe' la-Iil, hweMa-Ielsh. Are you going soon? hweMa-16lsh ho tokwT at-i-lakh- 
he kits dkh t See «< Presently ". 
/^ Soul or spirit J sul-le^ See " Shadow^. 

Sour^ o-cha'-pab. 

South. See "Wind". 

Sparks^ t'kwa'-bitsh. 

Sipeaky talkj to, o-hot-hot What do you say t Bt&V kats' hdt-hot^T {what^ you* taW). I will 
talk again, kloho'-hot ma-pot Speak (imp.)* hod'•ho•dukhw^ Let me speak to you^ 
atla botbotehid hwul dug'-we. Are you^ u chiefs [that] you^ taW to' mt? f si-ab"- 
chu-hu^ kat'-su^ bot'-bot^ hwuP at'-sa^T To talk loud, o-hot'-liOt a-kSkw'. Sjpeak low, 
ta^-bats kats bot-hot (low your talk). Speech or language, s'bot-bof. 

Spear, skw6t-lub ; ^^-^if/, stetkwub ; i^roiif/eef spear for birds, tse'-a-kwuts ; pointed 
spearhead, tatl ; to spear or pierce, tsa^-kad, ut-satsk. See " Stab ", 
^Sjpill, pour, empty out, o-kwntl. I spill, o-kwntl chid. 
^ Spit, to, ojo'-wut, o-to'-kob ; saliva, kwul-ot-sid. 
\> Split, to, cbukb'-hnd ; split, as-lokb' (as*lo, a hole) ; to spHt open or burst, kwe'-ebid (also 

used transitively). 
; Spoon, kleb'-bud, tsobbed' ; {of wood), t'ks-boltsh ; (of horn), ha'-lekw (Kisk., from but- 
la'-lSkw, to suck), kla'-b'ks (Sky.). To eat with a spoon, klo-bOd^ 

Spotted, as-klulkb, as-to^-a-buts ; {of an animal), as-klakl-ka, as-tlukt'kl, as-blukl-kut; 
figured {as calico), as-hal ; with a spotted face, as a piebald liorse, tu-kwok-wus. See 
" White'^. 

Sfprain, to, o-knl-ld>b. 

Spring of water, pt'-lnkw (from o-peMap, to mc); one rising under saltwater, mo-lnts] 
tus-al-ko, a cold spring (from tns, cold). 

Spunk of rotten wood, to^-pi, suk'-wut-tut. 

Spur, suk-kol-cbid. 

Squeeze, press, to {as berries in the hand), o-tse'-ukh. 

Stab, pierce, o-lukb-bwot, la-hod, sbn'-lnd, tsa'-kad. 

Stammer, ikb-o'-ylls, as-ho\vus (Nisk.), tus-at-cbits (Snob.). 

Stand up, to, kl-be'-litsb, tl'belsh. 

Stars, chtt'-snd. Many of the constellations have names, of which the following are 
specimens : — The Belt and Sword of Orion, leli'-yi-was. They represent three men 
taking fish. The Great Bear, kwa'-gwitsb {the elk). The four stars which form the 
animal are followed by three Indians and a dog. The Pleiades, s'ho'-dai, represent 
toad-fish. The Hyades, bnd-da'-lu-sid, a scraper for smoothing mats. The Morning 
Star is lc-heM61-lus {day-light has come). The Evening Star, kla-hai-lal-lus {twilight 
h€is come). These two are respectively the younger brothers of the sun and moon. 
Falling stars, meteors, klo'-bi-Stl, o-hwel^-lil. They indicate the death of some 
chief. If the meteor leaves a train, it is a female. 



\^ 



V 



351 

StarCj to^ ask-lies. TJie deer stared at Do-kwe-matl, ske'-p^wuts osk-h^-kwi Do-kwe-mfi!!. 

Stationary (as a vessel at anchor)^ as-bas. 

SteaU tOj o-ku'-dub, from kad'h, skad'b, ska'-da, a thief. I steal, o-ka'dad-chid. I 
never steal, hwe kits asaid-bu kwi Bka'-da (literally, I donH Vn&w the thief, t. e,, 
how to be one). 

Steam, o-pukb-bwub. 

Steep, as-kn-lo'-sain. 

Step over, to (as over a log), tukb-biikh-ba'-bats. 

Stick. See " Wood » 

Sticky, adherent (as pitch), as-kle'-uk, as-tle'-uk. 

Stiff, sup. 

Sting of an insect, te'-sid. See " Arrow ". 

Stink, to. See «' Smell ". 

Stitching, embroidery, s'hal. 

Stone, rock, cbet-la ; stony, cbetcb-tla ; gravel, cbi-cbitcb-tla ; a ca^t-iron pot, ch6t-la 
holsb ; tlie white pebbles on a beach, k'bo'-ko-belts (from bo-kok'b, white). 

Stoop, to, dzuk-kSl^ 

Stop! bo^-bel! bo^-be-lol Tbis word seems only to be used in tbe imperative. It is tbe 
common exclamation wben one is teasing, or annoying by conversation. Stop 
talking and go to sleep, bo'-be-lo e^-tut-tu. Stop (doing or going)^ klnls, kbilts. Stop 
walking, klul'-set uk se-ebsb^ Stop tickling, klul-sid ok-yup-sid (see ^^Presently^\ klul- 
dukbw, {nough). Stop there, thaVs enough (wlien one is helped to food), bai, haikb. 

Straighten, to (a^ a bent bow), ta-pnsb-k'sbid. 

Strangle, to, kl-kwap sub-tub. 

Stretch on^s self, to, te-ti-la-hatl-dub. 

Strike, wound, to (also to kill), o-gwullal. I strike, o-gwtiMalt'-shid. You strike (Siog.), 
o-gwuMa1s'chu. He strikes, o-gwIiMal'ts. A man struck me, o-gwul-laP-tnb ns-cbed 
as-abi dut^-obu stobsb (literal meaning not ascertained). With what did lie strike 
you? a- bed kwi sukb-gwaMal'tsids (bere tbe literal meaning can bardly be given; 
a-bed signifies how, in what manner, and sukb, tbe prefix to tbe verb, instrumentality). 
Lesh'-hai will strike you^ klo-gwul-lal-tnb cbukh as-sbi Lesh-hai. To strike with a 
weapon, o-lukb'-bwdd ; with a stick, uts-tukb-hwob (from stuk-wub, a stick) ; loith 
the hand, o-tut-so'-sbnd, o-tns^-sid. I strike, o-tus-tsbi^-cbid. 

String, cord, anything to tie with, buk-sbe-ded^ ; a bow-string, tukb^-bwitsb ; to string a 
bote, tut-bwetsbt^ ; to string beads, tu-slia^-gw6b, du-sbakbw^ See ^^Iiope^\ 

Strip on^s self, to, kla'-gwits-ab. 

Striped, as-b6p; (with broad «fripe8),as-knlkh-bnlk as-bnl'-bul-elts' ; (with narrow ones), 
as-bndsks. 

Strong (like iron), klukh-ko; (as a man), as-hwul-lnkb'-bwa. Qu. whether from sbwul- 
luk, a fool. 

Suck, to (as a child), o-kab'-o, from sknb-o, breast or milk, q. v.; (as a doctor for the pur- 
pose of raising a blistei-), butla'-lSkw. See "ifedtciwc". 

Sulk, to, Od-b&t^-sil-us, from o-lietsil, to be angry, and sil-us, the forehead. See ^^Angry^. 

Summer. See ^^ Seasons^, 

Sun, klo-kwatl; sunrise, klop; sunset, nat-la'-hin; sunshiny, bright, as-guk'-kel. Tbe 
derivation of klo-kwatl seems to be the future particle klo and the verb atla, to 
come. See ^^Future particle^. 



352 

Surf on the shore, dzol-chn, o-te'-a-kiift. See " Wavc9^. 

Sui-prise, to {to attack unawares), o-hab. 

Swallow, to, o-miku'l6kw. 

Sweaty to, o-kwul-kwu1. Presently you three men will sweaty liwc-la-lil*cbiMap* o-kwal- 

kwaP gwuMa'-po* klekhw^ stoto'-bsh® (not/ar^ [off\ you* sweat* you^ threi? inen% 
Sweep, to (as dirt), oV a-kwud-dop. * 

Sweet (to smell or taste), o-kwa'-gwab. 
Sweetheart or mistress, skudA. See "Coierf"'. 
Swell, to (as a bruise), o-sbakliw (shuk'b, above) ; with tlie belly stcoUen from sickness, 

ash-bu-Bbwe^'gwut. 
Swim, to, o-te'-cbib, wute'-cbib. 
Swing, a (for amusement), swas-ke'-lug, .ve-dO| from yai-do-atft, the honeysuckle-vine, so 

ased according to one of tbeir tales. 

T. 

Take, catch, to, ok wnd-dnd. Take your letter, k waddud tats'bal. Take and carry [that], 
kwuddod okb-tu. Take as much as you like, kwad-dud as-be^ kwats ball. Take 
food (an expression nsed to one going on a joarney), Ink-kwud. To take on^s hand, 
o kwidat-cbi (see "JTand''). To pick or gatlier (a» berries), o-kwnd-dnd. The liandle 
of a knife, dkc, kwud-dub-ba'-Iub. To take off (as a hat), o-hwutsid ; to take out 
(as the ear- or nose-rings), idem; (imp.)} bwut-sud. To take care of, see "&€", 
'^Catch^. 

Tale, story, yai^-em ; wbence, o-yai-li-bnb, to speak ill of one. 

Talk. See ^'Speak ". 

Tail of an animal, smnt-ti-snp (Nisk.)* as-bn-sai'-knb (Sky.). Tbe last word also signi- 
fies waggish. Tail of beaver or muskrat, stul-a-b^d ; of a bird, of a fish, skwukblt. 

Tall, bats (long), sad-znp. In sbowing tbe beigbt of a person, tbe hand is beld up 
edgewise ; of an animal, flatwise. 

Tame (as cats and dogs), kwal; (as horses), bai'-yil. 

Tangled (of hair), as-ke^-a-kab ; (of thread), ot-blots. See ^^Knot^. 

Taste, to, watl-ba-le^-hn-bit ; a good taste, sweet, o-kwa^-gwab; a bad taste, otat'-snb; 
sour, o-cba^-pab; salt, o-ka'-kab, o-tla^-tlab; pungent or spicy, o-tlal^-kwnb. 

Tattooing, sklet-litsb ; tattooed, as-tletl ; I tattoo, ast-letl-sbid ; tattooed in lines, as- 
badsk (striped). 

Teach, instruct, show how, to, o-gwaL Show me liow, o-gwilMa^-cbids. 

Tear, to (as cloth), se^-kwid, o-bwuttab; torn, as-bwut. 

Teeth, dza'-dis. 

Tell, relate, o-y6t'-sum, o-gu'-sid. Tell me to-morrow night, dai'-cbn* klo-yet-sum^ da' 
da-to* Ot^ (a'-ti) slat'-la-bil® (by and by^ you* will teW to-morrote* at^ night^). Tbe verb 
is here a future imperative. Tell me (good^ you* tell*), klob^-chu* wi-yet-sum' tobsb (!) 
To tell tales of one, o-yai-li-bnb (from yai'-em, a tale). To tell one?s dreams, see 
''Dream ", ''Sle^ ". 

Testes, the, ba'-cb'd or ma'-cbin ; scrotum, sus-hwa'-ad, from swa^-bwad, a bag. 

TMnk, be grateful, to, o-kul'-la, be-uk'-ul-la. Tbese words seem to bo used indiscrimi- 
nately by tbe sexes. Tbey are, however, less common than the following: 
Thank you from one man to another, he'-asbud; from a man to a woman. 



353 

lies'ko; from a woman to a man, ish'-i-ba« Hc'-a-shnd is a oompoand of o or oekb, 
yesj and a'-sh ad, /r««nd. This last word cannot be used to a woman without insult. 
H€8-ko is in like manner formed from eekh and sko, a word denoting or bespeak- 
ing good will, and perhaps connected with sko'-i, mother, Ish-i-ba is an interjec- 
tion denoting satisfaction. It is drawled out in a coaxing or whitiing tone. To 
ilmnky o-kwnd-de'-hud. I thanked Pat-ke'-nam, okwud-de-hud-shid twul Pat-ke'- 
nam (literally', to Aim), from o-kwud-dud, to take. See '^ToArc^, ^^Sfiake hatidH^. 

That. See"rAi«^ 

There^ to-di, al-to-di {at there). Diminutives, al-to'-di-di, there a little way; close at hand 
(as in the houae)^ de-de', di-di^ de'-a-de, de'-di-de ; tfiUher^ twul-to'-di. There are 
three echooners at Steilacoonij klekh-hwalgwitl tc-di schooner al StiK a-kum. Here 
klekhw signifies three; al, at; gwitl is a suffix denoting direction; to-di, there; and 
al, at. 

They (absolute), detl, ditl, tsa^-ta-dltl. All of tbenij bokw detl. They workj tsa-ta-ditl 
o-yai'-us. Let them go be/ore^ tu lookh-shi itl dze'-bn. Shi-iti here <ippears to be 
a plural copulative, as shi, the singular; but neither are satit^fkctorily known. 

Copulative: — Del-gwa, ulgwa, tul-gwa. They see, sla'-lab del-gwa'. What do 
they sayf o-ed-i-gwut del-gwa'T What are their names f gwat ki s'das ul-gwaM 
They hear^ as-kla'-bot tnl gwa'. The words are apparently a compound of the 
preposition with gwat, who. 
v/ Thick {in one dimension)^ as-pel; large rowtd, muk-kwftt'-hu; a fat irian, muk-hw. 

Thief ska'-da, tus-ka'-da, skai'-ki-kai. 

Thigh^ sa'-lup, sa'-lap (Nisk.), jesh-id (Sky.); inside ofthigh^ hwats'1-ha. 

Thimble^ kwi-^kw^ hwiukh-kwi-6kw', hw^khw-kwi-dkw (originally a sailor's ^^palm^)j 
from hwe-kwi-e'-uk, scutella. 

Thin {in dimension)^ ti-tesh. 

Things^ goods^ property, stab-dop, tuts-tab, es-tab, sta-bewks. The word ap|)ears to 
have its root in stdbf what? as is also the case with theT'sinnk ik'-ta. Bat-es-tlib, 
many things. Hwe kwi stab, there is nothing. The ultimate root of both is possibly 
in ta, this or that. See ''This ". 

Think q/*, to, to make up on^s mind, shitl hat-chub. 

Thirsty, as-tdko (ko, water). I am thirsty, as-ta'-kdt-shid. 

This, that, the, ti, te, ta, til, te-itl, ti-el, &o., la, le, ki, kwi. 

There does not seeoi to be any marked difference in the demonstrative particles 
in regard to distance, where it is not remote, ti and te being used indiscriminately. 
Both have the value of the definite article, which it seems idle, here at least, to 
distinguish from a pronoun. 

Te* at'-sa* Op-klo'-sub^chid*, I comb myself, i. e., this^ m^ I* oomlf^. At'-la twul 
te', come here or to this. To-datl dat'-shids' 5t-hlut-chi' twul^-te'*, P came^ here (to* 
this^) yesterday^. At'-sa' yukh* ti' dug'-we*, J' and? {the^) you\ Tohatsuds* ti* 
skud-zo' ash-to- ha'-go*,/orwwri^ my {thi^) hair^ was^ [long], Abshits' ti dug- wet do 
you give [it] t Hutl ti ka-ka, resembling the crow. Te-lakh-hi, to-day. A-ti-Iakh-hi, 
^^on" to-day. Te-ti hwul-tum d'hnl-shut^-sid, that white man understands. Tike- 
wab te-de la-atl, there he comes on horseback (de abbrev. of de-de, dim. of to'-di, there)* 
A-te^-etl, now {at this, time understood). KuMub' ti-el sti-a-ke'-yu, that is a vicious 
horse. A-said-hu-chu shal te-il stdbshf do you know [him] that manf T's hatl te- 
itl s'chest-hu, 1 love my {this) husband. N&tltu-chid tsi-itl (fem.) chugwush, I love 
23 



354 

nty (this) wife, O-gwaP-shi* aPte* te-itP stObsh®, that man w upsetting {upsets^ h^ afi 
ther€^ thaf" man% Kul gwat 8ti-a-ke'-yu te-itl f whose horse is that f (the value of 
the affix itl is not ascertaiDed). He-lab', at-suts^ liP sap-o-Hl^, see^ I have some bread 
(see\ present^ thU? hread^ 0-6d-i-gwut t'ta' f does he {this atie) understand f Twul- 
shut-sid ta', he understands, Okh-bo ta de-bad, go to your (tMt) fatlier. Stab-o-ta', 
8t3ib-'ta^f what is that? TherCj at tluit^ al-ta^ From there^ tul es-ta^ (as, es, is, mod- 
ificatloDS of a, at). It may be matter of cousideratioD whether ta is not the root 
of stab, ir/mf, u. d,y stabdop, things, and as-is-ta, so; kwus-is-ta, in this way. La 
and 1e have the same meaning, but are generally, if not always, copulative. Hwe 
la tlob as-is'-ta, it is not good so. Hwe^ la' tlob^ al^ dug-we^f do you not like that? 
(not^ that^ good? to^ you^). Hwe la gutl at-sa, that is not mine. Hwe la lelsh, soon; 
hwe^-laMelsh^ kitb* okh» {not^ it^ long^ J* go^). H we-la-lil, not {it) far. Hwe la-chad, 
no {tlie) wlhere. Hwe-la-hakw, not long since. Hwe-la-ka^, not many. Ewate-laf 
(gwat, te, la), wlio knows f (of persons). Oha-de-laT (chad, de, la), who knows? (of 
things). It is also the root of ^^far^, lil, lei, la-lil, la-lel, and its derivatives, ^^ differ- 
ent^^ lale, lul-le^, da*le'-te, and to alter or change, la-le'-it-ub. 

The particles ki and kwi appear to be used also, but in a much more indefinite 
manner, e. g., dada-to-ki tluts Okh-ho, to-morrow we will go. In these, ki ap[>ears 
to refer to the word to-morrow. Asklo' hwil ki se^la-chid, my back is cold. Chad 
kats aid-hn ki stobsh t where did you find tlie man t Hwe'^ki* saso'^ta* tid' hutch®, 
I donH think so (not^ tht? so^ this* my^ mind?). Asla'-bit ki sUial, Jie is reading {sees 
the writing), As-dukw'-chiP ki^ a'-lal^ we^ [are] in* the^ house*. Stab ki s'das I wJutt 
[is] its name? Gwat kwi s'dasi what is his name? {who the name). Gwat* kwi^ 
s'das' ul-gwa* I what are their names f {who^ th^ name^ their*). Kwi si^-la-had, those 
common people. Al-chad kwi sasf where is it? (at where that it). A-o'-kwi (aok- 
kwi) sahwas? is there anything? (is the it). Hwe'-kwi-stab, nothing. Hwe kwi- 
chad, 'nowhere, Hwe'-kwi-gwat, no one. Chad kwi tats sta' gw'sh ? where did you 
buy itf (w/iere that you trade?) Ka-kwi sla^-de u-chab, man j^ (those) women dig, 
As-hed* kwi^ dut-cho^ stuk-wub*t how much^ tlie^ onc^ yard* ? Chad kwi shug wtl 
twul Ut-sala-di! where [is] the way to Utsala-di! 

Thready ho-elb', sukh-pats. See ^^Needle^. Yarn, suit, suld. See '^Twist^to^. Mat- 
thread of coarse grass, g w us-sob. Spool-thread, hekh-ka^-bats sukh-pats (hek w, large). 

Thither, twulto'-di. A little that way, twul-todidi (dim.). See ^^There^. 

Thou. See '* You " (sing.). 

Three, kl6khw, us-klCkhw'. See "J^ttwerote". 

Throat, skap-sub. 

Throw, to (as a stone, stick, or riata), o-po^-sud, hu-bo' sid. I throw, o-po'-snd-chid. To 
throtv away, throw down, o-hwubbud; hwub-bud tu-takh, throw [it] a^Jiore. Throw 
out the water (as from a canoe), ho'-bed hwulko (see "S/op", ^^Put^). To throw 
away, empty, spill, q. v., o-kwatl, o-kwutl (see ^-Miss^). 

Thunder, hwe'-kwa-de'. This is also the name of the "Thunder Bird", the flapping of 
whose wings produces the sound. 

Thus, in this tcay, k wus-is-tas, from as-is^-ta, so, q. v.; a woman is formed in this way, kwus- 
is-tas sla^-ne dikhl-sa kwusis-tas; in a different way, luMe'-kwus. 

TickU, to, oki'-up, ke-yup-tub' ; I will tickle you, klo-kwi-up'-si-chid ; stop tickling, klult'- 
sid ok-yup^-sid; ticklish, as-ki^-up. 



355 

TidCj dzo-kwush-tub; flood tide^ du-h'yel' (Nisk.), speMap (Snob.), from o-pe'-lap, to rise; 
ebhj o hwa'-datsh {it falls) (Nisk.), shatPh (Snob.); high tide, o-kwa'-bat8; law tide, 
tukh-sha^-bo. OshutMakh, to l&ave dry, as by ebbing of the tide. 

Tie, tOj klots-a-lfikw', kle/-did (see ^^Rope^) ] to tie a knot, dMl5ta-5t ; a knot or tangle, 
5t-tl5t8. See ''Knot ^. 

Tight {as a dress), as-ke^-lit8. 

Times (number of), atMa-ba, aseil only as a compoand, from at'-la, to come, signifying in 
this sense recurrence. See '^Numerals^ (adverbs) ; see also '^Yesterday^K 

Tin, tinware, kaakb. See '''Metals^. 

Tired, as-bwa'-wil. I^ am tired^, I^ worked^ (at^) much^ to-daj^, as-bwa-kwil^-chid', o-yai- 
us'-chid' at-a*-ka' at-islakb'-beP. 

To, in, tud, twul, hwul, gwul. Oo out doors, be^-wil tn sbal-bSkhw. Where will you 
go f tu cbad k&ts I'okb f Oo you before, tu I'okb shi-itl dze'-hn. I have often gone 
to Steilaooom, kad tets' okli tud StiP-a-kum. Thither, twnl to-di. Cane here, al'-Ia 
twnl-te^. I know {to) you, a-said-but twul dug'- we. Are you angry unth {to) me f 
o-b3t-sil-cba-bn twal at'-8ia.f Where is the road to Puyallupf chdd kwi sbagw'tl 
twal Pu-yaP-lnpf Oo to another place, dkb-bdt hwul-kal la-le^ swa-t6kbw-ta'. Oo 
a little that way, okh-bot hwul to-di-di. Almost {to) dead, bwe'-la-lil gwul at-a-bud. 
Almost out, bwe la-lil gwul et-sukhw. His horse, gwul tzil sti-a-ke'-yu {to him 
horse). 

Tobacco, sma'-nasb. 

To day, a-ti-slakb'-bel («. e., on or at this day), a-ti-lakb'be, 'tesla'-bi, te-la'-hi, telh'ye 
tel-betsb. Tbese contractions are widely used; as, tn the course of the day. See 
''Presently^. 

Together, klal-bas. Both together or alike, klal-bas^ as-is'-ta^ bo'-kwi' sa'-le^ {together^ tc^ 
alP two^). I go tooj klal-sbid-bas o^-bwob. Here tbe copulative pronoun, shid, is 
thrown back and interpolated between the two syllables of the adverb. 

To-morrow, da^-da-to, from da, dai (see ''Presently^)*, no-kwntl-da'-to, apparently from 
klo-kwatl, the sun, and the same particle. It is often used interchangeably with 
to-datl-dat, yesterday, although the meaning of each is clearly enough defined ; but 
it would seem that tbe idea of the Indian is rather that of distance ot time than 
its past or future relation, and in tbe use of all words relating to it a similar con- 
fusion exists. For days subsequent to the morrotr, see nu Aev '^Yesterday ^. The 
word is often used in tbe Spanish sense of manana^ after a while. 

Tongue, kla'-lap, klal-lup; kla'-kwa-lSkw, to lick; klal-lek-shilb, to put out the tongue; 
'tl-kaukb, to lap, i, e., lick water. 

To-night, a-ti-sl^kb-hel, tbe same as to-day. Little distinction is made between the two, 
as see '^Day^ and '^Night^. 

Torch or candle, lukhsbud, from l&kh, light Bring a light, Iftkbs Inkb-shud. 

Tom, as-hwut, from o-bwut-tub, to tear. 

Tortoise, al'-a-sbik. The word has probably been borrowed from their neighbors, the 
Klikatats. 

T^owards. See ^^To^. Towards the shore, tu-t&kt', ta-kudt', from tak, inland. Keep in 
shore, put in, ta-tuk^-tus (imp.). When on land, tbe words signify towards the inte- 
rior. See "Sea ^. 

TotreZ, hu-kwas'-sud. See "Jo tripe". 



356 

Trade. Seo ''Barter^. 

Trees (generic), tsnk-hwal, stuk-ham (stak-op, wood)} a standing tree^ as hokw, a8 tBuk'- 
liot; a living tree^ se'-gwats; a fallen tree^ kla'-di, ast-zak': a dead or old mossy tree^ 
as pe'-a-ken (k@D, head, obsolete): yew, tsa' ha-bed, ts-hiib-bed ; thvja oregona^ ^^ce- 
dar ^, hi-paikhl, h'pai-ats ; yellow fir (abies douglassi), scbe-be'-dats ; red fir or spruce 
[a. menzesii),issL''hwe; AemIoeA:«prtie&, t'khad de^, sko'-puts; arbutus menzesii, kolt, 
chats; white oak, chii'-dntS} acorns, cbads, cbat-s; alder, yes-sa'-wi; cottonwood- 
kwade^-a-kwats; aspen, kwe'-kwa-de'-a-kwats (dim.); ash, hobii (paddle-wood); 
wiUow, sa^-puts, st-sa'-pats; white maple, chot luts, choot luts (cbotsh-5Mut8, a 
place where maples grow); vine maple (acer circinaium), tak'-ke-tekuts; dogwood 
(oornK^), kwadabe'dats, pup'pke'yets; i^a^e/, ka'-po-ats; //tenii(,kakh-po; aralia, 
chicha'-cbel-wi. 

Parts of trees: — a stump, sul-la'-gwup; bark (generic), s'ebub-ed, scbeb-it; 
limbs, branches, s'cb&st; outside bark of thuja, so^-kwub; inside bark of thuja^ sla^- 
gwats; roots, kwelp (Nisk.), stakhw-sbid (Sky;) ; leaves {narrow or acicular), sb-kal- 
chi-chil; (ArocM?), chub-o'ba; leaves of the mapfe, s'cbot-Ia ; wood or sticks, sVkop, 
stuk op, stuk-wab ; pitch or resin, gum, kwa'-litl. 

Tremble, to {with fear or cold), o-cbad-dab (qu. by onoma, as English, chatter). 

Trickle, to {as a spring from the rocks), ot'-sutbub. 

Trot, to, pet'sat-sbid. 

True, truly, tsukho. It is true (in ansurer to the assertion budsh, if is a lie), tut'hl, 
tQt-lo. That is true, thafs afact^ tsits-kn, tseds-ka (in assent). I tell you the truth. 
tsak kads hot-hot atsa-yet'-sum. Tell me the true story, yetsntn a-kas-kap. 

Turn, to {to turn aside), klelkb ; to turn anything round or over, oad zak^ ; to turn the 
face away, k5kh-be-gwud, skokwi gwut ; to turn one^s self {as in bed), dzal-kOs; to 
turn one^s back, t'ba-ba'-bid. 

Twist, to (as a cord)y to roll on the knee {as in making yarn), tu-cbnl-pud (Nisq.), sulb 

(ISky.); I twist, tn-chul-pud-cbid ; twisted, ikhbwu-cbulp, as-ebnlp; ^arn, snip; a 

gimlet, chelplin ; to bore, chalp't-t'd, tu-chul-pud ; to play at the game of disks, which 

are rolled, o-tsultub^ o-tsal-tab; a gun-screw, bacbil-pe'gwud. Qa. ta-tsalt-sukb, 

a rattle. 

U. 
Unchaste, ashwnl-ka {foolish). 

Uncover, to, o-gwe'-lid. 

Under, beneath, klip, klep, klipa'-buts ; under the house, klip nl thi a'-lal. See ^^JDeep^. 

Understand, to, as-kla'-bot, as tia'-bot, s'hulshul-sid (see ^^To know^\ o as-did-bu). Do 
you understand? as-tla' bo^chu f I understand what you say, as-kla'-bot chid a 
tat'sa bot'-hot. Do you understand that Klikatatf as-kla^-botchukb'-bwn akMl 
tob'-sbud dud Swa'dabsbf (literally, ''Twisted-haired Klikatatf The Klikatats, 
called by the Sound tribes Swa^dabsb, wear the hair braided into a knot in front). 
That white man understands, te'-ti hwuK-tub d'htH-sbut^-sid. Se understands (the 
person being present), t'-wul-shflt-sid ta' ; (of one absent), del-sbid del shid d'btll- 
shut'-sid. Speak so as to be understood, hot hot akw twiQ-sbut-sid. Not to under- 
stand, see ^'Deaf^. 

Unstring, to {as a bow), gukhbed. See "Opew". 

Untie, disentangle, loosen, to, gukh-b6d, o-gbat. I untie, gukb-bedsbid, o-gha'-cbid. 
See''Open^,''Tie'^. 



357 

Unwilling, lazy, q. v., ascbe'-litsb. We donH want to go^ as-che'Htsh ohdlsh-ba. 

Uphill, ascending, shuk'-has, from 8huk'b, above. 

Upnet^ to, o-gwa1. 

Upside down^ as-bakw'. 

Up-stream, kekb-bu, kaikbw. See ^^Interior ". 

Us. See " We ". 

Urine, mkhhvva, ; to wrtna^e (if a man), o-sa'-bwa ; (ifawoman),o-8be'-wa; urine-basket, 

8wai'-a-li. 

V. 

Veins, tc-tetb'. 
Very. See ^' Indeed^. 
Vest, waistcoat, lab-bo-bad. 
Vexed, as-kwd^d-zls. 
Vomit, to, o-dzo^-bwut. 
Vulnerable, sa'-le. 

W. 

» 

Wail for the dead, o dza'-kad. Tbe wail of a motber over her child is nsaally in these 
words, ah si-ab I at-a-bud, shedde-bud-da', ad-di-da I ah chief I dead, my child, alas I 

Waist, sat-segwus. 

Wait (imp.), la-liid'-bw, kluldbo, kla-lats-a'-ta. See "iStop", }^Presently^. 

WaUc, to, o-e'-bash ; stop walking, klul-set nk si-ebsb (stop some you walk); on foot, e'-ba. 
bash. 

Wampum. See ^^Money^. 

Want, to. See ** Wish^\ 

Wardub, kaho'-sin. A loaded stick or slung*shot, kup-lasb. 

Watrior, t'kwulle' gwut. There is no distinctive class. 

Warm, to, o-ba'-dakh, frnm bftd, fire. To become warm, o-hnddeiikhw. Ibeoome wanu, 
ohadakh-chid. To warm om^s posteriors, n'du-ha•dab^ To lie down and warm on^s 
back, tutu-sa-we^-cbib. See ^^Fire^. 

Wash, to (clotlies), tsa'-gwnt, tsakw-tsakw. J wash, o-tsakw-tsug-sbid. To-morrow Twill 
tra«A,bo-kwutl-dat-cbid kluts-a'-kw-tsukw. To wash dishes, tut-Ba-gwo'-MlBb. To wash 
the face, tuts-a'-gwns-sab. I wash my face, tuts sa^-gwo-sud-chid. To wash the body, 
bathe, o-te-ti-tub. To wash the liair, shi-itske^dub 

Water, ko. Derivatives, sko'-kwa, any liquid or juice; o-ko'-kwa, to drink; tl'kaukh, 
to lap, q. v.; as-ta'-ko, thirsty ; ska^-ko, ice ; ma'-ko, ba'-ko, snow; ko ma^-chin, a 
rainbow; sukh-ko'-kwa, a cup; cbal-ko, a ireZZ, from cha, aAofo/ tas-al-ko, a coM 
spring ; sko-al-ko, a point in the forks of a river. Perhaps, also, bo kok'h, white, and 
its compounds, kaukh, tin, and smal-ko, menstruating, from purification by water. 
The last is merely a surmise. See ^^Many ''. 

Waves, gwale^-ukw ; rough water, hotsh 5 surf, dzol-chu, o-te'-a-kus. 

We, us, de'-b^tl, to'-bntl, used €ts nominatives ; we hear, de-betl as-kla'-bot. Copulatives, 
chitl, s'chil, sbil, shut-sid. We work, o-yai'-tis-chitl. We see, sla'-la-bits 'chil. We saw, 
ta-sla^-la-bid sbil. Let us go presently, te-la'-bi kit-'ius-to-ku-chitl. We udll sleep, klo- 
e-tut-cbitl de'-betl (pronoun duplicated). 

Weaned, klal-bi-ytlkb. 



358 

Weather {to be bad), odOd-kab. It is bad weather to-day, o-dddkub at i-slftkh^hel. 

Weep. See " Cry ", " Wail ^. 

Well {or place dug out for water), chdl-ko, from cha, a Jiole, a1, to, ko, water. 

West, atl-bad-5l-gwun'-bu, at-hlan-ol-gwaD-bu. It is described as the coantry on tbe 
suu's road at the west. See " Wind ^. 

Wet {as the ground after rain), as-lukw, as-lukw-dop, slakhw ; wet wood {wet fire), as- 
luk-hod. 

WJiat, stab. It is applied to things only. When persons are referred to, gwat, who^ is 
used instead. What is its name? stabki s'ddsf What is his name? gwat kwi 
s'dasf Wluit do you say? what your speech? stab kats hot-hot T (stab beie refer- 
ring to hot-hot, speech). What do you want f what your will f stab kdts hatl T What 
is that? stab-o-ta'f stab-'ta'f {see ^^ Things^). What is the matter with you f labM 
chuf as-hedchn, o-he'-chn (sing.)? o-he^-chil-lup (plur.) f from as-h6d, o-liM, Jiow, 
why. Apparently from this root also comes o ed-igwut, as-ed-i-gwut, wMtf what 
is it? what is said f See ^^To say ". 

When, put-tab, puthed, pad-a-h^. Wheyi do you got put-tab' okh'-chu klo-okh't (lit- 
erally, when go you will go). When did you see him f put-tab' ki tats-as-labl' T 

Where, chad ; at what place, alchad ; whither, tuchad ; whence, tul-chad ; nowhere, 
hweMa-chad, hwe'-kwichad; everywhete^ bo'-kwi-chad, bo-kwi lel-chad {every far 
place), b3b'-kwn-chad. Where are you going f tucbad kats okh t Where [are] you f 
(or, where [did] you [come from] f) chad-chuf Where is your wife? chad ki sdd 
chug-wushf Where can it be? ehadnl chad? Who knows where? cha de-la? 
Where now f {where are you going f) Ind-hu chad-hu ? (from ochad, to hide, q. v.). 

Whet, to. See ''Sharpen^. 

Whip, a, hu-cha'-hwo-pud. To whip, o-cha'hwad-sid. / will whip you, klucha'hwud- 
sidchid. 

Whirl, to {as water), o-sulptsut. See ^^Twist^. 

Whisper, to, o-se'-i-kud. 

Whistle, to, o hwe'-wud (also to sing a« birds). 

White, ho-kOk'h. 

White man, hwultum? qu. from hwntsh, the sea. See white '^Blanhet^; ^^Oun^, 

Who, gwat. Who are yout (in answer to a hail), gwatchu <gwat-ko? (sing.)^ gwai- 
chil-lup ? (plur.). Who, who said so f kigwat ? No one, hwt' kwi gwat. To whomf 
al gwat? Whose horse is that? kulgwat sti-a-ke'-yu te'-itl? Who do you see? 
gwat k'o-la'bul-chu ? Whi) knows t (of a person), kwa'-te-la? (of a place), cha-de- 
la ? Wliat [who] is his name f gwat ki s'das? 

Why, o-hed, wo-hed. Why are you angry f wo h^ kats-hu hSt-silT Why are you cry- 
ing? {why your cry?) o-hed tat-sa wohai'-nb? The root is the same as that of 
as-hed, how. See under *« What^. 

Wife, chug-wush. 

Will, wish. See '^ Heart ^, ^'To wish^. 

Wilt, wither, to {as flowers), o-kwai'-i ; wilted, as-kwai'-i. 

Win, to {at play). See ^^Bet^. To beat {as a horse in a race), ots-la'-16kw. 

Wind, shukh-hum (from shukh, aJ)Ove). The north or down-stream wind, sto'-be-lo. The 
south or wind that blows up a river, stug-wak'w. The east uoind or land-breeze, stol- 
takt (tuI,^ow, tak, inland). The west tcind or sea-breeze, stol-chakhw (from tul, and 
chakhw, seaward). 



359 

Wind, to (08 a bandage or string)^ o-ba'-kut-tub. 

Wink, to, ot-se'-po-lil (see '^Eyelids^^) ; sbed-ka-lus (see ^^JByes^). 

Wipe, to, e'-kwid, e'kwed, t'kwe'-kwus-sub. To wipe the nose, dak-e^-k'k-sud (from 
mak-s'd, the nose), A towel, ha-kw^^-sab. 

Wish, want, to, ohatl. 1 wish, hatl-chid. Bo you want [some] f ats-haMokh T Presently 
I shall want [some], dai-chid klo-hat^-Iilt-bu. I donH want to talk so, hwe'-kits hati 
tu-kits bOtbot as-is-ta (see ^^Love^). I want to go, tus-o-bwftbcbid (see ^^Oo^). We 
donH want to go, as-cbe^-litsb cbelsb ba^ I want to get a wife, ikb-cbe-gwa^-sab- 
cbid (from cbug-wusb, a wife). I want to buy, liikb-hwo'-yub-chid (see "jBorter"). 
What do you want f (see " Wlmt^), 

With, twal. With a knife, twnl s'dokw. Tbe iDstrument witb wbich a tbiug is done is 
also denoted by tbe particle sakb. With what did he strike youf asb^ kwi snkh- 
gwuMalt-sids f 

Withe, a, ste^-te-dwut. 

Within. See ^'In ^. 

Without. See '^Out^. 

Wood, sticks, sti-kop, stak-5p, stak-wub. Rotten wood (used to smoke skins), pi-kftts, 
pak-ats. Spunk of rotten wood, to'-pi, suk-wut-tut. Bring fire-wood (imp.), 5t-la- 
cbop, 'kla-cbub. Leather shoes or boots, 't'kwab-sbid. To strike with a sthk, ats* 
tukb-bw5b. A yard, yard-stick, stuk-bwub. 

Womb, bubda^-ad. 

Work, make, to, o-yai'-tis. I work, o-yai'-us-cbid. Thou workest, o-^ai'- uscba. He worlcs 
o-yai'-us (no pronoun). We work, o-yaius-cbitl. Ye work, guMa'-po o-yai-tis. They 
work, tsa-taditl o-yai'-us. I worked, tu-yai'-iis-cbid. Thou didst work, tu-yai'-us- 
cbu. He worked, tu-yai^-us (no pronoun). 1 will work, klai-ai^-uscbid. Thou wilt 
work, klaiai'iiscbn. He will work, kuMai-aius. Will you work^ klo yai^-us-cbu f 
What are you doing f stab kat-si ai-ytis. See ^^J)o^. 

Worn-out, asbwokb-w't, s'bwukt. 

Worthless^ gratuitous, pat-latl. See ^^Nothing^. That horse is fiot a bad one, bal sti-a. 
ke'-yu bwe' la pat-latt. 

Wound, to. See ''Strike ". 

Wrestle, to, kw3d-di-gwus. 

Wrinkled, flabby {as in age), as-mi^-n-kob. Tbis word was given apropos of Bmi'-au, a 
mytbological person so described, and possibly means only resembling bim. 
Wrinkled as cloth, as-kCp-kdp. Wrinkled on the cheek, as-be'-mus^ on the face, as- 
bu-be'-kwa-biis. 

Wrist. See ''Hand ". 

Write, to. See " Embroider ^\ wbence it is taken. 

Y. 

Yard, a, stuk-wub (a stick). How much a yard? as-bed kwi dut-cbo stuk-wubf See 

under "Numerals "• 
Yawn, to, o-gwaMub. 
Year, a, butlgwus. 
Yellow, bo-kwftts. 
Yes, e-6kb'. 



360 

Yesterday^ to-datl-dat^ ash-tut-lakh. The first of these names is derived, like no-kwatl- 
da-to, to-morrow^ if not from the word klo-kwatl, the sun^ at least from the same 
root, with the past particle ''to" prefixed ; the second is from the adverb ash-to, 
denoting also past time, and lS»kh, light. As heretofore remarked, ander the word 
to-morrowj there is little practical distinction in common speech between the two, 
except by the connection, and so of an equal nnmber of days past or to come ; the, 
to us obvions, meaning of the words being lost sight of. Day before yesterday or 
day after tomorrow^ to-di-atl-dat. Three days ago or to come^ ta-sle-hwSitl-dat. Four 
days ago or to come, bos-atl-dat. Five days ago or to come, ts16ts-atl-dat. On the 
third day, a1-sle'-hwatl-dat. At-la-hu appears as the suffix of most of the digits, 
converting them into nameral adverbs, q. v.; cts, kle-hwat-la-hu, three times^ dkc., 
and the same idea is conveyed here. It signifies timesj as of repetition or recnr- 
rence. See also under ^^ Future prefix \ 

You (sing.), thou (absolute), dug- we. Like at'-sa, it is very rarely used as a nominative, 
Its place being supplied by the copulative. lam angry unth j^ou, o-het-sil-chid 
hwui dug-we. She is well disposed towards you, k'sits twul dug-we {she is tcith you) 
Do you give it f ab-shits te dng'-wef Come, let me speak unth you^ at'-la, hot-hdt- 
chid twul dug-we. 

(Nominative.) — Eats, kat-si, kat-su. These bear the same relation to dug-we 
that kets, &c., do to at^-sa. Where did you find the man f chad kats aid-hwu ki 
stObshf Wtiere did you get it? chad kats hwe'-wif Where are you going f chad 
kats okh' T What will you pay f stab kats bnt-sits f What do you say t stab kats 
hot-hot T What did you find f stab k'ais-et-hwu (by elision). In an example given 
above, k'sits twul dug-we, k'sits appears to be the feminine. Why are you angry f 
wo-hed kat-su het-silf Are you a chief that you talk to mef si-ab-chu-hu kat-su 
hot-hot hwul at^-sa? By what road did you comet chad shug-w'tl ka-tsi hwutlf 
What are you doing t stab kat-si ai-yfls. (Duplicated), why do you do so t o-hed 
kat-su kot-su ho'-yut. Another form, which is not so clearly defined, is, to-b^t-sid. 
I show 2^oii, o-labt-hu-bet-sid-shid, where the copulative pronoun chid, J, follows 
this as an accusative. She likes you, hatl-to-bet-sid bal-gwa. A form used in 
calling the attention of a person, equivalent to *^ You thereby is, do-te^ when applie<l 
to a man ; do-tsi, if to a woman. These appear to be proper pronouns, and not 
merely interjections. 

(Copulative.) — Chu, chu-hu, chukh, cho-ho, sbu she-hu. Like chid, J, copnlative, 
it is used only as a suffix, and is referred in like manner to a preceding adverb or 
other word relating to the verb. Ah! you^ve arrived, a-hal o-tlut-chil-chu. You 
eat, atl-do^-chu. Come [and] sit, at^-la-cho-ho gwud-del. Do you understand f as- 
kla'-bot-chukh-hwu f or as-ti-kwa^-dit-chn-hu. You see, sla-la-bit' she-hu' (or shu). 
Oo and bring {good you bring), klob-chu-hu ookbts-chn-hu (here the pronoun is 
duplicated). Jicm are /oo2i«^, as-hwul-ku chu. Wlioareyouf gwat-chuf Presently 
you willfiaid, dai-chu klo-ed-hwu. Oo presently, dai-chu klo-Okh tel-h'ye. 

You (plnr., absolute and nominative), gul-lapo, gwul-la'-po. You work, guMa'-po- 
o-yai'-tis. Do you heart gul-la'-po as-kla'-botf I have won a bet of you, o-tsul-tub 
wo-tlet-shid gwul-la'-po. Presently you men will sweat, hwe-la-liF o-kwul-kwul gwul 
la'-po sto-to'-bsh. 

(Copulative.) — Chil-lup'-o, chil-luiy, shel'-a-pu, shil-lip, &c. You see, sla-la-bit-